Army Pamphlet 600-3

3 December 2014

UNCLASSIFIED

Commissioned Officer Professional Development and Career Management



SUMMARY of CHANGE

DA PAM 600-3
Commissioned Officer Professional Development and Career Management

This administrative revision, dated 6 August 2015-

* Adds missing figures for the Judge Advocate General's Corps (chap 38).

*



Part One

Philosophy and Management

Chapter 1

Introduction

1-1. Purpose

This pamphlet serves primarily as a professional development guide for all officers. It does not prescribe the path of assignments or educational requirements that will guarantee success, but rather describes the full spectrum of developmental opportunities an officer can expect for a successful career. This document also serves as a mentoring tool for leaders at all levels and is an important personnel management guide for assignment officers, proponents, and Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) selection board members. Its focus is the development and career management of all officers of the U.S. Army.

1-2. References

See appendix A .

1-3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms

See the glossary .

1-4. Current perspective

a. Officer development for the Army should effectively balance breadth and depth of experience. Army operations are inherently Joint. Officers must understand the terms of DODI 1300.19 and the Joint Qualification System. Officers should focus on developmental positions that enhance career progression and lead to Joint qualified officer status. All assignments are important to sustain a trained and ready Army. An officer's focus should be on bringing the Warrior Ethos to every job and every facet of their development. Officers use challenging assignments at all levels to help them hone, through experience, what they have learned through their formal education about leading and training Soldiers. Operational factors - the constraints of time, Army requirements, positions available, and readiness — all influence the amount of time an officer will need to acquire appropriate leadership skills. Success will depend not on the number or type of positions held, but rather on the quality of duty performance in every assignment. It is tied to individual contribution, and related to the individual officer's definition of success in the Army profession. Not all officers will be afforded opportunities to perform all types of duty. The types and extent of duties and assignments are articulated in the following chapters. For this publication, the term "officers" encompasses warrant officers, (warrant officers are appointed by commission at the grade of chief warrant officer two (CW2), company grade officers, and field-grade officers. All officers are direct representatives of the President of the United States. Chapters relating to officer education, general promotion policies, and officer evaluation apply to all special branches as well. Specific policies applicable to the Judge Advocate General's Corps (JAGC), the Chaplain Corps, and the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) are found in chapters 38 , 39 , and 40 , respectively. The governing regulations for this pamphlet are AR 600-3 and AR 350-1 .

b. Officers are encouraged to read all branch and functional area (FA) chapters, regardless of branch, FA, military occupational specialty (MOS), or career field held, because unique and valuable lessons in Army culture and officer professional development are found in every chapter.

c. This pamphlet documents officer personnel management, and incorporates the evolving philosophies of the Army leadership. The Officer Personnel Management System (OPMS) enhances the warfighting capability of the Army; provides all officers with the information they need to ensure a reasonable opportunity for career success; and describes a framework that fulfills Army requirements with an officer corps balanced with the right grades and skills. Successive personnel management studies have shown the need for a development and career management system that provides for the career development of the warrant officer segment of our officer corps. Better integration of warrant officers into the officer corps enhances the effectiveness and professionalism of warrant officers through improvements in training, development, assignment, promotion, and retention practices.

1-5. Warrior Ethos and Army Values

Everything begins with the Warrior Ethos. The Warrior Ethos compels Soldiers to fight through all conditions to victory no matter how much effort is required. It is the Soldiers' selfless commitment to the nation, mission, unit, and fellow Soldiers. It is the professional attitude that inspires every American Soldier. Warrior Ethos is grounded in refusal to accept failure. It is developed and sustained through discipline, commitment to Army Values, and pride in the Army's heritage. Warrior Ethos is the foundation for our total commitment to victory in peace and war. It is the conviction that military service is much more than just another job. It defines who officers are and what officers do. It is linked to this country's longstanding Army Values, and the determination to do what is right and do it with pride. Soldiers enter the Army with their own values, developed in childhood and nurtured through experience. We are all shaped by what we have seen, what we have learned, and whom we have met. However, once Soldiers put on the uniform and take the oath, they have opted to accept a Warrior Ethos and have promised to live by Army Values. Army Values form the very identity of the Army. They are nonnegotiable and apply to everyone at all times, in all situations. The trust that Soldiers have for one another and the trust the American people put in us demands that we live up to these values. These values are interdependent; that is, they support one another. You cannot follow one value and ignore another. The seven values that guide all leaders and the rest of the Army are loyalty, duty, respect, selfless-service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. Leaders must believe in them, model them in personal actions, and teach others to accept them. Officers require a demonstrated mastery of branch, FA, or MOS-specific skills, and grounding in these seven values to successfully lead Soldiers in the 21st century. Officer leaders who adopt a Warrior Ethos and a joint, expeditionary mindset will be confident that they are organized, trained, and equipped to operate anywhere in the world, at any time, in any environment, against any adversary to accomplish the assigned mission.

1-6. The Army Profession

a. In 2010, senior Army leadership directed the Commander, Training and Doctrine Command ( TRADOC ) to conduct a comprehensive review of the Army profession. This Armywide assessment began in January 2011. The purpose was to assess how the Army has changed after more than 10 years of continuous deployments and how it must adapt to remain successful in an era of persistent conflict."

b. The Army Profession defined: "The Army is an American Profession of Arms, a vocation comprised of experts certified in the ethical application of land combat power, serving under civilian authority, entrusted to defend the Constitution and the rights and interests of the American people. "

c. The Army Professional defined: "An American Professional Soldier is an expert, a volunteer certified in the Profession of Arms, bonded with comrades in a shared identity and culture of sacrifice and service to the national and the Constitution, who adheres to the highest ethical standards and is a steward of the future of the Army Profession."

1-7. Mentoring, counseling, and coaching

a. Today's leaders have the critical responsibility to develop future leaders who are prepared to meet tomorrow's challenges. An essential component of this development is mentoring. The term mentorship refers to the voluntary, developmental relationship between a person of greater experience and a person of lesser experience that is characterized by mutual trust and respect. Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 6-22 provides additional information on mentorship.

b. Mentorship impacts both personal development (maturity, interpersonal and communication skills) as well as professional development (technical and tactical knowledge, and career-path knowledge).

c. The goal of mentorship is to assist the lesser-experienced person in reaching his or her personal and professional potential. It is critical to understand that mentorship is not any one behavior or set of behaviors, but rather includes all of the leader development behaviors (for example, counseling, teaching, coaching, and role modeling) that are displayed by a trusted advisor.

d. The strength of the mentorship relationship is based on mutual trust and respect. Assessment, feedback, and guidance accelerate the developmental process and enhance performance. When this occurs within a mentoring relationship, even higher performance results.

e. Mentoring requires taking advantage of any opportunity to teach, counsel, or coach to build skills and confidence in the mentored. Mentoring is not limited to formal, structured sessions, but can include every event from quarterly training briefs, to after action reviews, to unstructured, casual, recreational activities. To aid in the mentorship (and career management) process, the Army has developed and implemented the Army Career Tracker, an Army leadership development tool that uses the professional development model (PDM) and provides a common picture of training and experience. Used properly, this tool facilitates structured mentorship and can be utilized and revised by successive mentors as an officer progresses in experience. Additionally, the Army Mentorship Program is an official effort to provide additional resources for leaders and junior officers. Tools for the mentorship process may be found at http://www.armyg1.army.mil/hr/mentorship/ .

f. One of the most important legacies that today's senior leaders can leave with the Army is to mentor junior leaders to fight and win future conflicts. Mentoring develops great leaders to lead great Soldiers

1-8. Officer Personnel Management System overview

a. Historical perspective. Officer personnel management reviews and analysis have been on a continuum of constructive change for many years. The OPMS was instituted in 1972, as a result of the U.S. Army War College Study on Military Professionalism and a follow-on analysis directed by the Deputy Chief of Staff (DCS) for Personnel. Numerous changes in personnel management policy were incorporated into OPMS between its implementation in 1975 and 1981. After passage of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act (DOPMA) by Congress in 1981, the Chief of Staff, Army (CSA), ordered a major review to examine the impact of the legislation on OPMS policies. As a result, OPMS II was developed in 1984 to accommodate the changes brought about by DOPMA, including the creation of FAs, dual tracking and Regular Army (RA) integration. These and other mostly evolutionary proposals were implemented beginning in 1985. Two years later, the CSA, directed a review of officer leader development to account for the changes in law, policy, and procedures that had occurred since the creation of OPMS II. As a result of the study, the Leader Development Action Plan was approved for implementation in 1989. Over 50 recommendations representing the latest revisions to the officer personnel system were incorporated into OPMS. The Army has undergone significant changes with widespread affect on the officer personnel system, brought about by the drawdown at the end of the Cold War and by major legislative initiatives. Public Law (PL) 99-433 , commonly referred to as The Goldwater-Nichols Act, required the Services to improve interoperability and provided the statutory requirements for Joint duty assignments, Joint tour credit, and Joint military education. This law also specified the acquisition experiences and education necessary for an officer to be the project manager of a major weapons system. This law later led to the creation in 1990 of the Army Acquisition Corps. In 1990, PL 101-510 placed additional requirements on Acquisition Corps officers and directed them to single track in their FA. Congressional Title XI (1993) legislation placed additional officer requirements on the Active Army (AA) in their support of the Army National Guard (ARNG) and U.S. Army Reserve (USAR). The Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act in 1996 brought the Reserve Component (RC) officer promotion systems in synchronization with the Active Component (AC). This legislation established a best-qualified promotion system for RC officers, thereby replacing the fully qualified system previously used and allowing full integration into OPMS. With an 8-year span since the last formal OPMS review, the DCS, G-1 assembled a team of senior field-grade officers to examine a series of OPMS-specific issues and determine whether a general review of the entire officer system was warranted. This OPMS XXI Precursor Study Group, under the direction of Commanding General (CG), Personnel Command (PERSCOM), now the U.S. Army Human Resources Command (HRC), ultimately reviewed more than 60 individual issues. Based on the collective body of these issues, the DCS, G-1 recommended to the CSA that a comprehensive review of the OPMS was necessary. As a result, the OPMS XXI Task Force convened in July 1996, to review and recommend changes to the OPMS. Consistent with the task of developing capabilities to meet the challenges of the next century, the CSA, instructed the task force to link their work with other ongoing Army planning efforts. In designing the personnel system for the future, the CSA, directed that the task force also create a conceptual framework integrating OPMS with the Leader Development System, ongoing character development initiatives, and a new officer evaluation report. The focus was to take the Army in a direction to meet its vision of the future instead of simply solving individual problems. The task force concluded that OPMS should incorporate a holistic, strategic human resource management approach to officer development and personnel management. In addition, the task force called for the creation of an officer career field-based management system composed of four career fields: operations, operational support, institutional support, and information operations. Under OPMS XXI, officers were designated into a single career field after their selection for major, and serving and competing for promotion in their designated career field, from that point on in their career. The results of these strategic recommendations, approved by the Army Chief of Staff in December 1997, formed the basis for the changes to the OPMS.

b. Current perspective. The Army continues to transform; this transformation process is ongoing and continuous in nature. As part of the Secretary of the Army's Human Capital Reform Initiatives, key Army stakeholders continue to modernize the Army's assignment and professional management systems to meet the Army's needs, now and as the Army adjusts to changing end strength and mission demands.

c. Purpose. The purpose of OPMS is to enhance the effectiveness and professionalism of the officer corps. The OPMS encompasses all policies and procedures by which Army field grade, company grade, and warrant officers are trained, educated, developed, assigned, evaluated, promoted, and separated from active duty. The OPMS consists of personnel management policies and procedures that assure a deployable, professional officer corps capable of meeting the challenges of the future as embodied in Joint Operations Concepts.

d. Coordination. The personnel proponents provide guidelines concerning career patterns and leader development, as listed in AR 600-3 . The coordinating agency for officers on the active duty list (ADL) is the Officer Personnel Management Directorate (AHRC-OPB), 1600 Spearhead Division Avenue, Fort Knox, KY 40122-5200; for ARNG officers, the agency is the Chief, National Guard Bureau, (NGB-ARP-PO), 111 South George Mason Drive, Arlington, VA 22204-1382; and for USAR officers not on the ADL, the agency is the Commander, U.S. Army Human Resources Command (ARPC-OP), 1600 Spearhead Division Avenue, Fort Knox, KY 40122-5200.

1-9. Warrant officer personnel management overview

a. Historical perspective. Personnel management of warrant officers is the product of a number of dynamic yet disparate systems and events. The present Warrant Officer Program was announced in DA Circular 611-7 on 12 April 1960. This publication outlined utilization policies, criteria for selection of warrant officer positions, and instructions for conversion to the current warrant officer MOS system. However, the conception of a warrant OPMS can only be traced back to 1966, when a study group was formed at the Department of the Army level. The group's mission was to develop a formal Warrant Officer Career Program, which would be responsive to future Army requirements while concurrently offering sufficient career opportunities to attract high-quality personnel. The study group examined all aspects of the Warrant Officer Corps and made a number of recommendations in areas such as pay, promotion, utilization, and education. As a result of these recommendations, actions were initiated to provide more attractive career opportunities for warrant officers. A tri-level education system was established by the end of 1972, which provided formal training at the basic or entry level for warrant officers in 59 occupational specialties, at the intermediate or mid-career level for 53 specialties, and at the advanced level for 27 specialties. By the close of 1975, the Army's capability for professionally developing the Warrant Officer Corps had been significantly expanded and warrant officers were being offered developmental opportunities not available to their predecessors. In 1974, the Warrant Officer Division was created at PERSCOM (now HRC) to provide centralized career management for all but The Judge Advocate General (TJAG) and AMEDD warrant officers. In the 1981 Defense Officer Personnel Management Act, officer career management was codified, but DOPMA specifically excluded warrant officers. To fill that void, the CSA chartered a Total Warrant Officer Study (TWOS) in 1984. The TWOS introduced a number of substantial changes including a new definition of the warrant officer. The TWOS also resulted in requirements-based position coding in authorization documents and a training philosophy of "select, train and utilize." The Warrant Officer Management Act (WOMA) was introduced in Congress shortly after the publication of TWOS, signed into law in December 1991 and is the current basis for the management of warrant officers on the ADL. The WOMA is the warrant officer counterpart of DOPMA. It provided for management of warrant officers by years of warrant officer service (WOS) rather than total service, automatic RA integration at the chief warrant officer three (CW3) level, created the rank of chief warrant officer five (CW5), permitted selective retention and retirement, and eliminated the dual promotion system. In February 1992, the Chief of Staff of the Army approved the Warrant Officer Leader Development Action Plan (WOLDAP). The WOLDAP expanded upon the foundation of TWOS and WOMA and provided a blueprint for the leader development of warrant officers in the Army of the future. The plan contained specific recommendations on issues dealing with training, assignments, civil education, and other subjects for both active and reserve warrant officers. In 2000, the Chief of Staff chartered the Army Training and Leader Development Panel to conduct a series of studies to recommend changes to leader development education for all segments of the Army. The Warrant Officer Study by this panel developed a further revision of the TWOS definition of warrant officers for the future as: "The warrant officer of the Future Force is a self-aware and adaptive technical expert, combat leader, trainer, and advisor. Through progressive levels of expertise in assignments, training, and education, the warrant officer administers, manages, maintains, operates, and integrates Army systems and equipment across the full range of Army operations. Warrant officers are innovative integrators of emerging technologies, dynamic teachers, confident war-fighters, and developers of specialized teams of Soldiers. They support a wide range of Army missions throughout their careers." The warrant officer specific component of OPMS features:

(1) A structure that optimizes warrant officer utilization and provides sustainable inventories.

(2) An acquisition program to access quality candidates in sufficient numbers, with appropriate requisite background and skills, and at the appropriate time in the candidates' careers.

(3) Clearly defined warrant officer personnel policies and professional development requirements.

(4) A means to maintain warrant officers' technical expertise on current and new systems in their units.

(5) Distribution of the right warrant officer to the right place at the right time. Building on the long history of WOS to the country, the warrant officer component of OPMS provides the mechanisms for professional development and appropriate personnel management for warrant officers throughout their careers.

b. Current perspective. HRC discontinued consolidated management of warrant officer careers and assignments and adopted the Army Training and Leader Development Panel recommendation to incorporate warrant officer management into applicable individual branches. The change was contemporaneous with the base realignment and closures relocation to Fort Knox.

c. Purpose. The purpose of the warrant officer component of OPMS is to enhance the effectiveness and professionalism of the warrant officer cohort while thoroughly integrating management practices and leader development education within the larger field and company grade officer corps. The OPMS encompasses all policies and procedures by which Army warrant officers are procured, trained, educated, developed, assigned, evaluated, promoted, and separated from active duty. The OPMS assures a deployable, professional warrant officer corps capable of meeting the challenges of the Future Force.

d. Coordination. The personnel proponents provide guidelines concerning career patterns and leader development. The coordinating agency for AC warrant officers is HRC, Officer Personnel Management Directorate; for ARNG warrant officers, the Chief, National Guard Bureau (NGB-ARH), 111 South George Mason Drive, AHS2, Arlington, VA 22204-1373; and for Reserve warrant officers, the Commanding General, U.S. Army Human Resource Command (ARPC-OPS), 1600 Spearhead Division Avenue, Fort Knox, KY 40122-5200.

1-10. Officer Evaluation System overview

The Officer Evaluation Reporting System (OERS) is a subsystem of officer evaluations. The primary function of OERS is to provide information from the organizational chain of command to be used by HQDA for officer personnel decisions. This critical information is documented on the DA Forms 67-10 series ( DA Form 67-10-1 (Company Grade Plate (O1 - O3; WO1 - CW2) Officer Evaluation Report), DA Form 67-10-2 (Field Grade Plate (O4 - O5; CW3 - CW5) Officer Evaluation Report), DA Form 67-10-3 (Strategic Grade Plate (O6) Officer Evaluation Report), DA Form 67-10-4 (Strategic Grade Plate (O7) Officer Evaluation Report), hereafter referred to as OER) for officer evaluations, and the DA Form 1059 (Service School Academic Evaluation Report) and DA Form 1059-1 (Civilian Institution Academic Evaluation Report) for service school and civilian institution academic evaluations. The information contained on these evaluation reports is correlated with the Army's needs and individual officer qualifications to provide the basis for officer personnel actions such as promotion, functional description, retention in grade, elimination, retention on active duty, reduction in force, command and project manager designation, school selection, and assignment. An equally important function of OERS is to encourage the professional development of the officer corps through structured performance and developmental assessment and counseling. The OERS is an important tool for leaders and mentors to counsel officers on the values and any specific elements of the Army Leadership Doctrine necessary to improve performance and enhance potential.

Chapter 2

Officer Leader Development

2-1. Leader development overview

a. The Army Leader Development Strategy defines leader development as the deliberate, continuous, and progressive process — founded in Army Values — that grows Soldiers and Army civilians into competent, committed professional leaders of character. Leader development is achieved through the career-long synthesis of the training, education, and experiences acquired through opportunities in the institutional, operational, and self-development domains, supported by peer and developmental relationships. Army leaders must be able to understand the conditions of the modern global environment, analyze them in terms of the problems they face and re-frame them in mission command terms. Our leaders must be able to apply problem solving and decision-making skills to defeat an enemy who presents asymmetric threats, who is a fleeting target and embedded in the populace, who is adaptive and unpredictable, who has the capability to shift between irregular and conventional warfare, and who is a near peer enemy capable of conventional offense and defense operations as well. Our officers must have the leadership capabilities to fight among the populace, and deny support to our adversaries while encouraging support to the local government. Leaders must recognize changing operational environments and remain fully prepared to reconfigure resources to undertake a range of altered missions.

b. The leader and functional competencies we develop through training and experience must provide us with the capability to successfully interact at the human level with not only our own Soldiers, but with joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational (JIIM) partners; the indigenous populace and government; and with local, national, and international media. To develop this complex and comprehensive set of leader capabilities requires a strategy that employs military and civilian education, leverages experience gained during assignments in operational or generating force units, as well as during broadening assignments, and self-development activities that are broad ranging. This strategy must produce a steady flow of talented, agile leaders who are proficient in core leader and functional competencies across the operational themes and comfortable with risk. Leader competencies for decisive action will expand to encompass cross-cultural communications, language, and the ability to enable economic development, governance, and conflict resolution through negotiation.

2-2. Leader development strategy

Pursuit of the Army Leader Development Strategy employs the three domains of leader development — institutional, operational, and self-development. These domains define and engage a continuous cycle of education, training, selection, experience, assessment, feedback, reinforcement, and evaluation. Learning, experience, and feedback provide the basis for professional growth. Overall, leader development enhances leader capabilities for positions of increasing responsibility. The goal of Army leader development is to create the training, education, and experience conditions that produce agile, innovative, and adaptive leaders of unimpeachable integrity, character, and competence who act to achieve decisive results and who understand and are able to exploit the full potential of current and future Army doctrine.

2-3. Domains of leader development

a. Institutional. The institutional Army (schools and training centers) is the foundation for lifelong learning. Training is an organized, structured, continuous, and progressive process based on sound principles of learning designed to increase the capability of individuals, units, and organizations to perform specified tasks or skills. The objective of training is to increase the ability of leaders to competently perform in training and operational situations. Individual task training builds individual competence and confidence to perform these tasks in support of collective training and operations. Education is the process of imparting knowledge and developing the competencies and attributes Army professionals need to accomplish any mission the future may present. Education contributes to the development of Soldier and Army Civilian leader competencies, focusing on fundamentals which are later practiced, expanded, and improved in training and experience. Education occurs in the institutional, operational, and self-development domains. As a component of leader development, education contributes to the growth of the three leader attributes of character, presence, and intellect. Education focuses on intellect and moral character of leaders to improve judgment and reasoning and hone the habits of the mind: agility, adaptability, empathy, intellectual curiosity, and creativity. Education in the Army is primarily professional military education (PME) or Civilian Education System, but may include studies within civilian academia. PME and Civilian Education System are progressive and sequential across a career continuum to ensure that Soldiers and Army Civilians are successful at each stage of their professional service, while continually growing in the competencies and attributes needed for higher levels of service."

b. Operational. Operational and broadening assignments constitute the second domain of leader development. Upon completion of institutional training, leaders are ideally assigned to operational positions. This operational experience provides them the opportunity to use, hone, and build on what they learned through the formal education process. Experience gained through on-the-job training in a variety of challenging assignments and additional duties prepares officers to lead and train Soldiers, both in garrison and ultimately in combat. The commander or leader in the unit plays a significant and instrumental role in this area. Commanders and other senior leaders are particularly responsible for mentoring that is vital to the development of junior officers. They introduce the officer to their unit and establish leader development programs. They explain both unit and individual performance standards, and provide periodic assessments and continual feedback to develop the officer. Beyond accomplishing the mission on a daily basis, developing subordinate leaders is a professional responsibility, which must be carried out to guarantee the quality of our future leaders. Similarly, periodic assignment to broadening positions throughout the career timeline provides officers with exposure to a different environment, presents them with opportunities to work complex problems, and ultimately helps the Army grow strategic, adaptive, and innovative executive-level leaders capable of performing above and beyond the tactical and operational levels. In order to maximize an officer's ability to pursue broadening assignments and be competitive for promotion to senior commissioned ranks, it is imperative for officers and commanders to understand and adhere to existing guidance that limits key developmental (KD) assignments to 24 months maximum time.

c. Self-development. Learning is a lifelong process. Institutional training and operational assignments alone do not ensure that Army officers attain and sustain the degree of competency needed to perform their varied missions. The profession of arms requires comprehensive self-study and training. Leaders must commit to a lifetime of professional and personal growth to stay at the cutting edge of their profession. They must keep pace with changing operational requirements, new technologies, common weapons platforms, and evolving doctrines. Every officer is responsible for his or her own self-development. Self-assessment and taking appropriate remedial or reinforcing action is critical to a leader's success. Self-development programs include activities that stretch the individual beyond the demands of on-the-job or institutional training. Self-development, consisting of individual study, research, professional reading, practice and self-assessment, is accomplished via numerous means (studying, observing, and experiencing), and is consistent with an officer's personal self-development action plan and professional goals. Self-development is the key aspect of individual officer qualification that solidifies the Army leader development process. A critical component of the self-development domain is Multi Source Assessment and Feedback (MSAF). Although officers may take ample steps to facilitate self-development, the MSAF program — also referred to as "360 degree Assessment" — helps officers raise self-awareness and better shape their self-development efforts. The MSAF provides input from peers, superiors, and subordinates which help the rated officer develop as a self-aware and adaptable leader. Officers can access the "360 degree Assessment" at: http://msaf.army.mil . Results of the feedback remain confidential, are only available to the rated officer, and are used for self-development rather than evaluative purposes.

2-4. Leader principles

Six principles are inherent in officer development and career management. These principles serve as a frame of reference for the individual officer, commander, mentor and branch and FA proponents. These six principles are:

a. Leader development is doctrinally based ADP 1 providing the foundation for our warfighting doctrine. It articulates the constitutional and legal basis for our being, the national security objectives, the spectrum of warfare and our beliefs concerning the profession of arms to include the professional Army ethic and values. ADP 3-0 is our keystone warfighting doctrine for subordinate and tactical-level doctrine, professional education and individual and unit training. ADP 7-0 tells us how we should train, including the senior leader's role. ADP 6-22 outlines the core dimensions of leadership and the basis for leadership excellence. Together, these references provide the foundation needed to develop competent, confident leaders capable of assuming positions of greater responsibility and create the conditions for sustained organizational success.

b. Leader development programs should be responsive to the environment, including such factors as law, policy, resources, force structure, world situation, technology, and professional development.

c. An officer's success should be measured in terms of contribution. An officer's professional goals are directly related to his or her own definition of success in the Profession of Arms.

d. High-quality Soldiers deserve high-quality leaders. This principle is the heart of leader development and breathes life into all aspects of the seven Army fundamental imperatives — training, force mix, doctrine, modern equipment, quality people, leader development, and facilities.

e. We recognize as a philosophy that leaders can be developed. While a principle in itself, it is inextricably linked to the philosophy of shared responsibilities among the individual leaders; the schoolhouses, branches and FA proponents throughout the Army; and the commanders in the field.

f. Leader development is cooperative and holistic. The individual officer, unit commanders, mentors and Army educational institutions all share in the responsibility for developing leaders at every level.

2-5. Leader development and the Officer Education System

a. Company and field grade officers. The Officer Education System provides the formal military educational foundation to company and field grade officers necessary to prepare them for increased responsibilities and successful performance at the next higher level. Its goal is to produce a broad-based corps of leaders who possess the necessary values, attributes, and skills to perform their duties in service to the nation. These leaders must know how the Army runs and demonstrate confidence, integrity, critical judgment, and responsibility while operating in an environment of complexity, ambiguity, and rapid change. To build effective teams capable of supporting joint and multinational operations in this environment, they must be adaptable, creative, and bold amid continuous organizational and technological change. The Officer Education System is discussed in more detail here in chapter 4 . The following paragraphs highlight key aspects of officer development —

(1) Common core. Common core is the consolidation of common skills training and training subjects prescribed by law, Army regulations, or other higher authority. These subjects comprise the tasks all officers are expected to perform successfully, regardless of branch. Common core instruction begins at pre-commissioning and continues at each educational level. The instruction is progressive and sequential, building upon the skills and knowledge acquired through previous training and operational assignments.

(2) Entry-level officer training. To address shortcomings identified by the Army Training and Leader Development Panel (officer) study, the Army implemented the Basic Officer Leaders Course (BOLC). The objective of the BOLC is to develop technically competent and confident platoon leaders, regardless of branch, who are grounded in leadership, basic technical and tactical skill proficiency, are physically and mentally strong, and embody the Warrior Ethos. To achieve this objective, BOLC capitalizes on experience-based training, logically structured to build upon and reinforce previous lessons. The BOLC occurs in two phases. BOLC A is pre-commissioning training conducted by the traditional pre-commissioning sources. It provides the foundation of common core skills, knowledge, and attributes desired of all newly commissioned lieutenants. BOLC B is a combination of common block instruction targeting small-unit leaders skills focusing on warfighting and the Warrior Ethos, and branch-specific technical and tactical training conducted at branch school locations. The BOLC-Direct Commissioned Officer Course is a course designed to give direct commission officers, who do not have the benefit of BOLC A pre-commissioning training, the necessary skills to achieve success at BOLC B. See paragraph 4-7 a for further discussion on BOLC.

(3) Captains' Officer Education System. The branch Captain Career Course (CCC) prepares company grade officers to command Soldiers at the company, troop, or battery level, and to serve as staff officers at battalion and brigade levels. AA and RC officers incur a 1-year active duty service obligation (ADSO) for attendance at a branch CCC upon completion or termination of the course. Officers attend CCC following selection for promotion to the grade of captain, normally before company-level command. Select captains who have demonstrated superior performance in their basic branches may be selected to receive this training at other than their branch schools. (For example, a Field Artillery officer might attend the CCC for armor officers.) This cross training benefits officers of both branches. Officers seeking accession into Special Forces (SF) will normally attend the Maneuver CCC. The captains' PME centers on the technical, tactical and leadership competencies needed for success in follow-on assignments. CCC is a prerequisite for promotion to major for RC officers. See paragraph 4-7 d for further discussion on CCC.

(4) Intermediate level education. The intermediate level education (ILE) is the Army's formal education program for majors. It is a tailored resident education program designed to prepare new field grade officers for their next 10 years of service. It produces field grade officers with a Warrior Ethos and joint, expeditionary mindset, who are grounded in warfighting doctrine, and who have the technical, tactical, and leadership competencies to be successful at more senior levels in their respective branch or FA. ILE consists of a Common Core Course phase of operational instruction offered to all officers, and a tailored education phase (qualification course) tied to the technical requirements of the officer's branch or FA. The RC also has a tailored distributed learning ILE program. ILE Common Core Course is a prerequisite for promotion to lieutenant colonel in the RC. See paragraph 4-7 e for further discussion of ILE.

(5) Senior Service College. The Senior Service College (SSC) provides senior-level PME and leader development training. The Army's SSC, the U.S. Army War College, prepares military, civilian and international leaders to assume strategic leadership responsibilities in military or national security organizations. It educates students about employment of the U.S. Army as part of a unified, joint, or multinational force in support of the national military strategy; requires research into operational and strategic issues; and conducts outreach programs that benefit the nation. See paragraph 4-7 g for further discussion of SSC.

b. Warrant officers.

(1) Background. The Army Training and Leader Development Panel Warrant Officer Study recommended that the Army make a fuller integration of warrant officers into the larger officer corps. In recognition of expanding leadership roles for warrant officers in the future force, the study called for a single, world-class, leader development education system that would have distinct components for warrant officer, company grade, and field grade officers. The study also called for combining warrant officer, company grade, and field grade officer training, as appropriate, wherever required common officer skills are taught.

(2) Training and education goals. The goal of warrant officer training and education within the Officer Education System is to produce highly specialized expert officers, leaders, and trainers who are fully competent in technical, tactical, and leadership skills; creative problem solvers able to function in highly complex and dynamic environments; and proficient operators, maintainers, administrators, and managers of the Army's equipment, support activities, and technical systems. Warrant officer leader development is a continuous lifelong learning process beginning with pre-appointment training and education. The Officer Education System prepares warrant officers to successfully perform in increasing levels of responsibility throughout an entire career. The Officer Education System provides the pre-appointment, branch MOS-specific, and leader development training needed to produce technically and tactically competent warrant officer leaders for assignment to platoon, detachment, company, battalion, and higher-level organizations.

(3) Common core. Common core is the consolidation of common skills training and training prescribed by law, Army regulations, or other higher authority. It comprises the tasks all officers are expected to perform successfully regardless of branch. Common core instruction begins at pre-appointment and continues at each educational level. The instruction is progressive and sequential and builds upon the skills and knowledge acquired through previous training and operational assignments.

(4) Pre-appointement training. Pre-appointment training qualifies individuals to serve as officers. The purposes of pre-appointment training are to educate and train candidates, assess their readiness and potential for appointment to warrant officer, and prepare them for progressive and continuing development. All AA warrant officer candidates must attend the resident Warrant Officer Candidate School (WOCS) at Fort Rucker, AL. The ARNG and USAR warrant officer candidates may attend WOCS at either Fort Rucker or one of the RC-regional training institutes WOCS. The WOCS graduates are appointed to warrant officer one (WO1). The appointment is contingent upon certification by the MOS proponent that the warrant officer is technically and tactically qualified to serve in the authorized warrant officer MOS.

(5) Warrant Officer Basic Course. The Warrant Officer Basic Courses (WOBCs) are branch-specific qualification courses that ensure newly appointed warrant officers receive the MOS-specific training and technical certification needed to perform in the MOS at the platoon through brigade levels. Training is performance oriented and focuses on technical skills, leadership, effective communication, unit training, maintenance operations, security, property accountability, tactics, and development of subordinates. Newly appointed warrant officers who attend WOBC will incur a 6-year ADSO upon graduation. This ADSO does not apply to warrant officers who already hold a warrant officer MOS or reclassified to another MOS. Warrant officers who attend Army directed professional development courses, including Warrant Officer Advanced Course (WOAC), Warrant Officer Staff Course (WOSC), and Warrant Officer Senior Staff Course (WOSSC) do not incur a service obligation.

(6) Warrant Officer Advanced Course. The WOAC is a combination of common core and MOS proponent training that prepares the officer to serve in senior positions at the CW3 level. The WOAC includes two phases: a nonresident common core module and a resident phase, which includes a common core module and MOS-specific module. See paragraph 4-7 i (3) for further discussion of WOAC.

(7) Warrant officer intermediate level education. The warrant officer ILE is a branch immaterial resident course which focuses on staff officer and leadership skills needed to prepare them for duty in CW4 grade technician and staff officer positions at battalion and higher levels. Instruction includes decision-making, staff roles and functions, organizational theory, structure of the Army, budget formation and execution, communication, training management, personnel management, the contemporary operational environment, and special leadership issues. It is designed to produce officers with a Warrior Ethos who are grounded in warfighting doctrine and possess the technical, tactical and leadership competencies to be successful at more senior levels. See paragraph 4-7 i (4) for further discussion of WOSC.

(8) Warrant Officer Senior Service Education. The Warrant Officer Senior Service Education is currently the capstone course for warrant officer PME. It is a branch immaterial resident course which provides master-level professional warrant officers with a broader Army level perspective required for assignment to CW5 grade level positions as technical, functional, and branch systems integrators, trainers, and leaders at the highest organizational levels. See paragraph 4-7 i (5) for further discussion of Warrant Officer Senior Service Education.

Chapter 3

Officer Personnel Management System and Career Management

3-1. Purpose

The OPMS is executed by HRC, Officer Personnel Management Directorate. The purpose of OPMS is to:

a. Acquire. Identify, recruit, select, and prepare individuals for service as officers in our Army.

b. Develop. Maximize officer performance and potential through training and education in accordance with AR 350-1 , assignment, self-development and certification of officers to build agile and adaptive leaders.

c. Utilize. Assign officers with the appropriate skills, experience, and competencies to meet Army requirements and promote continued professional development.

d. Sustain. Retaining officers with the appropriate skills, experience, competencies, and manner of performance to meet Army requirements and promote continued professional development.

e. Promote. Identify and advance officers with the appropriate skills, experience, competencies, manner of performance and demonstrated potential to meet Army requirements.

f. Transition. Separate officers from the Army in a manner that promotes a lifetime of support to the Service.

3-2. Factors affecting the Officer Personnel Management System

Various factors continuously influence the environment in which OPMS operates. In turn, changes in that environment necessitate continuous adjustments and alterations of policy by the DCS, G-1 . Factors that influence OPMS policy are:

a. Law. Congress passes legislation that impacts on officer professional development through required changes in related Army policy.

(1) The DOPMA of 1981 created active duty strength limits for officers in grades above chief warrant officer, promotion flow and timing points and the integration of RA and other than RA into common patterns.

(2) The Department of Defense (DOD) Reorganization Act of 1986 (Goldwater-Nichols Act) instituted Joint officer management provisions requiring a number of officers in the Army to serve in Joint duty assignments as field grade officers.

(3) PL 99-145 specified the acquisition experiences and education necessary for an officer to be the project manager of major weapon systems. This law later led to the creation of the Army Acquisition Corps.

(4) Warrant officer professional development is influenced directly by laws limiting the size of the Army and budgetary concerns. The 1986 law also aligned Army warrant officers to those of the other Services in that all appointments to chief warrant officer (CW2 through CW5) would be by commissioning. In 1991, the Warrant Officer Management Act created a uniform system for warrant officer grade management and control similar to the one used to manage company and field grade officers (DOPMA).

(5) The 1995 Defense Authorization Act included the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act to align Reserve forces with DOPMA. It was intended to standardize personnel management for Reserve officers of all Services by providing flexibility in personnel management for Reserve officers.

b. Policy. New laws often create changes in policy. The provisions of this document are in accordance with current law and policy. Changes to those laws and policies will affect future versions of this document.

c. Budget. The size and composition of the officer corps, accessions, strength management, promotion rates and pin- on-points, schooling, education programs and permanent change of station (PCS) timing are but a few areas affected by budget decisions and subsequent policies.

d. Officer Personnel Management System vision. The OPMS vision includes the overarching concept of growing and developing adaptive leaders capable of employing mission command to successfully accomplish the spectrum of established and emerging missions. Adaptability is a key tenet of ADP 3-0. Adaptive leaders are —

(1) Competent in their core skills.

(2) Sufficiently broad in education and experience to operate across the spectrum of conflict.

(3) Able to operate in JIIM environments and leverage other capabilities to achieve mission objectives.

(4) Culturally astute and able to use this awareness and understanding of foreign environments to innovate in mission execution.

(5) Courageous enough to take prudent risk to exploit opportunities in the challenges and complexities of the operational environment.

(6) Grounded in Army Values, Warrior Ethos, and the Army Profession.

e. Proponent strategy. Each branch/FA has a proponent responsible for coordinating the development of its officer population. Proponent responsibilities are in part executed through the publication of this pamphlet. To fulfill these responsibilities the proponent must:

(1) Project future requirements for officer skills and sustain or modify elements of force structure and inventory to meet future needs.

(2) Define the three domains of leader development: institutional, operational and self-development balanced between the specific requirements for their particular skill and specialty and the broader developmental requirements defined by the respective functional category proponents and the Army.

(3) Articulate competencies required for specific branches, FAs or area of concentration (AOC)/MOS by grade, and provide general guidance on table of organization and equipment (TOE) or table of distribution and allowances (TDA) positions, educational and training opportunities that enable development of those competencies.

(4) Develop generic patterns of officer development embodied in branch and FA officer development models. These models are used by Officer Personnel Management Directorate assignment branches to execute the proponent professional development programs, but are not intended as prescriptions for a path to success in the Army.

(5) As proponents modify officer skill requirements or development models to meet changing conditions, OPMS and this pamphlet will be modified.

f. Officer needs. The OPMS responds to the mission and requirements of the Army and attempts to balance force structure requirements, officer professional development, and individual needs and preferences of the officer.

3-3. Officer Personnel Management System

a. The Officer Personnel Management System. The OPMS is an evolutionary system that balances the needs of the Army with the aspirations and developmental requirements of the entire officer corps; warrant, company and field grade. Inherently flexible, the system is designed to respond to a variety of doctrinal, proponent, commander, and individual initiatives to meet emerging needs. Flexibility is embedded in OPMS subsystems, which are interrelated and affected by each other's changes. These subsystems are:

(1) Strength management. The number of officers, by grade and specialty, are defined by Army requirements, law, budget, and policy. The combination of these factors results in the determination of the numbers of officers to access, promote, develop, assign, and separate. Since each of these factors is dynamic, the number, grade, and branch of officers within the inventory are also dynamic. As Army requirements for force structure change, the officer inventory will also change and be realigned to meet the needs of the resulting force structure.

(2) Assignments. Officers are assigned to fulfill current and future Army requirements while meeting the professional development needs of the various branches, FAs, and functional categories. This is balanced with the best interests of the officers against the Army requirements.

(3) Professional development. Each branch, FA, or officer skill proponent defines the appropriate mix of education, training, and experience needed by the officer corps at each grade level within the context of the overarching requirement to develop adaptive leaders. The demands of each specialty balanced with broadening opportunities are reflected in subsequent branch or proponent chapters as life-cycle development models. HRC must develop each officer, both active and RCs, by using these models while balancing Army requirements. To ensure the professional development of all officers, HRC operates in concert with various responsible agents to include: the individual officer; the Army and branch proponents; the DCS, G-3/5/7; commanders in the field and the senior Army leadership. Officer professional development is a responsibility shared by all. Life-cycle development models portray the full range of training, education, and experiences for the development of our future leaders.

(4) Evaluation. The Army officer structure is pyramidal. The apex contains very few senior grades in relation to the wider base. Advancement to increasingly responsible positions is based on relative measures of performance and potential. The mechanism to judge the value of an individual's performance and potential are the OER described in detail in chapter 6 . All OPMS subsystems are affected by the evaluation report. Promotion, school selection, functional designation and command and key billet selection, retention in service, and development opportunities are all based on the information contained in the OER.

(5) Centralized selection. The hub around which all the subsystems revolve is centralized selection. Strength management, professional development, and evaluation of individual contribution occur in the series of centralized Department of the Army and HRC selection boards for retention, career status, schooling, promotion, field grade command designation, and selective early retirement. These boards employ evaluation reports, competency guidance, and strength requirements to advance individuals to the next stage of professional development. Officers generally flow through the centralized selection subsystem by groupings based on date of rank. Company and field grade officer groupings are termed cohort year groups. Warrant officer groupings are called the inclusive zone of eligibility. Each board is preceded by a zone announcement that specifies the makeup of the cohort or inclusive zone. Centralized selection perpetuates the ideals, cultural values, ethics, and professional standards of the Army by advancing and retaining only those individuals best qualified to assume positions of greater responsibility. Centralized selection has evolved over time to account for the impact of law, policy, budget, Army and officer needs, and proponent vision.

(6) Review process. The OPMS was designed to be reviewed periodically. At the discretion of the Chief of Staff of the Army; the DCS, G-1; and the CG, HRC will conduct a review of OPMS to determine the health of the system and to recommend changes.

b. A comprehensive system. The OPMS model is a developmental system focused more on the quality and range of experience, rather than the specific gates or assignments required to progress.

(1) Initial entry officers gain branch technical and tactical skills to develop a Warrior Ethos and gain important leadership experience in company grade assignments.

(2) Throughout an officer's career, the model highlights windows of opportunity to gain broadening experience or exposure. The concept of broadening will be addressed in greater detail in paragraph 3-4 on officer development.

(3) Voluntary transfer opportunities (via the Voluntary Transfer Incentive Program (VTIP)) between branches and FAs and branch transfer between branches, announced and adjudicated several times a year beyond the 4 th year of commissioned service, develop both specific and broad functional competencies.

(4) Officers selected for FA transfer through VTIP, and those who elect to remain in basic branches should seek training and assignments that balance branch or FA-specific skill development with broadening opportunities. Broadening assignments, education or experiences expand a leader's capabilities by exposing them to different organizational cultures and environments. Such assignments are often JIIM in nature, and expose officers to problem sets not routinely addressed at the tactical level. A balanced mix of assignments offers the best path to development of strategic level thinkers and leaders.

(5) Lifelong learning, supported by both civilian and military education, bolsters the development of joint and expeditionary competencies. Expeditionary competencies are those needed by officers in an expeditionary force — regional knowledge, cultural awareness, foreign language, diplomacy, statesmanship, and so on.

(6) Flexible time lines enable officers to serve longer in developmental assignments; ensuring officers have adequate time to gain skills and experience and also to support unit readiness and cohesion. However, time in developmental assignments must be balanced with the necessity to meet Army manning requirements. The functionally aligned design is the heart of OPMS and is intended to align branches and FAs, consistent with Joint doctrine, focusing on development of agile and adaptive leaders with broader, functionally relevant competencies.

(7) Officers will be managed by categories and groups with similar functions to facilitate the development of officer functional competencies required on the future battlefield. The design is not intended to reflect where officers serve on the battlefield, but to align the functions and skills required. The three functional categories and associated functional groups are:

(a) Operations. This functional category gathers maneuver branches and FAs that have similar battlefield application or complementary roles. The functional category includes the following branches and FAs: Infantry (11), Armor (19), Aviation (15), Field Artillery (13), Air Defense Artillery (ADA) (14), Engineer (12), Chemical (74), Information Operations (30), Military Police (MP) (31), and Special Operations Forces (SOF) encompassing SF (18), Psychological Operations (37) and Civil Affairs (CA) (38). NOTE: Per AR 5-22, the CG, U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), is the proponent for Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF). This includes SF, Psychological Operations, and CA branches, and 75th Ranger Regiment, Special Operations Aviation and special mission units (SMUs). The CG, U.S Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School (USAJFKSWCS) is the branch proponent for SF, Psychological Operations, and CA.

(b) Operations support. This functional category gathers two currently existing branches, Military Intelligence and Signal, with FAs that have similar battlefield applications or complementary roles. Also included in this functional category are the functions associated with force training, development, and education that design, build, and train the force. This category will in the future incorporate the emerging Cyber capability. The functional category includes the following branches and FAs: Signal Corps (25), Information Systems Management (53), Telecommunication Systems Engineer (24), Space Operations (40), Electronic Warfare (EW) (29), Military Intelligence (35), Strategic Intelligence (34), Foreign Area Officer (FAO) (48), Strategic Plans and Policy (59) Nuclear and Counterproliferation (52), Force Management (50), Operations Research/Systems Analysis (49), Simulation Operations (57), Permanent Academy Professor (47), and Public Affairs (46).

(c) Force Sustainment. This functional category includes an integrated Logistics Corps as well as the branches and FAs associated with resource and Soldier support functions: Integrated Logistics Corps: Transportation Corps (88), Ordnance (91) and Quartermaster (92), Logistics Branch (90); Human Resources (42H), Financial Management (36), Acquisition Corps (51). A part of force sustainment but separately managed are the Health Services: AMEDD (medical, dental, veterinary, nurse, medical specialist and medical services), Chaplain Corps, and TJAG.

3-4. Officer development

a. Officer Personnel Management System. Under OPMS, company grade officers are accessed into the Army's basic branches, and through a series of educational and developmental assignments are given the opportunity to hold branch developmental assignments outlined by their proponent. During their company grade years, captains are designated into one of three officer functional categories (Operations, Operations Support, Force Sustainment) in which they continue their development either in their basic branch or in a FA. Officers in the RCs will also undergo functional designation with their AA counterparts; but modification to the process is necessary to accommodate personnel management considerations unique to the ARNG/USAR. Accessioning policies for the Army Acquisition Corps and SOF are unique and are addressed in their respective chapters.

b. Development objectives. One of the major objectives of OPMS is to professionally develop officers through a deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process including training, education and experiences nested with counseling and mentoring from commanders, branch proponent, and Officer Personnel Management Directorate, HRC. These interactions are embodied in the process of officer development:

(1) Development in a designated specialty. For the Army competitive category (ACC), there are 34 branch and FA specialties in OPMS. The differences between a branch and FA are:

(a) Branch. A branch is a grouping of officers that comprises an arm or Service of the Army and is the specialty in which all officers are commissioned or transferred, trained and developed. Company grade officers hold a single branch designation and may serve in repetitive and progressive assignments associated with the branch. They may not be assigned to more than one branch. See paragraph 8-2 for further discussion of officer branches.

(b) Functional area. A FA is a grouping of officers by technical specialty or skills other than an arm, Service, or branch that usually requires unique education, training, and experience. After functional designation, officers may serve repetitive and progressive assignments within their FA. An officer may not be assigned to more than one FA at a time. See chapter 8 for further discussion of FAs.

(2) Key terms in operational assignments. A number of terms are used when describing operational assignments:

(a) Command.The command is the authority that a commander in the military service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. The command comprises the leadership, authority, responsibility, and accountability for effectively using available resources and planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces to accomplish assigned missions. It includes responsibility for unit readiness, health, welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel.

(b) Key billet.A duty assignment at the lieutenant colonel or colonel rank requiring specific, highly developed skills and experience that is deemed so critical to a unit's mission that an officer is selected for assignment by HQDA. Key billet officers exercise judgment and recommend actions to the commander. They principally manage resources and oversee processes that operate in a leadership environment.

(c) Centralized selection list.A listing of command/key billet positions by type category approved by CG, HRC to be filled by officers selected under the Centralized Command/Key Billet Selection System. Centralized selection list (CSL) command positions fall into four categories listed below.

(1) Installation command category. Support tenant units or activities in a designated geographic area by organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling installation support and service activities. They are TDA organizations, both the continental United States (CONUS) and outside the continental United States (OCONUS), dedicated to supporting and protecting Army Soldiers, Civilians, and their Families. They are accountable for critical mission areas such as mobilization, public works, real property management, and local civil authorities/host nation rapport.

(2) Operations command category. Battalion and brigade size units, expeditionary in nature and deployable worldwide with approved TOE, Joint organization and SMUs providing the fighting power available to combatant or Joint Task Force commanders with a primary mission to deploy to a theater of combat operations.

(3) Recruiting and training command category. Focused on generating Soldiers into conventional and SMUs of the U.S. Army and sister Services, typically TDA organizations that support the training of units from the Army and sister Services. They are typically fixed-site and non-deployable. The cadre and non-training Soldiers are typically not required to qualify with individual weapons.

(4) Strategic support command category. Focused on generating Soldiers into conventional and SMUs of the U.S. Army and sister Services, typically TDA organizations that support the training of units from the Army and sister Services. They are typically fixed-site and non-deployable. The cadre and non-training Soldiers are typically not required to qualify with individual weapons.

(d) Key developmental positions.These positions are specified, by branch or FA in this pamphlet, and revised periodically. A KD position is one that is deemed fundamental to the development of an officer in his or her core branch or FA competencies or deemed critical by the senior Army leadership to provide experience across the Army's strategic mission. The majority of these positions fall within the scope of the officer's branch or FA mission.

(e) Developmental positions.All officer positions are developmental. They enhance some aspect of warfighting skills, increase their level of responsibility, develop their understanding of interoperability among Army branches, or expose them to branch-related generating force/JIIM opportunities that directly contribute to success as an innovative and adaptive leader.

(f) Broadening opportunities.Officers should view the concept of broadening as a purposeful expansion of a leader's capabilities and understanding provided through opportunities internal and external to the Army. Broadening is accomplished across an officer's full career through experiences and/or education in different organizational cultures and environments. The intent for broadening is to develop an officer's capability to see, work, learn and contribute outside each one's own perspective or individual level of understanding for the betterment of both the individual officer and the institution. The result of broadening is a continuum of leadership capability at direct, operational, and strategic levels, which bridges diverse environments and organizational cultures. The broadening process will be dynamic and variable across cohorts, grades, and branches or FAs. Opportunities will change in response to the Army's emerging missions, evolving structure and professional culture. Deliberate career management that carefully limits KD time to prescribed intervals, allowing exceptions only under limited extenuating circumstances is fundamental to the concept of broadening. Broadening opportunities may vary in scope, responsibility, and developmental outcomes and typically fall in four major categories listed below.

(1) Functional or institutional. An assignment that provides a developmental opportunity directly related to an officers branch or FA, but which provides the officer the opportunity to develop a wider range of knowledge and skills useful in an Army specific environment or a broader joint context. Assignments that provide a developmental opportunity usually not directly related to an officer's branch or FA but which may develop a greater understanding of how the Army operates as an institution.

(2) Academia and civilian enterprise. An experience with civilian industry or within a community of students, scholars, and instructors at institutes of higher learning where the officer can gain new perspectives and knowledge, skills, and abilities not generally obtained from organic experiences, training, or education.

(3) Joint or multinational. An experience in a Joint duty assignment list billet, or a Joint opportunity unrelated to an officer's branch or FA. Such experiences immerse the officer in an environment requiring routine interaction with JIIM organizations and personnel resulting in an understanding of their interaction with our Army. Assignments with a significant role of interaction with partner nation military organizations at operational and strategic level.

(4) Interagency or intergovernmental. Assignments or experiences at U.S. Government agencies outside DOD, or with partner nation governmental agencies. The focus of these opportunities will be more politically and policy oriented. These categories are convenient delineations but may not cover all possible opportunities. Broadening should enhance the adaptability and intellectual scope of our officers. It is not possible to foresee all the types of experience that will develop the diverse talents required of future leaders.

(3) Institutional education (Officer Education System). Training and education of an officer is driven by operational demands of an officer. AR 350-1 is the primary regulation governing officer training and education. This includes resident and nonresident instruction, on-the-job training, individual study and when appropriate, civilian education.

(4) Professional development counseling and mentoring. This is conducted by commanders at all levels as well as by HRC career managers.

(5) Designation and election of branches, functional areas, and functional categories.

(a) Branch designation. Upon commissioning, lieutenants are designated in a basic branch for entry on active duty, training and initial assignment. When required, some lieutenants are branch detailed to a combat arms branch for 3 or 4 years, or until their assigned units are in a reset period. Under the branch detail program, officers attend the company grade level education at the school of the branch to which they are detailed. Company grade officers in the 4-year detail program receive transition branch training in conjunction with their enrollment in the captain's level education. During the early years of service, professional development within the branch follows the proponent' s life-cycle model. Generally, the first 8 years of service are devoted to branch developmental assignments and training that prepares the company grade officer for further advancement. Company grade officers may request, in writing, a voluntary branch transfer in accordance with AR 614-100 . Detailed officers must be approved for branch transfer by their detail branch, basic branch, and HRC (AHRC-OPD-C), in addition to meeting the requirements of AR 614-100. Prior to selection for promotion to captain, officers may volunteer for SOF (SF, Psychological Operations, or CA) training and, upon successful completion of training, will receive a branch transfer into their respective branch. Selection for SOF training is made by cohort year group and upon selection for promotion to captain. The SOF officers are expected to have served a successful initial tour as a lieutenant in a small-unit leadership position in one of the Army's other basic branches. As a result, they are expected to have knowledge of conventional Army operations and be experienced in Army leadership. Lieutenants who volunteer in the targeted year group are selected by a DA-centralized SOF accession board at approximately 3 years of commissioned service and then go to a designated CCC to qualify for continued Special Operations officer training.

(b) Functional designation process. ACC groups interrelated branches and FAs into officer management categories called functional categories and functional groups. The functional designation process determines in which specialty officers will continue their development; either in their accession branch or in a different FA. Management of officer development in functional categories recognizes the need to balance specialization of the officer corps with the inherent requirement for officers to gain more breadth in an increasingly complex environment. Officers have periodic opportunities after the 4 th year of officer service to transfer to a different branch or FA. The process is known as the VTIP and is managed by HRC to balance inventories with Army requirements and to leverage individual officer preferences and demonstrated abilities. VTIP panels are conducted two to three times a year and are announced via MILPER message describing procedures and specialties to be considered for cross leveling. VTIP allows HRC to identify and target officers with critical skills early in their development, allowing them to get additional training and experience to bring those skills to bear as quickly as possible. The VTIP balances the force across the three functional categories. The intent of the VTIP panel is to fill requirements and provide the FAs enough time to send their officers to school and training prior to utilization. The VTIP process ensures that the needs of the Army are met for future field grade officer requirements in each functional category. Each functional category has its own unique characteristics and development model for officers, which reflects the readiness requirements of the Army today and into the 21st century. Officers in all functional categories are assigned across the Army in TOE and TDA organizations.

(c) Joint duty assignment. The Joint duty assignment list, and its subset, the Joint critical billets, confer Joint credit to our officers. Assignments are usually preceded by Joint JPME I, completed at ILE Command and Staff College. The Joint Critical billets are typically filled by Joint Qualified Officers, those with a previously completed Joint tour, plus JPME II, completed at Joint Forces Staff College or in a SSC. All of these positions, plus numerous others involve assignments/experiences in the Joint, interagency, intergovernmental, or multinational environment, but are not subject to the control measures of the Joint duty assignment list (tour length, JPME, promotion monitoring). Paragraph 3-13 goes into greater detail on this subject.

c. Generalist positions. Some positions in the Army are independent of branch or FA coding and are designated as branch/FA generalist, combat arms generalist positions, or JIIM positions. Some company and field grade officers should expect to serve in these assignments at various times during their careers, regardless of their functional designation. Officers are selected for these and other similar positions based on overall manner of performance, previous experience, military and civilian education and estimated potential for further service.

d. Focused development. Both branches and FAs may require more specific job skills and qualifications to prepare their officers further to meet highly specialized position requirements. These specific skills are called areas of concentration (AOCs). AOCs are described in the branch/FA chapters of this pamphlet.

(1) Branch/FA development fosters a mastery of skills, knowledge and attributes for an officer's grade in a specific branch or FA. Branch development enables captains to achieve mastery of common core and branch skills, knowledge, and attributes that assures the strong professional development foundation essential for success in the field grades. Generally speaking branch development for captains equates to completion of an appropriate company grade level education followed by successful performance as a company grade officer. Branch development for majors results from completion of an approved field grade ILE and successful performance in a KD branch or FA assignment. During an officer's field grade years, OPMS allows for the broadening of an officer's development from mastery of branch skills to more multifunctional skills. Branch officers have the opportunity, and are encouraged to, expand their knowledge and skills beyond their specific branch through multiple avenues. These opportunities, advanced civilian schooling, assignments in cross-branch/FA, and the use of JIIM assignments will enhance the development of officers for the increasingly demanding requirements necessary to lead Soldiers today and in the future, as well as, to function effectively at the senior executive level in the Army organization. FA officers will also be provided the opportunity to broaden their development through the use of cross-branch/FA and JIIM assignments.

(2) The full spectrum of military operations require an Army officer to be proficient in a myriad of tasks between the spectrums of wide area security and combined arms maneuver. Officers must be tolerant of ambiguity and be able to make rapid adjustments by thinking critically and creatively. This will require an officer to be "operationally adaptable" and comfortable with collaborative planning and decentralized execution in an ever changing environment. Personnel requirements for transitional functions will continue to evolve as teams with labels such as military transition team, special police transition team, border team, provincial reconstruction team, modular brigade security force assistance teams, or other names, grow from our experience with current and future operations. The invaluable experience that officers gain serving in assignments to these challenging team positions will enhance their ability to serve in future leadership roles in the current operational environment. Assignments to such teams are considered KD opportunities for officer career development. The broad exposure to local leaders, government functionaries, nongovernmental agencies, and international aid organizations will enhance an officer's interoperability in joint environments. Officers should seek to serve in these positions as part of their normal career progression. Service in transition team positions will not preclude officers from further assignments to key developmental positions specific to their branch or FA.

(3) PME instructor positions are critically important as developmental experiences that shape individual career success, and effectively disseminate shared operational experience. The Army historically cycles between periods of active conflict and intense deployed operational focus, and periods of consolidation, training, and preparation for the future. It is critical that the Army consolidate the hard won experience of our officers who have served in operational theaters, and disseminate that through its PME system. Positions as platform instructors, small group leaders, doctrine writers or other positions in the institutional Army are critical broadening opportunities for our officers that will enhance an officer's standing in competition for command, key billet or senior executive-level positions.

e. Promotion. Under OPMS, majors and lieutenant colonels compete for promotion from within their respective functional categories. Selection for promotion is based on the fundamentals of performance and potential for further service. These are measured by the officer's relative standing with peers as indicated in the evaluation reports, assignment history, and branch, FA and JIIM development opportunities afforded. The selection boards are instructed as to the number of field grade officers to select based on Army needs, law, policy, and budget. Additionally, the boards receive guidance on the officer qualities expected for promotion. All of this information is contained in the Secretary of the Army's Memorandum of Instruction issued to the board. Members of the board use DA Pam 600-3 to determine branch and FA qualifications. Congress and the Secretary of the Army approve promotion selection lists prior to publication.



Figure 3-1. Officer competency evolution


3-5. Company grade development

a. Branch-specific development. This phase commences upon entry on active duty and generally lasts through the 10th year of service (see fig 3-1 ). Officers begin their professional development at pre-commissioning/appointment, referred to as BOLC A, followed by attending BOLC B. For additional information on BOLC B, refer to paragraphs 4-7 a through 4-7 c .

(1) Basic education. The BOLC B marks the beginning of a company grade officer's formal military professional development training following commissioning. BOLC B prepares officers for their first duty assignment and provides instruction on methods for training and leading individuals, teams, squads, and platoons. Additionally, the course provides officers with a detailed understanding of equipment, tactics, organization and administration at the company, battery or troop level.

(2) Initial assignments. After officers graduate from BOLC B, branch assignment officers in Officer Personnel Management Directorate will assign the majority of officers to a branch duty position. Included in these assignments are CONUS or overseas troop units where officers begin to develop their leadership skills. All junior officers should seek leadership positions in troop units whenever possible. Troop leadership is the best means to become educated in Army operations and builds a solid foundation for future service.

(3) Bachelor's degree. Prior to promotion to captain, officers must complete their baccalaureate degree.

(4) Captains Officer Education System. Officers should attend their branch CCC following selection for promotion to the grade of captain. This is the second major branch school officers attend before company-level command. Selected captains deemed to have demonstrated superior performance in their basic branch might be selected to receive this training at schools other than their basic branch. A Field Artillery officer, for example, may attend the Armor CCC. This cross training benefits officers of both branches. Officers seeking accession into SF will attend the Infantry CCC. Officers seeking accession into the Psychological Operations or CA branches will attend a designated CCC. For additional information about the Captains Officer Education System, see paragraph 4-7 d .

(5) Branch opportunities. All company grade officers must focus their efforts during the company grade years on mastering the basic skills of their specific branch, regardless of the FA and functional category they will later enter. Much of the value an officer brings to a specialized FA is dependent on experience gained by leading Soldiers and mastering basic branch skills. Leading Soldiers is the essence of leadership development at this stage of an officer's career. Officers who have demonstrated the potential and desire to command Soldiers fill command positions. The number of company commands within a specific branch may not afford all officers the opportunity to command at the captain level. Command opportunities for captains are found in traditional TOE line units or TDA units in training, garrison, and headquarters organizations.
Note. This paragraph discusses branch opportunities in general. For information unique to a particular branch, refer to that branch's chapter in Part Two of this pamphlet.

b. Post-initial branch development. Between the 4th and 7th years of service, and after company grade officers have been afforded branch development opportunities, a number of options become available for continued professional development and broadening. At this time, career managers at Officer Personnel Management Directorate assess the officer's developmental objectives for the post-branch development phase based on assignment patterns completed, relative manner of performance achieved, individual preferences and Army requirements available for the next developmental stage (see fig 3-1 ). The types of assignments and developmental patterns for this phase are as follows:

(1) Branch assignments. The range of further assignments to branch-coded positions is a function of the Army's requirements and officer availability. These assignments may include staff and faculty positions at Service schools, Combat Training Center (CTC) duty or staff positions in tactical or training units. Branch assignments further develop the basic branch skills and employ the officer's accumulated skills, knowledge, and attributes.

(2) Branch/functional area generalist assignments. Some company grade officers may serve in positions coded 01A (Officer Generalist) or 02A (Combat Arms Generalist). These branch/FA generalist positions do not require an officer from a specific branch or FA but may be performed by an officer with certain experiences, manner of performance and demonstrated potential. Such assignments include USAREC staff and command positions, Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) or U.S. Military Academy (USMA) faculty and staff, and major command staff positions.

(3) Functional area specific. Officers designated into FAs should expect training and education opportunities to focus on their areas of specialization and include progressive and repetitive assignments of increasing responsibility. Each of the FA chapters in this pamphlet outlines developmental positions.

(4) Advanced Civilian Schooling or Expanded Graduate School Program. Each year some officers will be provided the opportunity to attend civilian academic institutions to obtain graduate-level degrees in designated disciplines. The final number varies based on budget, policy, and Army requirements. These positions are annually assessed to determine how many officers should be entered into each academic discipline. The criteria for selection are based on the branch or FA skill required, academic proficiency measured by undergraduate performance and scores from the graduate record examination or graduate management admission test, ability to be accepted by an accredited college and manner of performance to indicate strong potential for future service. Proponents must forecast the education and utilization of advanced civilian schooling graduates to meet projected needs since the degrees typically take 12 to 22 months to complete. The specific follow-on assignment or utilization is often determined about 6 to 9 months prior to graduation. See branch and FA chapters for discussion of advanced civilian schooling/Expanded Graduate School Program requirements. AR 621-1 is the governing regulation and specifies the method by which officers may apply for advanced civilian schooling.

(5) Joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational training opportunities. This program provides short-term (90 to 180 days) training for officers providing them the skills necessary to lead the Army of the future.

(6) Training With Industry. Some branches and FAs participate in Training With Industry, where officers are assigned to a civilian industry to observe and learn the technical and managerial aspects of that field. The total number of training quotas varies annually from 50 to 70 based on budget, policy, and requirements. Officers selected for this program must be proficient in their branch or FA, have a manner of performance that reflects a strong potential for future service and be able to serve a utilization tour upon completion of training. The Training With Industry program is outlined in AR 621-1 and in the specific branch and FA chapters later in this pamphlet.

(7) Army Acquisition Corps. Between their 7th and 8th year of service, between 80 and 120 captains are accessed into the Army Acquisition Corps (FA 51) to be professionally developed in this FA. HRC hosts an Acquisition Accession Board annually to select branch-qualified captains for FA 51. The Army Acquisition Corps officers may receive a fully funded master's degree (if not already at civilian education level 2), attend the Materiel Acquisition Management Course and other FA related training, and serve repetitive assignments in their acquisition specialties to prepare them for critical acquisition positions at field grade level. The Army Acquisition Corps, created in early 1990, is described in detail in chapter 42 of this pamphlet.

c. Promotion. Selection for promotion to major. Normally an officer within a cohort year group enters the primary zone of consideration for major around the 9th year of service. Below the zone consideration occurs a year earlier.



Figure 3-2. Officer career timeline


3-6. Major development

This phase, which generally encompasses the 10th to 17th years of service, begins with selection for promotion to major. This is a critical period in an officer's career life-cycle that demands an acute awareness of important HQDA centralized boards and the preparations they require. The junior field grade years serve to develop the officer cohort in a variety of branch or FA assignments within their functional category.

a. Development. The general development goals are to complete ILE/JPME I, and successfully complete other branch, FA or broadening assignments prior to consideration for promotion to lieutenant colonel. All branch and FA officers selected for ILE attendance are required to complete ILE prior to the 15th year of commissioned service. ILE provides a quality education for all field grade officers and prepares them for their next 10 years of service. Officers must be ILE/JPME I complete to be eligible for SSC attendance. See paragraph 4-7 e for further discussion of ILE. Most branches and some FAs have identified positions as KD for majors. It should be noted that in all branches/FAs majors positions that support transitional functions, such as training teams and provincial reconstruction teams, are designated as KD positions. Positions created to address specific emerging missions or capability are most often considered KD for the purposes of career development/advancement.

b. Promotion. Cohort year group officers are generally considered for promotion to lieutenant colonel in their 16th year of service as they enter the primary zone of consideration. Below the zone selection is possible, and normally officers will be considered 1 year prior to their primary zone consideration.

3-7. Lieutenant colonel development

This phase generally occurs between the 17th and 22nd years of service. Those selected for promotion to lieutenant colonel now begin the senior field grade years, where they make the maximum contribution to the Army as commanders and senior staff officers. Attaining the grade of lieutenant colonel is most often considered to be the hallmark of a successful career, although each officer defines success differently. Officers in the grade of lieutenant colonel serve as senior leaders and managers throughout the Army providing wisdom, experience, vision and mentorship mastered over many years in uniform.

a. Development. The professional development goals for a lieutenant colonel are to broaden their branch, FA and skill proficiency at the senior levels through assignments and schooling. Most of these officers will serve in high visibility billets in their branch, FA or JIIM positions, and a possible assignment to a cross-branch/FA developmental position.

(1) Branch assignments. Lieutenant colonels can expect branch-coded assignments to both TDA and TOE positions. These billets can range from positions within a battalion through echelons above corps. However, the TDA structure requires the greater portion (almost 70 percent) of the senior field grade expertise and experience. Here, the officer's development over the years is used to fulfill the doctrinal, instructional, policymaking, and planning needs of the Army. Branch proponents have outlined developmental standards in their respective chapters of this pamphlet.

(2) Functional area assignments. OPMS recognizes the need for balanced specialization to meet the Army's challenges in the 21st Century. The system design allows officers to serve in repetitive assignments within a FA to gain a high degree of expertise. FA proponents have outlined developmental standards in their respective chapters of this pamphlet.

(3) Joint duty assignments. The Joint duty assignment list contains approximately 1350 lieutenant colonel authorizations and officers will continue to have the opportunity for assignment to Joint duty positions as an integral part of their development. See paragraph 3-8 for additional details on the Joint officer program.

(4) Branch/functional area generalist assignments. Some officers will serve outside their branch or FA in billets coded as branch/FA generalist. Such assignments are found throughout the Army in troop and staff organizations from the installation to Department of the Army level.

(5) Centralized selection. A centralized board at HQDA selects a limited number of officers for command and key billets. The lieutenant colonel CSL command and key billet contains both TOE and TDA positions. The command board meets annually to select commanders from the eligible cohort year groups. Command opportunity varies based on force structure and the command categories for which an officer competes. On average, lieutenant colonels serve in their command tours during their 18th through 20th years of service. Once the board makes its selections and conducts a preliminary slating for category, Officer Personnel Management Directorate conducts a slating process. HRC coordinates this slating process with major Army commands (ACOMs); and the CSA reviews and approves the slate. The Army Acquisition Corps conducts a similar HQDA-level board to select lieutenant colonel commanders and product managers. Only certified Army Acquisition Corps officers can compete for these positions.

(6) Senior Service College. The annual SSC (military education level (MEL) SSC) selection board reviews the files of lieutenant colonels after their 16th year of service. The SSC is the final major military educational program available to prepare officers for the positions of greatest responsibility in the DOD. Officers must be ILE/JPME I qualified to be eligible for SSC attendance consideration. There are about 350 resident seats available each academic year within the SSC network. These include attendance at the U. S. Army War College, the Advanced Strategic Leadership Studies Program within the School of Advanced Studies at Fort Leavenworth, the Eisenhower School for National Security, (formerly the Industrial College of the Armed Forces), the National War College, the College of International Security Affairs, the Joint Advanced Warfighting School, Inter-American Defense College other sister Service war colleges, resident fellowships at Governmental agencies and academic institutions and approved foreign SSCs. Approximately 30 to 35 percent of a cohort year group is selected to attend during their years of eligibility that run between the 16th and 23d years of service. The SSC selection board examines the eligible population and produces an order of merit list containing 1,300 names. The top 350 officers are activated for resident attendance while the remainder are contacted by their branch or FA managers and encouraged to apply for the 85 annual active duty seats in the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course. U.S. Army War College resident and distance education programs award Master of Strategic Studies degrees. Only the resident SSC courses and U.S. Army War College distance education program award SSC completion MEL 1. The Army does not recognize other Service War College distant education programs as SSC nor MEL 1 equivalent. Resident course graduates are also awarded JPME II. Officers completing Fellowship programs receive a certificate of graduation from the U.S Army War College designating MEL SSC complete but are not awarded a master's degree nor JPME II. SSC graduates are assigned to organizations based on guidance from the CSA. Tours following graduation are to the Army Staff, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Secretary of Defense, ACOMs, Army service component commands (ASCCs), and direct reporting units (DRUs), and combatant command staffs in branch, FA, branch/FA generalist or Joint coded positions.

(7) Former battalion commander assignments. Lieutenant colonels completing battalion command are assigned to positions designated as requiring the skills of former battalion commanders. These post-command assignments may be to branch, branch/FA generalist assignments, or Joint coded positions. Emphasis is placed on Joint duty assignments for those officers without a Joint qualifying tour.

b. Promotion. Cohort year group officers are normally considered for promotion to colonel in the primary zone in their 21st year of service. Below the zone selection is possible, and normally officers will be considered 1 year prior to their primary zone consideration.

3-8. Colonel development

Those officers selected for promotion to colonel continue their senior field grade phase that concludes with their separation or retirement from active duty or selection for promotion to brigadier general. Attaining the grade of colonel is realized by a select few and truly constitutes the elite of the officer corps. As colonels, their maximum contribution to the Army is made as commanders and senior staff officers.

a. Development. The general professional development goals for colonels are to further enhance branch or FA skill proficiency through additional senior-level assignments and schooling.

(1) Branch assignments. Many colonels can expect to receive assignments to branch-coded positions at the brigade, division, corps, and echelons above corps in the TOE environment. TDA organizations throughout the Army also need the expertise of senior field grade officers. Almost 70 percent of the colonel authorizations are in the TDA structure.

(2) Funtional area assignments. Under OPMS, FA officers work predominantly in their specialties after selection for promotion to major. Having risen above their peers at the grade of major and lieutenant colonel, those promoted to colonel are truly the world-class specialists in their respective fields. These officers will serve primarily in senior managerial billets across the Army coded for their specialty.

(3) Joint duty assignment. The Joint duty assignment list contains a number of colonel billets in branch and FA positions. Officers who did not serve as majors or lieutenant colonels in a Joint duty assignment list billet should continue to seek Joint development. Colonels who completed the requirements for Joint Qualified Officer designation, may serve second and third tours in positions coded "Joint Critical". (For more information, read para 3-13 , which details the Joint duty program.)

(4) Senior Service College. The annual SSC selection board reviews the files of colonels until their 23d year of service. Officers must be JPME I qualified to be eligible for SSC attendance consideration. The majority of colonels will either attend the resident training or be awarded MEL SSC certification from the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course during the latter 3 years of their eligibility window. See paragraph 3-7 a (6) for more information on the available SSC-level courses.

(5) Centralized command selection. Some officers are selected for command at the colonel level. Most positions are branch coded and branch officers compete within designated categories for these positions. An HQDA-level board also selects Army Acquisition Corps program managers. Officers are eligible for colonel command selection until their 26th year of service. The HQDA command boards meet annually to select promotable lieutenant colonels and serving colonels for assignment to command positions during the following fiscal year (FY). The opportunity varies by branch and ranges from 16 percent to 50 percent. The command board prepares a slate to category and an initial slate to units. The final slate to unit is prepared by Officer Personnel Management Directorate. Slates are approved by the CSA, and are coordinated with the ACOMs, ASCCs, and DRUs. The majority of officers in a cohort year group do not command; they make their maximum contribution to the Army in other important branch or FA senior staff assignments.

(6) Former brigade commander assignments. Colonels completing brigade command are assigned to positions designated by the CSA, as requiring the skills of former commanders. These post-command assignments may be to branch, branch/FA generalist assignments or Joint coded positions. Emphasis is placed on Joint duty assignments for those officers without a Joint qualifying tour.

b. Promotion. Promotion to general officer is managed separately and is beyond the scope of this pamphlet.

3-9. Warrant officer definitions

The Army warrant officer is a self-aware and adaptive technical expert, combat leader, trainer, and advisor. Through progressive levels of expertise in assignments, training, and education, the warrant officer administers, manages, maintains, operates, and integrates Army systems and equipment across the full spectrum of Army operations. Warrant officers are innovative integrators of emerging technologies, dynamic teachers, confident warfighters, and developers of specialized teams of Soldiers. They support a wide range of Army missions throughout their career. Warrant officers in the Army are accessed with specific levels of technical ability. They refine their technical expertise and develop their leadership and management skills through tiered progressive assignment and education. The following are specific characteristics and responsibilities of the separate, successive warrant officer grades:

a. Warrant officer one/chief warrant officer two. A WO1 is an officer appointed by warrant with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position given by the Secretary of the Army. CW2s and above are commissioned officers with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position as given by the President of the United States. WO1's and CW2's primary focus is becoming proficient and working on those systems linked directly to their AOC/MOS. As they become experts on the systems they operate and maintain, their focus migrates to integrating their systems with other branch systems.

b. Chief warrant officer three. The CW3s are advanced level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, trainer, operator, manager, maintainer, sustainer, integrator, and advisor. They also perform any other branch-related duties assigned to them. As they become more senior, their focus becomes integrating branch systems into larger Army systems.

c. Chief warrant officer four. The CW4s are senior-level technical and tactical experts who perform the duties of technical leader, manager, maintainer, sustainer, integrator, and advisor and serve in a wide variety of branch level positions. As they become more senior they focus on integrating branch and Army systems into Joint and national-level systems.

d. Chief warrant officer five. The CW5s are master-level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, manager, integrator, and advisor. They are the senior technical expert in their branch and serve at brigade and higher levels.

3-10. Warrant officer career patterns

The development of the professional attributes and technical capabilities of Army warrant officers to meet the needs of the Army is accomplished through proponent-designed PDMs for each AOC/MOS. These PDMs describe schooling, operational assignments, and self-development goals for warrant officers in each grade. PDMs are based on Army requirements, indicating the numbers and types of warrant officers to be accessed, retained, promoted, schooled and assigned by AOC/MOS. Proponents monitor the Army documents pertinent to their AOCs/MOSs since any change to the force structure may require a change to the warrant officer inventory. The size of the warrant officer inventory is limited by various factors. As requirements change, strength and professional development goals of each career field AOC/MOS are aligned accordingly. Warrant officers are accessed into a specific AOC/MOS and can normally expect to spend their entire career in that field. Branch, FA, and AOC/MOS are defined in the glossary, but these terms as they pertain to warrant officers have different connotations. Branches are the officially designated categories within the Service that separate personnel and functions. Examples of branches are Field Artillery, Infantry, Quartermaster, Aviation, and so forth. Warrant officers are appointed in the U.S. Army at large but contribute directly to the success and missions of the specific branches. Like commissioned officers, warrant officers wear the insignia of the branches they support on the Army Service uniform. Branch proponents play a significant role in the management of warrant officers within the functional categories, development of life-cycle development models, and provision of proponent based training for warrant officers. FAs for warrant officers are groupings of AOC/MOSs within branches. Examples are Electronic Maintenance and Ammunition AOC/MOSs that are a part of the Ordnance Branch but are grouped in a separate FA within the Ordnance Branch. An AOC/MOS is an assigned specialty that most warrant officers hold, with variations, for their entire career. Most warrant officers hold and work their AOC/MOS for their entire career. Some AOCs/MOSs, notably in Aviation, Ordnance, and Signal branches merge at the grades of CW3 through CW5. The list of specialties, with general description of duties, by grade, is contained in DA Pam 611-21. Not all assignments within a career will directly relate to the warrant officer's FA, branch, or AOC/MOS. Some warrant officer positions are AOC/MOS immaterial but FA/branch specific; that is, any qualified warrant officer within a specific branch FA (Aviation, Artillery, Ordnance, and so forth) may be assigned to the position. Others are designated AOC/MOS as well as FA/branch immaterial; that is, any qualified warrant officer, regardless of AOC/MOS and FA/branch, may be assigned to the position. Some positions in leader development, professional development, personnel management, training, and training development require the assignment of the best-qualified warrant officer, regardless of AOC/MOS or FA/branch.

3-11. Warrant officer development

Junior warrant officers (WO1s and CW2s) main developmental focus in on their primary MOS (PMOS)/AOC. As they gain more experience and training, their focus and expertise shifts from their PMOS/AOC to integrating other systems within their branch/FAs to Army, Joint, and national-level systems. A generic PDM, depicted in figure 3-2 , consists of the four primary levels of warrant officer utilization. Subsequent chapters detail PDMs by FA branch and AOC/MOS.

a. Entry level. Warrant officers are accessed according to the needs of the Army. Once accepted, the applicant must attend WOCS, conducted by the Warrant Officer Career College at Fort Rucker, AL or a two-phased regional training institute run by State ARNG. SF warrant officers, 180A, will attend their candidate school at Fort Bragg, NC. The WOCS and regional training institutes test the mental, emotional, and physical stamina of candidates to determine their acceptability into the warrant officer corps. The course is focused on common, foundational material and provides the skills, knowledge and behaviors required of all warrant officers, regardless of specialty. Upon course completion, the candidates are appointed to the grade of WO1 but are not yet AOC/MOS-qualified.

b. Warrant officer one/chief warrant officer two. After graduating from WOCS, the new WO1 must attend a WOBC conducted by his or her proponent school. WOBC provides functional training in the applicable AOC/MOS and reinforces the leadership training provided in WOCS. Upon successful completion of WOBC, the warrant officer is awarded a AOC/MOS and given an initial operational assignment. Operational assignments continue for the next several years. Throughout this period, warrant officers should continue their self-development, to include the pursuit of civilian education goals. The civilian education goal at this career point is an associate degree or equivalent in a discipline related to their AOC/MOS prior to eligibility for selection to CW3. After promotion to CW2, at approximately the third year of warrant officer service, warrant officers can enroll in Prerequisite Studies for the WOAC, an AOC/MOS immaterial course administered by the Distributive Education Section of the Warrant Officer Career College. Completion of this course renders the officer eligible to attend his or her resident WOAC. Officers are eligible to attend the resident portion of their proponent-controlled WOAC after serving for 1 year as a CW2 and should attend no later than 1 year after their promotion to CW3. Officers must attend WOAC prior to promotion to CW4.

c. Chief warrant officer three/chief warrant officer four. At this point, warrant officers should actively pursue the next civilian education goal, a baccalaureate degree in a discipline related to their AOC/MOS, prior to eligibility for selection to CW4. Warrant officers will attend the WOSC conducted at the Warrant Officer Career College after serving 1 year as a CW3 but no later than 1 year after their promotion to CW4. Officers must attend WOSC prior to promotion to CW5. Some proponents may provide follow-on functional training at this point.

d. Chief warrant officer five. Upon completion of 1 year time in grade as a CW4 but no later than 1 year after promotion to CW5, warrant officers should attend the WOSSC at the Warrant Officer Career College. Again, proponent schools may provide a follow-on portion of this course. Upon completion of the WOSSC and promotion to CW5, the warrant officer will serve the remainder of his or her career in positions designated for that grade.

3-12. Introduction to officer skills

A skill identifier (SI) identifies specific skills that are required to perform the duties of a particular position and are not related to any one branch, FA or career field. There are over 250 skills in the current Army regulation, many of which require special schooling, training, and experiences in which qualification is maintained.

3-13. Joint officer professional development

a. Joint Qualification System. Statutory changes in the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2007 resulted in the establishment of different levels of joint qualification as well as criteria for qualification at each level. The Joint Qualification System acknowledges both designated Joint billets as well as experience-based Joint duty assignments in contributing to the development of Joint Qualified Officers. These assignments with the necessary JPME culminate with an officer being identified as a fully Joint Qualified Officer and the receipt of the 3L identifier.

b. Standard-Joint duty assignments.

(1) The standard-Joint duty assignment list is a consolidated list of standard-Joint duty assignment lists approved for Joint credit by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Force Management Policy. The standard-Joint duty assignment list has approximately 3,916 billets for Army majors through colonels. A standard-Joint duty assignment list is a designated position where an officer gains significant experience in joint matters. The preponderance of an officer's duties involves producing or promulgating National Military Strategy, Joint doctrine and policy, strategic and contingency planning, and command and control of combat operations under a unified command. Serving in a standard-Joint duty assignment list affords an officer the opportunity to fulfill the necessary Joint experience criteria on the path to becoming a Joint Qualified Officer.

(2) The provisions of Title 10 United States Code (10 USC), specify that officers on the ADL may not be appointed to the grade of brigadier general unless they have completed a full tour of duty in a Joint duty assignment and have been selected for the additional skill identifier (ASI) of 3L (Joint Qualified Officer). The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Force Management Policy may waive the Joint duty assignment requirement, the Joint Qualified Officer requirement, or both on a case-by-case basis for the following reasons: for scientific and/or technical qualifications for which Joint duty assignment positions do not exist; for officers serving in professional specialties; for officers serving in a Joint duty assignment for at least 12 months that began before 1 January 1987; for officers serving in a Joint duty assignment at least 180 days on the date the board convenes; and lastly, for the "good of the Service."

c. Joint duty credit. The statutory tour length for most standard-Joint duty assignment lists is 36 months to the day for field grade officers and 2 years for general officers. After completing a full tour of duty in a standard-Joint duty assignment list, officers will be awarded the 3A (Joint Duty Qualified) SI. An officer begins to accrue Joint duty credit upon assignment to a standard-Joint duty assignment list billet and stops accruing Joint duty credit on departure. Critical occupational specialty officers (major to colonel) who meet the early release criteria may receive full tour credit for serving at least 2 years in their initial Joint duty assignment. Officers possessing a critical occupational specialty may be released early from a Joint duty assignment with the approval of the Joint activity if they meet all of the criteria below.

(1) Must be serving in their initial Joint duty assignment.

(2) Reassignment must be to the critical occupational specialty specific skill held by the officer being released from the Joint duty assignment.

(3) Officers must serve at least 2 years in that standard-Joint duty assignment list.

d. Experience-based Joint duty assignment. An experience-based Joint duty assignments may include non-Joint duty assignment list assignments and experiences that demonstrate an officer's mastery of knowledge, skills, and abilities in Joint matters. Officers may gain experience points towards achieving Joint Qualified Officer status by having their non-Joint duty assignment list assignments validated by a Joint Qualification System experience panel. These experiences may be shorter in duration; therefore, they may be aggregated to achieve the equivalent of a full Joint tour of duty in a standard-Joint duty assignment list. Officers may submit their request for experience points through a self-nomination process in coordination with their HRC assignment officer and the HRC Joint Policy Section.

e. Joint Qualified Officers. Joint Qualified Officers are educated and experienced in the employment, deployment, and support of unified and multinational forces to achieve national security objectives. Joint Qualified Officers provide continuity for Joint matters that are critical to strategic and operational planning and serve within the Joint arena and their service. Field grade officers eligible for the Joint Qualified Officer designation must meet the highest standards of performance, complete both Phase I and II of a JPME program and successfully complete a full tour of duty in a standard-Joint duty assignment list or have the necessary points from experience-based Joint duty assignment lists. Officers approved by the Secretary of Defense will be awarded the 3L (Joint Specialty Officer) SI.

f. Joint professional military education. The Army Officer Education System is in compliance with CJCSI 1800.01D. The requirement for Joint education stems from the Goldwater-Nichols DOD Reorganization Act of 1986. The Goldwater-Nichols DOD Reorganization Act of 1986 makes the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff the principal official to assist the Secretary of Defense in JPME matters, including the Joint curricula at Service schools. Further, as prescribed in 10 USC 663, the Secretary of Defense, with advice and assistance from Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, periodically reviews and revises the curricula of Joint education programs. Intermediate and senior staff college Army institutions are accredited by the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff JPME programs. Graduates meet the requirements for JPME.

(1) The CJCSI 1800.01D defines Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff objectives and policies regarding the Army educational institutions that comprise the officer PME and JPME systems. The CJCSI 1800.01D also identifies the fundamental responsibilities of the major military educational participants in achieving those objectives. The Army provides officer PME and JPME to eligible Armed Forces officers, international officers, eligible Federal Government Civilians and other approved students. The Army operates its officer PME system primarily to develop officers with expertise and knowledge appropriate to their grade, branch, and occupational specialty. Incorporated throughout PME, officers receive JPME from pre-commissioning through general/flag officer rank.

(2) JPME is a Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff-approved body of objectives, outcomes, policies, procedures, and standards supporting the educational requirements for Joint officer management. The JPME is imbedded in Army programs of instructions and in concert with PME produces desired outcomes in support of the Joint Officer Management System. The JPME is a three-phase Joint education program taught in the Command and General Staff School (Fort Leavenworth), the U.S. Army War College, at other Service intermediate- or senior-level colleges, the Joint Forces Staff College, and at the National Defense University for the CAPSTONE course.

(3) The Army operates the officer PME system primarily to develop officers with expertise and knowledge appropriate to their grade, branch, and occupational specialty. Embedded within the PME system, however, is a program of JPME overseen by the Joint Staff and designed to fulfill the educational requirements for Joint officer management as mandated by the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986. Incorporated throughout Army PME, officers receive JPME from pre-commissioning through general/flag officer. Army PME is structured in five military educational levels to support five significant phases in an officer's career.

(a) Pre-commissioning. Military education received at institutions and through programs producing commissioned officers upon graduation.

(b) Primary. Education typically received at grades O1 through O3.

(c) Intermediate. Education typically received at grade O4.

(d) Senior. Education typically received at grades O5 or O6.

(e) General/flag officer. Education received as a general/flag officer.

(4) All Army branch and FA officers will complete pre-commissioning, primary and intermediate (J Phase I). Award of J credit is dependent on completion of appropriate to the grade, branch, and FA.

(a) J Phase I. The J Phase I is incorporated into the curricula of intermediate and senior-level military service J schools and other appropriate educational programs that meet J criteria and are accredited by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. J Phase I is integrated into the ILE curricula at the Command and General Staff College and all other Service Intermediate Level Colleges. Other programs, as approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, may satisfy the J Phase I requirement.

(b) J Phase II. The J Phase II is that portion of the Program for Joint Education that complements J Phase I. The J Phase II is taught at the Joint Forces Staff College to both intermediate and senior-level students. Field grade officers must complete J Phase I to be eligible to attend J Phase II. Under exceptional conditions, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may approve a direct-entry waiver to permit an officer to complete J Phase II without having completed J Phase I. The J Phase II is integrated, along with J Phase I, into the curricula at all senior-level colleges to include the U.S. Army War College.

(5) J Phase II graduates. The Army must ensure that the following requirements are met by officers who graduate from each of the National Defense University schools (for example, the National War College, the Eisenhower School for National Security, or the Joint Forces Staff College) for each FY:

(a) All Joint Qualified Officers must be assigned to a Joint duty assignment as their next duty assignment following graduation, unless waived on a case-by-case basis by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Force Management Policy.

(b) More than 50 percent (defined as 50 percent plus one) of all non-Joint Qualified Officer graduates from each of those schools must be assigned to a Joint duty assignment as their next duty assignment following graduation.

(c) One half of the officers subject to that requirement (for each school) may be assigned to a Joint duty assignment as their second.

(d) The Army shall coordinate with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to document compliance.

3-14. Assignment process and considerations

The life-cycle of a cohort year group spans 30 years of service. Some officers from a cohort may attain general officer status and be retained in service beyond that point. Some warrant officers may attain the rank of CW5 and also serve up to 30 years of warrant officer service. The assignment process throughout an officer's career is based on several factors and considerations. The environmental factors in which operates can affect the assignments an officer may receive. The assignment process has these elements:

a. Army requirements. The central engine that drives and the assignment process is Army requirements. Army requirements are those positions that must be filled by officers to accomplish our wartime and peacetime missions. When an officer leaves a position, the losing agency generates a requisition for a replacement. Army requirements for officers are specified on the various TOE and TDA structures. Grade, branch, FA, skill, and special remarks are documented for each position within The Army Authorization Documents System, which is maintained by the DCS, G-3/5/7. Annually, the Army projects positions to be filled and places officers on PCS orders to occupy the vacancies. Within the Officer Personnel Management Directorate, the requisition cycles span 6 months, and the assignment branches determine which officers meet the position requirements and are available for the assignment.

b. Availability for assignment. Officers are considered available for assignment when they complete the required tour length as specified in AR 614-100 for CONUS and OCONUS locations. DOD and Army policies for tour length are changed based on a variety of external factors, to include budget limitations. Force stabilization is an important factor in future assignment decisions.

c. Professional development needs. Professional development in the officer's designated branch, FA or AOC/MOS is important to the assignment manager; however, force stabilization will be an equally important consideration. Each branch and FA has a life-cycle development model. The officer's career needs are examined in light of these models to ensure the next assignment is progressive, sequential and achieves the professional development goal for that grade.

d. Other assignment considerations. Besides Army requirements, availability and professional development, the assignment managers scrutinize other considerations in arriving at an appropriate assignment.

(1) Preference. Officers should frequently update their preference statement for location, type of assignments, personal data, professional development goals and education and training needs. Assignment managers may not be able to satisfy all preferences because of dynamic requirements, but they do attempt to satisfy as many as possible.

(2) Training and education. Whenever possible, assignment managers provide schooling en route to the officer's next assignment to meet the special requirements of the position. Civilian educational goals that are specific requirements of positions or professional development will also be considered during the assignment process.

(3) Personal and compassionate factors. Personal crises occur in every officer's career. The Officer Personnel Management Directorate assignment managers attempt to assist in such circumstances by adjusting the assignment. However, officers should apprise their assignment manager of such personal or compassionate considerations at the time they occur and not wait until an assignment action is pending. In some cases, formal requests for compassionate deferment from assignment or request for reassignment are needed in accordance with AR 614-100 . Officers should coordinate with local Soldier support activity for processing such documents. Officers with dependents having special needs should enroll in the Exceptional Family Member Program.

(4) Overseas equity. Overseas equity must be a consideration when selecting officers for assignments. With the Army serving in a variety of overseas locations, the equitable distribution of OCONUS and unaccompanied tours among all officers is a morale concern as well as a developmental experience in many branches and FAs. Overseas tours broaden the professionalism of the officer corps, and assignment managers consider this element of tour equity in each assignment action.

3-15. Individual career management

The OPMS provides leader and technical training for company grade, field grade, and warrant officers. Negotiating through this multitude of possibilities to meet the needs of the Army and the important needs of the individual is the result of interaction among the individual officer, the commander, the proponent, and the Officer Personnel Management Directorate assignment manager. Each has an important part to play in the professional development of not only individual officers, but of the officer corps as a whole.

a. The individual. In many respects, officers are ultimately their own career managers. While Army requirements dictate the final outcome of all development actions, in every case the officer must participate in such decisions. Participation in the officer development process is possible at the basic branching/career management field (CMF) designation point, volunteering for training and education programs, selection of FA, preferences for functional category, application for entry into special programs and long-range planning of career goals. The key is to be involved in professional development by making informed and logical decisions and acting on them. One important element of an officer's involvement is the accurate reflection of capabilities in the official personnel management files maintained by HQDA.

(1) The Army Military Human Resource Record, the DA Form 4037 (Officer Record Brief), and the career management individual file contain the data from which important professional development decisions are made for selection, advancement, assignment and retention. Officers should review, update, and maintain these records through- out their careers. Officers should also request periodic advice and counseling from commanders, supervisors, senior officers and HRC career managers to remain informed of career opportunities and to assess progress achieving career goals.

(2) To facilitate individual career management, each officer should maintain a current 5-year plan that at a minimum, depicts operational and broadening assignment goals, desired PME courses and timelines, and key personal/family milestones so that when the time comes to discuss assignments with branch managers or raters/senior raters, offices are prepared, informed, and can contribute to the career management process. In addition, officers can employ the Army Career Tracker to view career development opportunities and career maps, in an effort to simplify the career management process and better empower the individual officer.

b. The commander. Commanders play a critical part in development by understanding the roles of all their officers, their education and development needs and incorporating them into a unit officer professional development process. All officers look to their rater, senior rater, and mentors for advice and career counseling. Some counseling is official, such as the preparation and submission of the OER and DA Form 67-10-1A (Officer Evaluation Report Support Form). Other forms of counseling are often unofficial and relate to career patterns, advice about assignments and duty positions. Regardless of the type of counseling, commanders should be factually informed before rendering advice. This is especially important given the changes in manning guidance, career progression, attitude, and culture over the course of a rater's or senior rater's career. Experiences that raters and senior raters had as junior and mid-grade officers will not always replicate circumstances and experiences their subordinates face at similar points in their career timeline. In some cases, providing uninformed guidance based on "how things used to be" is as detrimental to a subordinate's career as providing no guidance at all. To that end, this pamphlet contains many of the professional development facts that commanders need to give wise counsel.

c. The proponents. Proponents design life-cycle development models for their branches, FAs and AOC/MOS and monitor the overall professional development of officer populations. Logical and realistic career patterns, qualifying objectives and an accurate understanding of attrition and promotion flows are vital ingredients in each branch or FA. Leader development action plans and life-cycle development models should be constructed to meet overall Army requirements as well as branch, FA and functional category objectives. Constant contact with the officer population and the Officer Personnel Management Directorate assignment branches should be sustained to communicate goals and objectives of the branch and FA.

d. Officer Personnel Management Directorate assignment managers. Assignment and career managers at HRC, Officer Personnel Management Directorate are responsible for fulfilling current and future Army requirements while meeting the professional development needs of the various branches, FAs, and functional categories. Additionally, they balance the best interests of the individual officers against the Army requirements. Career managers can provide candid, realistic advice to officers about their developmental needs. As the executors of Army and proponent programs, they operate within the existing policy and manning guidance, budget, and legal framework to make decisions concerning assignments, schooling, manner of performance and subjective evaluations of competitiveness for selection and retention. All officers should communicate frequently with their assignment managers to receive guidance and advice on professional development.

Chapter 4

Officer Education

4-1. Scope

a. Training and education requirements. Common training requirements apply to all officers, WO1 through O6, and specify the skills, knowledge, and attributes required of every officer. Other training and education requirements for branch, FA, or skill codes apply to officers in a particular specialty.

b. Training and education methods. Officer education occurs in institutional settings, in operational assignments and through self-development. Institutional training represents the resident training an officer receives in military and/or civilian institutions. Self-development encompasses nonresident schooling including individual study, distributive learning, research, professional reading, practice, and self-assessment.

4-2. The Officer Education System

a. Strategic objective. The strategic objective of the Officer Education System is to provide an education and training system operationally relevant to the current environment, but structured to support the future environment by producing more capable, adaptable and confident leaders through continuous investment in personal growth and professional development throughout their careers. To achieve this objective, the Army has embraced an experiential and competency-based education and training model in its education system. This model integrates current technological capabilities to rapidly advance learning in both individual and collective training requirements while providing Army leaders the right training and education in the right medium, at the right time and place for success in their next assignment. This model supports the Army's service culture and Warrior Ethos, and produces leaders who can resolve dilemmas under stress, make decisions, and lead formations. The institutional side of the Army is a series of leadership laboratories focused on learning, growing, achieving competency, and getting better training into units.

b. Officer Education System goal. The goal of the Officer Education System is to produce a corps of leaders who are fully competent in technical, tactical, and leadership skills, knowledge, and experience; understand how the Army runs; are prepared to operate in JIIM environments; and can demonstrate confidence, integrity, critical judgment, and responsibility; operate in an environment of complexity, ambiguity, and rapid change; build effective teams amid organizational and technological change; and adapt to and solve problems creatively. The products of this system are officers who are highly specialized experts, trainers, and leaders; fully competent in technical, tactical, and leadership skills; creative problem solvers able to function in highly complex and dynamic environments; proficient operators, maintainers, administrators, and managers of Army equipment, support activities, and technical systems. Officer leader development is a continuous process that begins with pre-commissioning/pre-appointment training and education.

c. The Officer Education System is a sequence of the PME for professionals in subjects that enhance knowledge of the science and art of war. The PME is a progressive education system that prepares leaders for increased responsibilities and successful performance at the next higher level by developing the key knowledge, skills, and attributes they require to operate successfully at that level in any environment. PME is linked to promotions, future assignments, and career management models for all officers.

4-3. Current paths to officer education

Current Force educational models will be followed in parallel with Future Force models. Currently, officers enter active duty with diverse educational backgrounds and civilian experience. This diversity is amplified by the great variety of service experiences among officers with different branches and FAs. The current Officer Education System permits officers to build upon achievements and experience and progress to a higher level of learning. Opportunities exist for resident and nonresident instruction. There are multiple paths to obtaining a professional education. Officers may follow different paths to achieve success, even where they share the same branch, FA or MOS.

4-4. Guides for branch, military occupational specialty, or functional are development courses

a. Education requirements are satisfied by both the Army's military schools and by civilian institutions. The BOLC and the branch CCC includes training specific to junior officers (WO1, O1 through O3). The ILE, Command and General Staff College, and SSC provide opportunities for advanced military and leader development training. The warrant officer specific PME courses are described fully in paragraph 4-7 h . Specialized courses offered by military and civilian institutions provide additional opportunities for assignment oriented FA and functional category education. Other Services and elements of the Federal Government offer courses that support officer professional development. Advanced education may consist of resident and/or nonresident courses.

b. Numerous courses support both Army requirements and the professional needs of individual officers. It is difficult to anticipate and specify the many combinations of courses that apply to both Army and individual needs. However, representative courses particularly suitable for various branches, MOS and FAs are discussed in detail in paragraphs 4-7 , 4-16 , and 4-17 . (Also see branch and FA-specific chapters in this pamphlet.)

c. Officers designated to serve in FAs will receive specialized training and education so that they develop the necessary skills and technical qualifications to perform the duties required of their FA. Courses of study leading to graduate degrees at civilian colleges and universities may meet these needs. Specific educational requirements are outlined in the FA proponent chapters of this publication.

d. The primary reference for Army courses is the online Army Training Requirements and Resources System (ATRRS) course catalog at https://www.atrrs.army.mil . Most of the courses listed in the FA pages of this resource include course identification numbers that are assigned an established code. (These codes are explained in ATRRS.) The additional references listed below can assist officers in planning their developmental training and education:

(1) AR 350-1 .

(2) AR 611-1 .

(3) AR 621-1 .

(4) AR 621-7 .

e. Detailed information, including enrollment procedures for correspondence courses, is included in ATRRS at: https://www.atrrs.army.mil . In many cases, correspondence courses paralleling the numbered resident courses listed in ATRRS are available. The correspondence courses represent an important alternative means of career field development to many of the resident courses because of their flexibility and convenience.

f. ATRRS lists some of the applicable DOD courses. Joint distributed learning (DL) provides an interservice DL catalog that can be accessed at: http://catalog.jointadlcolab.org/index.asp .

g. Occasionally, a course may be found under an Army number and the number of another Service and listed in more than one catalog. A few of the courses listed have no numbers. In such cases, officers may want to contact the responsible school for pertinent descriptive material.

h. Officers will not enroll in other than Army schools without written approval of the CG, HRC and the DCS, G-3/5/7, Director of Training. Officers successfully completing other Services' Intermediate Staff Colleges and SSCs accredited in accordance with CJCSI 1800.01D will be awarded MEL and JPME credit accordingly upon fulfilling Army JPME requirements.

i. ATRRS is the Army system of record for training. This system allows officers to research information regarding different schools and courses. The system is also used to track enrollment and interfaces with personnel systems to record the completion of courses.

j. AA Soldiers will generally attend resident training at the proponent site. However, in some cases AA Soldiers may attend the Army training study courses taught at Total Army School System (TASS) battalions. These courses are resident courses. These are different from RC configured courses, which are not treated as resident courses.

4-5. Nonresident schools and instruction

a. All officers are encouraged to further their branch, or FA education through appropriate courses of nonresident instruction. The successful completion of a given level of nonresident instruction is considered on an equivalent level of attainment to, but does not rule out, future attendance at a resident course of instruction. An exception is enrollment in the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course, which awards JPME I, not JPME II as with the resident program, and rules out attendance at a resident SSC.

b. Equivalent level of attainment means that an officer who has reached a specific MEL through nonresident instruction receives the same consideration in assignment, promotion and future schooling as an officer whose MEL was reached through resident instruction. Officers will not enroll in other than Army schools without written approval of the CG, HRC and the DCS, G-3/5/7, Director of Training. Officers who do not have the opportunity to attend a resident course should complete the level of PME appropriate to their grade through nonresident instruction. However, to attend ILE/JPME I and SSC/JPME II, officers must be HQDA board selected. There is no equivalent level of attainment for the BOLC B, where resident participation is required.

c. Nonresident instruction allows officers to advance their professional education and their careers, thereby enhancing their overall performance and potential. Military school courses available through correspondence, with and without a resident phase, are listed in, ATRRS, TASS, and the TRADOC Online Library.

4-6. Educational counseling

The numerous educational opportunities and frequent moves in the Army often make it difficult to plan educational programs. Officers frequently need professional educational counseling and support. Commanders and supervisors play a significant role in the development of subordinate officers. Officers should turn to their commander, mentor, rater, assignment officer local Army Education Center, or an education counselor at the appropriate Service school. The Warrant Officer Career College at Fort Rucker, AL is another excellent source for warrant officer education counseling. In addition, many civilian institutions provide counseling services.

4-7. Military schools

a. Basic Officer Leaders Course Phase B. Upon commissioning an officer is assigned to a branch. The first training the officer attends is BOLC B. The BOLC B is a rigorous, branch immaterial course, physically and mentally challenging, with the majority of the training conducted via hands-on in a tactical or field environment. Focusing on training at the platoon level, a cadre of officers and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) will continuously evaluate each student's performance in a series of leadership positions, under various conditions/situations. The student officers also participate in several peer reviews and self-assessments. The curriculum includes advanced land navigation training, rifle marksmanship, weapons familiarization, practical exercises in leadership, urban operations, convoy operations, and use of night vision equipment. It culminates in squad and platoon situational-training exercises using contemporary operational environment scenarios. Additionally, students must negotiate confidence courses that challenge them to overcome personal fears. Junior officers depart BOLC B with a confidence in their ability to lead small units, an appreciation for the branches of the combined arms team, and a clear understanding of their personal strengths and weaknesses. There is no ADSO for BOLC B attendance. Direct commission officers may attend the BOLC - Direct Commissioned Officer Course, a BOLC A prep course for officers who did not have the benefit of participating in BOLC A pre-commissioning training.

b. Branch detail program. Upon commissioning, selected lieutenants appointed to the Signal, Quartermaster, Ordnance, Transportation or Finance branches may be detailed to a combat arms branch for a minimum of 2 years or longer if affected by life-cycle manning. Selected Military Intelligence and Adjutant General (AG) officers are detailed for 4 years. Lieutenants under the branch detail program attend the BOLC and participate in branch-specific training for the branch to which they are detailed. On completing the detail, officers attend a 4-week branch transition course, as prescribed by their chief of branch, before they return to their designated branch. Officers in the 4-year program receive transition branch training in conjunction with their enrollment in the CCC. All officers continue to participate in branch-specific training once they are reassigned back to their designated branches.

c. Captain Career Course. The CCC is intended for captains with at least 3 years in service, and provides them with the tactical, technical, and leader knowledge and skills needed to lead company-size units and serve on battalion and brigade staffs. The course emphasizes the development of leader competencies while integrating recent operational experiences of the students with quality institutional training. It facilitates lifelong learning through an emphasis on self-development. The curriculum includes common core subjects, branch-specific tactical and technical instruction, and branch immaterial staff officer training.

(1) The RC CCC provides the same educational outcomes as the CCC (AA) in roughly the same amount of time as the former RC Officer Advanced Course and RC Combined Arms and Services Staff School. The RC CCC now follows a 13-month model which includes two 15-day resident periods, and 11 months for completing branch-specific DL phases. Branches may include a technical prerequisite DL phase prior to the first resident phase. Officers have the flexibility to complete the DL at home station. CCC is a requirement for RC officers' promotion to major.

(2) Coordinating staff modules (S1, S2, assistant S3, S4, S5, and battalion maintenance officer) exist to provide assignment oriented training for AA and RC officers preparing to serve in these staff positions. Each module consists of approximately 35 hours of DL.

(3) The AA and Active Guard Reserve (AGR) officers normally will attend their branch-specific CCC in residence:

(a) As soon as practical after promotion to captain.

(b) As soon as possible after completing 4 years of active Federal commissioned service.

(c) Prior to the 7th year of Federal commissioned service.

(4) The RC officers may enroll in the RC CCC upon completion of BOLC B and promotion to first lieutenant. Those who desire to enroll prior to this time require a waiver by the unit commander, or by the CG, HRC for members of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR). The RC officers must enroll in the CCC prior to completing 8 years of commissioned service.

(a) The RC officers must satisfy the following prerequisites for enrollment into the CCC:

(b) Be a commissioned officer in the grade of first lieutenant or captain.

(c) Meet the standards of AR 140-1 , AR 600-9 , and AR 350-1 .

(5) The process by which RC officers enroll in CCC depends on their component. Troop program unit (TPU) offices are enrolled through their ATRRS manager, then approved at Level 1 (unit, battalion, brigade level), after which HRC approves the quota and reserves the seat. IRR, individual mobilization augmentee (IMA) and AGR officers enroll through their respective branch assignment officer at HRC.

d. Intermediate Staff College. The Army Intermediate Staff College program of PME instruction is ILE. Effective in August 2005 and for officers in Year Group (YG) 1994 and subsequent year groups, ILE replaced the existing Command and General Staff Officers Course. The ILE consists of a common core curriculum that includes JPME Phase 1 requirements and the required branch and/or FA specialized education or qualification course. Successful completion of both ILE Common Core and the respective qualification course is required for award of JPME Phase I credit and MEL 4. JPME Phase I is that portion of the ILE Common Core concentrating on instruction of joint matters. Officers must complete JPME Phase I to be eligible to attend JPME Phase II or a SSC. Completion of ILE is recognized by award of MEL ILE and the code of Command and Staff College graduate.

(1) All ACC officers will attend ILE following selection to major but no later than the start of their 15 th year of commissioned service.

(2) Starting with YG2004 and subsequent, merit-based selection boards will be conducted in conjunction with promotion selection to major to consider ACC Army officers for attendance to ILE, regardless of component or branch for 10-month resident, 14-week satellite campus, and ILE distance education opportunities on a best-qualified basis. AC ACC officers will also be considered for select credentialing programs approved in lieu of the ILE Advanced Operations Course.

(3) Special branch officers will continue to be board selected for resident ILE attendance. Special branch proponents will determine completion requirements and timelines for special branch officers.

(4) RC officers will continue to be board selected for resident ILE attendance. RC officers will complete ILE prior to their 15th year of commissioned service.

(5) Most branch officers and some FA officers will receive the ILE Common Core Course at Fort Leavenworth, KS during the first 16 weeks of ILE, after which they will receive the Advanced Operations Course for 24 weeks. Most FA officers and some branch will receive the Common Core Course from Command and General Staff College instructors at one of the satellite campuses and as prescribed through advanced distributed learning and TASS. Following the common core instruction, FA officers attend individual qualification course ranging from 4 to 178 weeks in length. Qualification courses provide officers the technical preparation for assignments in their respective FAs. Branch officers who attend ILE Common Core Course at a satellite campus must complete the Advanced Operations Course via distance learning. Completion of the ILE Common Core and the respective branch or FA qualification course qualifies the officers for award of MEL 4 (ILE) and the code Command and Staff College graduate and JPME I.

(6) Branch officers will receive qualification course credit and award of JPME Phase I credit upon completion of the other than Army Intermediate Staff Colleges that are accredited in accordance with CJCSI 1800.01D. Branch and FA officers selected for attendance at other Services or Joint resident intermediate staff colleges and/or selected for attendance at other nation's intermediate staff colleges must first complete the 2 week ILE preparatory course. Officers attending the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, and the College of Naval Command and Staff at Newport, RI, are afforded the opportunity to participate in the ILE preparatory course upon arrival at those locations. The remaining officers attending other than the Army Intermediate Staff College are afforded an opportunity to participate in ILE preparatory course at Fort Leavenworth, KS. Unless otherwise authorized through an DCS, G-3/5/7 exception to policy, branch and FA officers selected or approved for attendance at other Service DL, blended learning or nonresident intermediate staff colleges programs must first complete the qualification/credentialing course for their respective branch or FA. FA and special branch officers may attend international and sister Service schools, but must still attend their respective qualification courses to be credentialed ILE.

(7) Officers may compete for selection to attend a DOD, Congressional, or Interagency fellowship in lieu of the the Advanced Operations Course portion of ILE but area still required to complete the common core instruction at one of the satellite campuses.

e. Advanced Military Studies Program. The Advanced Military Studies Program (AMSP) is a yearlong resident course taught by the School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS) at the Command and General Staff College. The purpose of the AMSP is to provide the Army and the other services with specially educated officers for command and general staff positions at tactical and operational echelons. The program provides its graduates an advanced education in the military arts and sciences focused at the operational level. Additionally, the program provides training in the practical skills needed to plan and conduct battles, major operations and campaigns and in adapting doctrine and techniques to the changing realities of war. Applicants must be ILE qualified or resident students in ILE or sister Service resident programs. There are a mix of students from AA, RC, other Services, and international officer students selected for attendance each year. The Director, SAMS accepts applications from August through October of each year.

f. Senior Service College. The SSCs are at the apex of the military schools system and award JPME II credit and the SSC graduate code (MEL 1). SSCs prepare officers for senior command and staff positions within the Army and DOD. These colleges include the U.S. Army War College, the Advanced Strategic Leadership Studies Program within the School of Advanced Studies at Fort Leavenworth, the National War College, the Eisenhower School for National Security (formerly Industrial College of the Armed Forces), the College of International Security Affairs, the Naval War College, the Air War College, the Inter-American Defense College, the Joint Advanced Warfighting School, other accredited international senior military service colleges. Additionally, approximately 40 civilian and military fellowship programs provide SSC graduate code (MEL 1) but do not provide JPME II nor a master's degree.

(1) The SSC eligibility requirements for officers are:

(a) DA Board selected.

(b) Must be JPME Phase 1 complete.

(c) Must be lieutenant colonel or above.

(d) Will have no more than 22 years of active Federal commissioned service. Promotion list service determines years of service for AA officers (except Medical Command). The Federal commissioned service is the governing factor for Medical Command officers and for other-than-AA officers.

(2) Military and Army Civilian positions that require SSC education are defined as follows: A military member, lieutenant colonel/CW5 and above, or Army Civilian, GS-14 and above or NSPS pay band 3 and above, who occupies a leadership position (both command and staff) that requires a thorough knowledge of strategy and the art and science of developing and using instruments of National power (diplomatic, economic, military, and informational) during peace and war. This knowledge is necessary in order to perform Army, Joint, or Defense Agency operations at the strategic level (ACOM, ASCC, DRU, field operating agency, Joint Task Force, or higher).

(3) Officers who have completed 16 years Federal commissioned service, have credit for ILE schooling, do not have more than 23 years Federal commissioned service as of 1 October of the year of entry into the college, and are serving as lieutenant colonels or colonels as of the board's convening date are eligible to attend an SSC. The annual Army SSC Selection Board selects officers on a best-qualified basis. Branch and FA floors, based on Army requirements, are considered during the SSC selection process. There is a 2-year ADSO for attendance at SSC schooling.

(4) The Army's Senior Leaders Course is the U.S. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, PA. The mission of the U.S. Army War College is to prepare selected military, Army Civilian, and international leaders for the responsibilities of strategic leadership; educate current and future leaders on the development and employment of land power in a JIIM environment; to research and publish on National security and military strategy; and to engage in activities that support the Army's strategic communication efforts. The U.S. Army War College conducts both a resident education program and a distance education program. Successful completion of either program results in the awarding of a U.S. Army War College Diploma and a Master of Strategic Studies Degree. (The U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education). Resident education program graduates also receive JPME Phase II (JPME II) credit. Distance education program graduates receive JPME I credit.

g. Senior Service Fellowship.

(1) The primary goal of all fellowships is professional development. Officers who participate in the SSC Fellowship Program forego any other opportunity for SSC education. SSC credit will be granted to senior Army officers who successfully complete at least a 9-month program. The program must be academically structured to provide an educational experience requiring fellows to study and evaluate critically broad National security policy, strategy, interagency, and operational issues to substantially enhance their ability, as senior Army leaders, to participate effectively in the formulation and implementation of national security policy.

(2) The Advanced Strategic Leadership Studies Program (previously named the Advanced Operational Art Studies Fellowship) is a 24- month senior-level course held at the SAMS, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

(a) The focus of the first academic year is on planning and operations at the theater-strategic level at unified, component and Joint Task Force level headquarters. Students follow a rigorous set curriculum, with emphasis on national security strategy, military theory, strategic studies, military history, and campaign planning.

(b) The senior-level course seminar at the SAMS has eight U.S. Army, two U.S. Air Force, one U.S. Marine Corps, one U.S. Coast Guard, one or two U.S. agency representatives (typically Federal Bureau of Investigation and U.S. Agency for International Development) and three international officers (usually from the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany). U.S. Army officers attend for 2 years; most other students 10 months — international officers and U.S. Marine Corps officers typically stay for a 2nd year to serve as seminar leaders for the AMSP conducted at SAMS.

(c) This senior-level course is designed to develop theater-level senior leaders and general staff officers for positions of significant responsibility including strategic thinkers and planners at Combatant Commands, Joint Task Forces, and other four-star headquarters. During the first year, students are in a curriculum shaped by the required learning areas for JPME II accreditation. The curriculum provides a comprehensive, multifaceted focus at the theater/strategic level across the spectrum of Joint and land force operations — during peace, crisis, and war. In their second year, designated students become members of the SAMS faculty responsible to provide the coaching, mentoring, counseling, and military subject instruction for the education of the officers in the AMSP program.

(d) Students in the senior-level course spend approximately 9 weeks temporary duty (TDY), with fieldwork conducted at defense organizations and military headquarters in various foreign nations as well as visiting all Combatant Command headquarters throughout the globe. They must also complete a 40 page research paper. Advanced Strategic Leadership Studies Program graduates are awarded MEL 1 credit and skill identifier 6S (AMSP graduate). Graduates also receive a masters in Theater Strategy through the Command and General Staff College. This degree granting program is accredited by North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

(3) Other Senior Service Fellowships are governed in accordance with AR 621-7 . The proponent for Army fellowships is DCS, G-3/5/7, Strategic Leadership Division.

(4) Fellowship opportunities are designed to provide unique personal and professional educational experiences to Army officers that are not available through traditional PME. Fellowships enhance the officer's capabilities to meet specific requirements for Army leaders that serve at the highest levels of the national security establishment.

h. Warrant officer schools.

(1) Warrant Officer Candidate School. All AA warrant officer candidates must attend the resident WOCS at Fort Rucker, AL. The ARNG and USAR warrant officer candidates may attend WOCS at either Fort Rucker, AL or at one of the RC-regional training institute. WOCS graduates are conditionally appointed to WO1 (grade WO1). Appointment is contingent upon certification by the MOS proponent that the warrant officer is technically and tactically qualified to serve in the authorized warrant officer MOS.

(2) Warrant Officer Basic Course. Upon graduation from WOCS and appointment to WO1, each officer will attend functional specialty training at WOBC, which is a functional specialty development course taught at various proponent schools that prepares newly appointed officers for their assignments as WO1. Training is performance oriented and focuses on technical skills, leadership, effective communication, unit training, maintenance operations, security, property accountability, tactics, and development of subordinates. The WOBC graduates are recognized as WOBC "GRAD". Branch proponents are responsible for developing and updating WOBC training and technical certification standards.

(3) Warrant Officer Advanced Course. The WOAC is MOS-specific and builds upon the skills, knowledge, and attributes developed through previous training and experience. The course provides officers the leader, tactical, and technical training needed to serve in company and higher-level positions. WOAC training consists of two components:

(a) Prerequisite studies.This is a mandatory nonresident course that must be completed prior to attending the proponent/branch resident WOAC training. The Action Officer Development Course (131 P00) was adopted as the resource for this DL course. It is completed online and provides warrant officers serving in CW2 or higher duty positions relevant training in organization and management techniques, communication skills, preparing and staffing documents, conducting meetings and interviews, problem solving, time management, writing, coordinating activities, and ethics. Enrollment must occur after promotion to CW2 in order to qualify for WOAC Prerequisite Studies credit. CW2s have the flexibility to enroll at any convenient time after promotion to CW2. Once enrolled, the course must be completed within 1 year.

(b) Resident course.CW2s are eligible to attend their MOS WOAC. ADL warrant officers will attend the advanced course at their respective proponent school no later than 1 year after promotion to CW3. ARNG warrant officers complete this training prior to promotion to CW3. USAR warrant officers must complete this training prior to selection for CW3. The branch phase varies in length depending on the branch. Primary focus is directed toward leadership skill reinforcement, staff skills, and advanced MOS-specific training. The course consists of in-depth training in MOS-specific and branch immaterial tasks. Graduates of the WOAC receive the designation of MEL code "WOAC".

(4) Warrant Officer Staff Course. The WOSC is a resident course conducted at the Warrant Officer Career College. This course focuses on the staff officer and leadership skills needed to serve in the grade of CW4 at battalion and higher levels. The course which includes instruction in communication skills, staff skills and relationships, problem solving and decision-making, educates and trains officers in the values and attitudes of the profession of arms and in the conduct of military operations in peace and in war. The CW3s are eligible to attend the WOSC. The ADL warrant officers will complete this course not later than 1 year after promotion to CW4. National Guard warrant officers will complete this course prior to promotion to CW4. USAR warrant officers will complete this course prior to selection to CW4. WOSC graduates are recognized by MEL code "WOSC".

(5) Warrant Officer Senior Staff Course. The WOSSC is the capstone for warrant officer PME. It is a branch immaterial 2-week resident course conducted at the Warrant Officer Career College. The WOSSC provides a master-level professional warrant officer with a broader Army level perspective required for assignment to CW5 level positions as technical, functional and branch systems integrators and trainers at the highest organizational levels. Instruction focuses on "How the Army Runs" and provides up-to-date information on Army level policy, programs, and special items of interest. CW4s are eligible to attend the WOSSC. ADL warrant officers will complete this course no later than 1 year after promotion to CW5. National Guard warrant officers must complete this course prior to promotion to CW5. USAR warrant officers will complete this course prior to promotion to CW5. Graduates are recognized by MEL code "WOSSC".

4-8. Department of Defense and Department of State schools

Based on Army requirements, the Officer Personnel Management Directorate may designate officers to attend courses at schools operated by the DOD, Department of State, and Foreign Service Institute.

4-9. Foreign schools

Each year, based on quotas received by the U.S. Government, approximately 30 qualified officers are selected to attend 26 foreign schools in 15 different countries as students. AR 350-1 contains a list of the foreign schools that U.S. officers attend. FAOs receive preference for most of these schools.

4-10. Language training

More than 50 language courses are offered to meet Army requirements for officer linguists. The majority of these courses are longer than 20 weeks, requiring the officer to PCS to a Defense Language Institute in Monterey, CA, or Washington, DC. Officers receive language training only if being assigned to a language-coded position. Officers trained at Government expense test in that language every year and are expected to maintain their proficiency at a 2/2 level as measured by the Defense Language Proficiency Test.

4-11. Aviation training

All Aviation officers attend initial entry flight training in conjunction with their officer basic course (WOBC/BOLC). Company grade officers may volunteer for initial entry flight training in rotary-wing aircraft under the provisions of AR 611-110 . Aviation qualification and transition training is based on worldwide Aviation requirements. Aviators requiring additional skills normally receive training during a PCS move. All officers may volunteer for aircraft specific or MOS-specific training. Course descriptions and prerequisites are in the ATRRS online catalog.

4-12. Command team training and education

The Pre-Command Course (PCC) is the CSA's program. It prepares selectees for command by providing a common understanding of current doctrine and by providing both new and refresher training in selected functions and duties. Brigade and battalion command preparation is a multi phase program that provides focused leader development opportunities for all of the Army's future senior leaders. AA and AGR brigade and battalion-level command selectees will attend a three or four- phase pre-command continuing education and training program, depending on type and level of command prior to assuming command. Phase I is the branch-immaterial PCC at Fort Leavenworth, KS, followed by two or more of the following PCC phases prior to assuming command. Phase II is training for specific command categories (modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE) operational, initial military training, garrison, recruiting, Acquisition Corps and Corps of Engineers division/district commands). Phase III is branch/functional training. Phase IV is the senior officer's legal orientation course, Charlottesville, VA. TPU commanders attend Phases I and II on a space available basis. TPU commanders must attend Phase III if Phase I is not attended. Prerequisites for the branch immaterial PCC and the Tactical Commanders Development Program are outlined in ATRRS at https://www.atrrs.army.mil . Attendance at PCC is scheduled by HRC, the senior leader development office, or the ARNG, as appropriate, unless otherwise stated. The PCC requirements are detailed in AR 350-1 .

4-13. Other military schooling

Many military school courses provide the knowledge or skills necessary for a specific assignment. Officers may apply for these courses or are scheduled by Officer Personnel Management Directorate, HRC for such courses to qualify for a specific assignment. Complete information on such courses is contained in the ATRRS online catalog.

4-14. Application for military schools

Officers do not apply as students to centrally selected military schools. They receive automatic consideration for centrally selected schools when they enter the appropriate zone of eligibility (except those officers who have completed the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course). Officers may apply for training through their assignment officers if they desire training en route to the next assignment or through their command channels if TDY-and-return to the installation is appropriate. The Officer Personnel Management Directorate, HRC may automatically schedule such training if necessary for the position.

4-15. Service obligation

a. Attendance at military courses of instruction or civilian education programs at Government expense will incur a service obligation. AR 350-100 governs all service obligations to include which courses of instruction result in an ADSO, what the policies and procedures are for computing service obligations and how service obligations are fulfilled. Policies in AR 350-100 take precedence over other Army publications if there is a conflict.

b. An ADSO differs from a requirement to be assigned to an Army Educational Requirements System position. An ADSO is a specific period of active duty that an officer serves before eligible for voluntary separation. Assignment to an Army Educational Requirements System position may be required in addition to the ADSO for the Army to derive the greatest benefit from Government sponsored civilian education. AR 621-108 specifies the types of education that require assignment to an Army Educational Requirements System position.

4-16. Civilian education

a. The Army Advanced Civilian Schooling program has two objectives: to meet Army requirements for advanced education and to provide selected officers the opportunity to satisfy their educational aspirations.

b. Company grade officers are required to obtain a baccalaureate degree from a qualifying educational institution prior to attending the CCC.

c. Officers should take advantage of opportunities for advanced education and should consider their civilian education background when determining their qualifications for study in a given discipline. Officers who want to pursue advanced degrees should do so in an academic discipline that supports their designated branch, FA or MOS. On completion of schooling, officers are assigned by grade, branch, FA, MOS, civilian education level, and when possible, academic discipline (or related discipline set) for initial utilization in an Army Educational Requirements System validated position. In this manner, specific Army requirements are satisfied while simultaneously contributing to the professional development of the officer corps and the satisfaction of an officer's educational aspirations.

d. The appropriate proponent determines academic disciplines that support each branch, FA or MOS. See branch and FA-specific sections below.

4-17. Education programs

Officers may pursue full-time studies toward a master's or doctoral degree through either fully funded or partially funded programs or a bachelor's degree through the Degree Completion Program. Officers are encouraged to pursue advanced degrees particularly when there is an opportunity to do so in coordination with resident training such as ILE and SSC. Officers with liberal arts undergraduate degrees should not be dissuaded from their pursuit of graduate education in the sciences. Available education programs are discussed in general below. ( AR 621-1 governs specific civil school programs.)

a. Fully-funded programs. Under these programs, the Army pays all tuition costs, provides officers with full pay and allowances, and moves officers and their Families to the college or university of study. Normally, the period of schooling does not exceed 18 months (24 months for participants in officer Career Satisfaction Program). Officers may not draw veterans' education benefits while participating in the Army fully funded program.

(1) Advanced degree program. Selected officers attend graduate school to meet specific Army requirements established by the Army Educational Requirements System. While completing graduate studies, officers are assigned to Army Educational Requirements System positions according to branch or FA, grade and appropriate academic skills. Following graduation, utilization assignments will be served in accordance with AR 621-108 for a minimum of 24 months, and will normally occur immediately following such education, but no later than the second assignment following education completion. Primary zone of consideration to attend graduate school normally occurs on completion of the CCC, with sufficient basic branch or MOS experience, and 6 to 8 years of Federal commissioned service; but no later than the 17th year of service.

(2) Short course training. Tuition funds allocated to organizations are available for unprogrammed training that is needed for current job performance when the training is less than 20 weeks and is in subjects for which the Army has no in-house training capability.

(3) Fully Funded Legal Education Program. TJAG's Funded Legal Education Program provides instruction leading to a law degree at an approved civilian school at Government expense (normally 3 academic years) for up to 25 selected company grade officers each FY. Upon completion, the officer accepts an appointment in the JAGC for the period of the active duty obligation incurred under the provisions of AR 27-1 and AR 350-100 . The Funded Legal Education Program is the only approved program currently available for Army officers to study the legal profession. Program participants perform on-the-job-training duties under the supervision of a staff judge advocate or legal officer designated by TJAG when school is not in session for 5 days or longer. Program participants who do not finish school, or fail to pass the bar exam after two attempts, return to service in their basic branch.

(4) Training With Industry. This program provides training in industrial procedures and practices not available through military service schools or civilian education. The Training With Industry provides officers with vital knowledge, experience, and perspective in management and operational techniques to fill responsible positions in ACOMs and activities that normally interface with civilian industry. It provides the trainee an opportunity to grapple with real problems inherent to the business environment. Currently, these programs are concentrated in the areas of transportation, procurement, logistics management, research, and development, Public Affairs, banking, communication-electronics, advertising and marketing, physical security, artificial intelligence, and automation systems. The programs are normally 10 months with a predetermined follow-on assignment focusing on the experience gained. AR 621-1 provides information on application procedures.

b. Partially funded programs. Under these programs, the officer bears the cost of all tuition, fees, and textbooks. Many officers elect to use their in-service veterans benefits (if applicable) to help defray educational costs. The Army provides officers with full pay and allowances and moves officers and their Families to the school location if the schooling is 20 weeks or more. Participants attending schools for less than 20 weeks attend in a permissive TDY status. After their branch notifies officers that they are accepted into the program, it is their responsibility to select and be accepted by an accredited college or university.

(1) Degree Completion Program. Now that all officers are required to have a bachelor's degree prior to commissioning, the Degree Completion Program serves as a vehicle for officers pursuing a master's degree or warrant officer pursuing a bachelor's degree to complete their education requirements. This program authorizes officers up to 18 months of full-time civilian education to complete undergraduate or graduate degree requirements. Company and field grade officers pursuing an advanced degree must agree to study in an academic discipline that supports their branch or FA (or, in some cases, a designated skill). The primary zone of consideration for the graduate level is the 5th through the 17th year of service.

(2) Cooperative degree programs. Selected students attending schools such as the Command and General Staff College, the Logistics Executive Development Course at the Army Logistic Management College, and certain SSCs are offered the opportunity to participate in various courses conducted by cooperating civilian institutions. Attendance at these courses is concurrent with the military schooling. After graduation, officers are authorized up to 12 months to complete graduate degree requirements as full-time resident students at the civilian institution. Those attending SSC normally pursue studies during the summer school sessions immediately before and after the military course. In all cooperative degree programs, officers pay for educational costs.

c. Fellowships or scholarships. According to AR 621-7 eligible officers may apply for permission to accept fellowships or scholarships offered by corporations, foundations, funds, or educational institutions. Participation in such programs normally does not exceed 1 year in advanced civilian schooling and officers will incur an ADSO in accordance with AR 350-100 of 3 days to every 1 day served in school. Officers are also required to serve for a minimum of 24 months in a utilization tour. The following information is provided regarding fellowships. Program and eligibility criteria are subject to change; refer to annual MILPER messages for the most current information.

(1) Arroyo Center Fellowship (Research Fellowship). Participants work on critical Army policy issues (captain and major) (RAND Arroyo Center, Santa Monica, CA).

(2) Congressional Fellowship (Legislative Fellowship). Participants pursue a master's degree in Legislative Affairs then serve within a Congressperson's office. Fellows are educated and trained in Congressional activities, emphasizing those matters regarding DOD. Fellows are typically given responsibility for drafting legislation, arranging Congressional hearings, writing speeches and floor statements, and briefing Members of Congress for committee deliberations and floor debate (captain/major).

(3) Regional Fellowships (lieutenant colonel level) (Research Fellowship). Applicants must have no more than 17 years Federal commissioned service. AR 621-7 governs these programs.

(a) Asia-Pacific Center Fellowship.Participants conduct research with primary focus on exploring ways to cope with the increasingly complex interrelationships of the military, economic, political, and diplomatic policies releveant to security issues (Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Honolulu, HI).

(b) George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies.Participants conduct research or participate in other activities related to supporting newly democratic nations transitioning into free market economies (G.C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, Garmisch, GE).

(c) Department of State Strategic Policy Planning Fellowship.Participants conduct research, information gathering and other liaison activities in order to ensure the Army's position is understood and appropriately factored within DOD policy development and decision-making. This program is designed to expand the officer' s executive-level skills (Office of Plans, Policy, and Analysis, Bureau of Political and Military Affairs, Department of State, Washington, DC).

(4) George and Carol Olmstead Scholarship. Participants and their Family members immerse themselves in a foreign culture, while the officer attends the host country's university pursuing a graduate degree in Liberal Arts. The general purpose of the program is to broadly educate young, career military line officers who exhibit extraordinary potential for becoming this country's future military leaders (captain or junior major).

(5) The General Wayne A. Downing Scholarship. Participants pursue a graduate degree focused on terrorism, counterinsurgency, comparative politics, or a closely related discipline at a foreign or U.S. University. The purpose and target population for this scholarship mirrors that of the George and Carol Olmstead Scholarship Program.

(6) Strategic Education and Development Program. Participants pursue a master's degree in Public Administration at Harvard University. After successful completion of the program, officers are designated into the Army Strategic Plans and Policy career field (FA 59) (captain or major).

(7) Department of Defense Information Assurance Scholarship Program. Participants pursue a graduate degree in an Information Assurance discipline. This program is designed to assist in recruiting and retaining highly qualified personnel in the field of Information Assurance (captain/major/warrant officer/NCO) (Air Force Information Technology (IT), National Defense University, Washington, DC and Partner University; Naval Postgraduate School).

(8) The Joint Chief of Staff/Office of the Secretary of Defense/Army Staff Intern Program. This program provides participants with a broader perspective of operations within the military and our government. Interns begin by pursuing a master's degree in Policy Management, followed by integration into the policy and operational activities of the nation's senior military staff (Joint Staff or Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD)). Interns are ultimately placed into positions within the Army Staff (captain/major).

(9) Training With Industry. The Training With Industry Program was established to provide training and development of skills in U.S. private sector procedures and practices not available through existing military or Advanced Civilian Schooling Programs. Participants develop experience in higher-level managerial techniques and an understanding of the relationship of their industry as it relates to specific functions of the Army.

(10) White House Fellowship. Fellows are assigned to work with senior White House officials, cabinet secretaries, or other deputies. Their duties include writing speeches, reviewing and drafting proposed legislation, answering congressional inquiries, chairing meetings, conducting briefings, and otherwise assisting high-level Government officials (major, lieutenant colonel, NCO).

(11) Cyber Command Scholarship. This is a 2 year, degree producing program open to RA captains and majors in the Operations, Operations Support, and Force Sustainment Assignment Divisions. Selected officers will pursue a master's degree in Cyber Security at the University of Maryland (other universities will be added in the coming years), and then will complete a mandatory 3-year utilization assignment. (By year group, majors cannot have more than 18 months time in grade).

4-18. Tuition assistance

Eligible officers pursuing off-duty undergraduate or graduate civilian education courses may apply for tuition assistance under the provisions of AR 621-5. If approved, the Army pays up to 100 percent of tuition costs. Individual officers pay all other amounts, such as fees for registration and matriculation and the cost of books and supplies. Participants agree in writing to remain on active duty for a minimum of 2 years after completing the course or courses. (See AR 621-5 .)

4-19. Eligibility criteria and application procedures

a. Since many elements of the programs discussed in this chapter differ, officers should consult the governing Army regulations for the specific eligibility criteria and application procedures.

b. Selection for full-time civil schooling is governed by the needs of the Army, the officer's demonstrated performance, and his or her academic background. Officers pursuing a graduate degree should choose a discipline that fulfills the professional development requirements of the officer's designated branch, FA or MOS. In addition, applicants must have completed the CCC. Since selection for full-time schooling programs is based in part on the availability of the officer, Officer Personnel Management Directorate retains schooling applications until the applicant withdraws from further consideration or becomes ineligible by virtue of military performance or years of service. Officers selected for Advanced Civilian Schooling should expect a utilization assignment immediately after graduation. Officers who attend fully funded educational programs are normally subject to recoupment if, prior to completing their required service obligation, they separate from the Army voluntarily or involuntarily.

Chapter 5

Officer Promotions

5-1. General

This chapter covers the active duty promotion system for officers through the grade of colonel. This system constitutes a vital aspect of military personnel management affecting each officer and, therefore, must be legally correct and logically sound. Further, it must be administered fairly and equitably; to do otherwise would jeopardize the effectiveness of the officer corps.

5-2. Promotion process objectives

a. Though the specific procedures for selecting officers for grade advancement have varied over time, the objectives of this process have remained constant —

b. Ensure advancement to the higher grades of the best-qualified officers.

c. Meet Army branch, MOS, FA, and grade requirements.

d. Provide career incentive.

e. To promote officers based on the whole person concept and potential to serve in the next higher grade.

f. Although not an objective, identifying and eliminating ineffective officers is another result of the promotion process.

5-3. Statutory requisites

The objectives of the promotion system are consistent with statutory requisites and the realities of the Army structure and authorizations.

a. The legal basis for the officer promotion system is contained in 10 USC. This law prescribes strength and grade authorizations, promotion list components, promotion procedures, and separation procedures resulting from non-selection. The statutory requirements of 10 USC have been promulgated through regulatory, directive, and policy means in the establishment and administration of the promotion system.

b. DOPMA became effective 15 September 1981. The DOPMA was a major revision to 10 USC and is still the basis for year group management of the company and field grade officer corps. In 1984, the DOPMA provisions of 10 USC were amended to overcome certain unintended consequences of the original act and to give the Service secretaries more flexibility in limiting eligibility for promotion consideration. The current law:

(1) Establishes statutory limitations on the number of officers who may serve in senior grades.

(2) Provides common law for the appointment of AC officers and for the ADL service of RC officers.

(3) Provides uniform promotion procedures for officers in the separate Services.

(4) Provides common provisions governing career expectation in the various grades.

(5) Establishes common mandatory separation and retirement points for regular commissioned officers.

(6) Increases the amount of separation pay for officers separated involuntarily short of retirement.

(7) Provides related authorities to manage the officer force under the revised personnel system.

(8) Increases the flexibility of Presidential authority under mobilization in times of declared crisis.

c. The WOMA was passed into law as part of FY 1992/1993 legislation and went into effect on 5 December 1991. The WOMA revisions to 10 USC have become the basis for the management of the active duty warrant officer corps. The current law established —

(1) Single promotion system for warrant officers.

(2) Tenure requirements based upon years of warrant officer service.

(3) The grade of CW5.

(4) Authorization for the Secretary of the Army, to convene boards to recommend retirement-eligible warrant officers for selective mandatory retirement.

d. Defense authorization legislation for FY 2007 highlighted the 10 USC requirement to accommodate a standard for exemplary conduct as part of the officer promotions process. The DODI 1320.4 sets policy for how promotion selection boards, special selection boards, and special review boards evaluate officers against the standard of exemplary conduct and deal with adverse information on officer conduct.

5-4. Active duty list

a. Background. The DOPMA and WOMA revised the laws providing for the establishment of separate RA (permanent) and Army of the United States (temporary) lists and established a single, consolidated ADL. The DOPMA and WOMA, as revised, provide for the following:

(1) Establishment of an initial active duty list. No later than 6 months after 15 September 1981, all officers of the Army serving under 10 USC 36 as amended by DOPMA (except for those identified in 10 USC 641) will be placed on the ADL in the same relative seniority that they held on 14 September 1981. Pre-WOMA relative seniority was determined according to seniority criteria outlined in AR 600-8-29 , and was primarily based on the Army of the United States date of rank a warrant officer held on 4 December 1991.

(2) Adjustment to the active duty list. Adjustments to the ADL are made to maintain the relative seniority among officers of the Army as it existed on the day before the effective date of the law. Under provisions of Title 10 USC 741, the Secretary of the Army did establish and/or adjust the ADL date of rank of any company/field grade officer who was serving on active duty on 14 September 1981. Any RA or USAR officer, who on the effective date of DOPMA (15 September 1981) was serving on active duty in a temporary (Army of the United States) grade that was equal to their permanent (RA or USAR) grade, was awarded an ADL date of rank equal to that held in their Army of the United States grade. WOMA provided for the establishment of an initial ADL that placed all warrant officers of the Army serving under 10 USC, in the same relative seniority, which they held on 4 December 1991.

b. Current law. As required by Title 10 USC, the Army maintains a single ADL on which officers are to be carried in order of seniority. They are considered for promotion, each time a selection board is convened to consider officers in an established date of rank zone of consideration for their competitive category. The provisions of 10 USC 741 and 742 relate to rank among officers of the same grade as follows:

(1) Establishes relative rank of the various officer grades.

(2) Provides that rank among officers of the same grade or equivalent grade is initially determined by date of rank. An officer with an earlier date of rank is senior to an officer with a later date of rank.

(3) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army have prescribed rules for breaking date of rank ties and general rules for establishing dates of rank when breaks in service, service credit, and placement on the ADL determinations must be made. The date of rank and rank/precedence criteria are published in AR 600-8-29 .

(4) To maintain the relative seniority among warrant officers of the Army as it existed on the day before the effective date of the law, the Secretary of the Army established/adjusted the ADL on 4 December 1991. Any RA or USAR warrant officer who, on the effective date of WOMA, was serving on active duty was awarded an ADL date of rank equal to the highest grade, temporary (Army of the United States) or permanent (USAR or RA), he or she had achieved.

5-5. Promotion process

a. Title 10 USC provides for a single promotion process of all officers on active duty and on the ADL, regardless of their component. Active duty reserve officers serving on the ADL are no longer considered by Reserve boards.

b. The effect of the 10 USC/DOPMA/WOMA on the tenure and retirement opportunity for officers is shown in table 5-1 .

c. The WOMA mandated a single promotion process for all warrant officers on active duty and the ADL, regardless of their component. The requirement for warrant officers to be recommended by two different selection boards (temporary and permanent) for promotion to the next higher grade was eliminated. On 5 December 1991, warrant officers serving on active duty assumed as their permanent grade the highest grade, temporary (Army of the United States) or permanent (USAR or RA), they had held. Active duty Reserve officers serving on the ADL are no longer considered by a Reserve board.

Table 5-1. The Promotion System
Rank Tenure Retirement
WO1 Promotion consideration to CW2 N/A
CW2 Promotion consideration to CW3 May be selectively continued to maximum 30 years of WOS
CW3 Promotion consideration to CW4 Same criteria as CW2
CW4 Promotion consideration to CW5 May be selectively continued to 24 years of WOS but no more than 30 years of active service.
CW5 30 years of WOS Maximum of 30 years WOS
2LT Promotion consideration to 1LT N/A
1LT Promotion consideration to CPT N/A
CPT Promotion consideration to major May be selectively continued to maximum 20 YOS
MAJ Promotion consideration to LTC May be selectively continued to 24 YOS if qualified for retention and within 6 years of retirement eligibility
LTC 28 years of active Federal commissioned service for promotion Provision in law for early retirement by board (SERB) action if 2xNS to colonel when Early Retirement Program is in effect
COL 30 years of Federal commissioned service Provision in law for one-time review for SERB action when early Retirement Program is in effect

5-6. Army grade structure

a. The distribution of grades at major and above is controlled by 10 USC and may be further constrained by Congress, the Office of the Secretary of the Army or the CSA. Although 10 USC is subject to revision and modification, the basic concept remains unchanged. In effect, the by grade number of field grade officers allowed depends on total officer authorized strength levels, which are based on the total size of the Army and prescribed by the Secretary of the Army.

b. The distribution of grade CW5 is established and controlled by 10 USC and WOMA and may be further constrained by Congress, the Office of the Secretary of the Army, or the Chief of Staff of the Army. Although 10 USC and WOMA are subject to revision and modification, the basic concept remains unchanged. In effect, the number of CW5 positions depends on the total warrant officer authorized strength level. Total warrant officer authorizations are based on the size of the Army and the number prescribed by the Secretary of the Army.

5-7. Promotion flow

a. Changes in authorizations, losses, and promotions to the next higher grade create fluctuations in both the time in service and time in grade at which promotions occur. Under ideal circumstances, each qualified officer would advance through the grade structure with some degree of predictability. However, a relatively standardized promotion flow does not occur consistently due to expansion and contraction of the Army, changes in promotion policies and variations in officer losses each year.

b. Title 10 USC establishes minimum time in grade requirements for promotion to the next higher grade as shown in table 5-2 .

c. The promotion timings, as stated in DODI 1320.13 are expressed in terms of the years of active Federal commissioned service at which promotion occurs. The promotion opportunity (DOPMA rate), as stated in DODI 1320.13, is the percentage of total selects over the eligible in the zone population. Promotion timing and opportunity objectives are shown in table 5-2 .

d. Changes in authorizations, losses, and promotions to the next higher grade create fluctuations in the point within a warrant officer's career at which promotions occur. Under ideal circumstances, each qualified warrant officer should advance through the grade structure with some degree of predictability. This relatively standardized promotion flow is not consistently obtainable due to expansion and contraction of the Army, changes in promotion policies, and variations in warrant officer losses each year.

e. The WOMA establishes minimum time in grade requirements for promotion to the next higher grade. The warrant officer promotion flow objective may be expressed in terms of years at which, WOS promotions occur. History has consistently revealed that rapid promotions, in terms of reduced time in grade, have occurred during periods of force expansion. Conversely, promotions have always slowed down when force reductions occur. The current warrant officer promotion flow objectives are shown in table 5-2 .

Table 5-2. Time in service, time in grade, and promotion opportunity
Promote to: Time in service
(DODI and 10 USC)
Time in grade
(DODI)
Promotion opportunity
CW2 2 years WOS 18 months Fully qualified
CW3 7 years WOS1 3 years Best qualified (80 percent)
CW4 12 years WOS 3 years Best qualified (74 percent)
CW5 17 years 3 years Best qualified (44 percent)
1LT/0-2 18 months 18 months Fully qualified
CPT/0-3 4 years plus 1 year 2 years Best qualified (90 percent
MAJ/0-4 10 years +/- 1 year 3 years Best qualified (80 percent)
LTC/0-5 16 years +/- 1 year 3 years Best qualified (70 percent)
COL 22 years +/- 1 year 3 years Best qualified (50 percent)

Notes:
. Time in service is separated into years of WOS for Technician and Aviation warrants.

5-8. Below the zone promotions

The below the zone or secondary zone promotion capability is designed to allow the accelerated promotion of outstanding officers who have demonstrated performance and indicated potential clearly superior to those who other wise would be promoted. Below the zone promotions apply only to promotion to the ranks of CW3, CW4, CW5, major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel. Officers will normally receive only one below the zone consideration per grade. By law, the number of officers recommended for promotion from below the zone may not exceed 10 percent of the total number recommended; except that the Secretary of Defense may authorize that percentage to be increased to no more than 15 percent. Army policy sets the ACC below the zone promotion capability at 5.0 to 7.5 percent.
Note. AMEDD, Chaplain Corps, and JAGC are not part of the ACC.

5-9. Competitive categories

Each officer on the ADL is grouped in a competitive category for promotion as authorized in Title 10 USC and prescribed in DODI 1320.12 . Competitive categories are established to manage the career development and promotion of certain groups of officers whose specialized education, training, or experience, and often relatively narrow utilization, make separate career management desirable. Officers in the same competitive category (see para 8-1 b ) will compete among themselves for promotion. There are six competitive categories for officers: the ACC includes all branches and FAs other than the special branches; chaplains and judge advocates are in separate categories; and the AMEDD has a category for the Medical Corps, a category for the Dental Corps, and a category for all other medical department branches. There are two competitive categories for the warrant officer corps, Technical and Aviation warrants.

5-10. Impact of the Officer Personnel Management System evolution

With the implementation of OPMS revisions, changes have occurred in company grade, field grade, and warrant officer personnel management. These changes affect only ACC officers and warrant officers.

a. Promotion plan. As part of OPMS, the Army defines primary and secondary zones of consideration for field grade promotions by basic year groups. The in the zone population, or primary zone, is usually established by the dates the first and last due course officer was promoted from a specific year group. A due course officer is one who has been on continuous active duty since commissioning as a second lieutenant and who has neither failed selection for promotion nor been selected for promotion from below the zone. This primary zone is accessed into the Army, and at times shaped, to achieve a promotion opportunity ( table 5-2 ) that is relatively similar over a period of the next 5 years. This procedure has become known as the 5-year Field Grade Promotion Plan. OPMS revisions have not changed this policy.

b. Decentralized selections. The officer's local commander approves promotion to first lieutenant and CW2. Normally, the battalion commander promotes with the recommendation of the company commander. Although the promotion is thought of as being automatic upon completion of a specific period of active duty, the promotion is based on an officer's demonstrated performance. Officers who fail promotion to first lieutenant and CW2 are generally released from active duty or discharged.

c. Centralized selections. Officers promoted from captain through colonel and CW3 to CW5 are selected by HQDA centralized boards. Selection boards are asked to recommend fully or best qualified (as appropriate) officers from an inclusive zone of consideration. The zone of consideration includes officers from above, in and below the promotion zone. When the number of officers being considered exceeds the maximum number to promote, the boards operate under best-qualified criteria. Centralized boards, except captain, are provided minimum promotion requirements (floors) by branch, FA, or AOC to ensure the Army's skill and grade mix balances with its needs. Recommendations are based upon branch, MOS, and FA competency, the potential to serve in the higher grade and the whole person concept. Factors considered include:

(1) Performance.

(2) Embodiment of Army Values.

(3) Professional attributes and ethics.

(4) Integrity and character.

(5) Assignment history and professional development.

(6) Military bearing and physical fitness.

(7) Attitude, dedication, and service.

(8) Military and civilian education and training.

(9) Concern for Soldiers and Families.

d. Special branches. Promotion within special branches (AMEDD, Chaplain Corps, and JAGC). The officer promotion system reinforces all other personnel management programs to acquire and retain the right number of officers, with the proper skills, to meet the Army's needs. The objective of promotion within the special branches is to maintain an orderly promotion flow that replaces losses, meets changing requirements, and recognizes uneven attrition rates within these competitive categories. Provisions of the system include mandated floors by branch, FA, or AOC and the optional employment of selection ceilings. Selection opportunity may vary among competitive categories based upon projected requirements in the higher grades.

e. Instructions to promotion boards. Each board receives a memorandum of instruction from the Secretary of the Army providing guidance for the selection process. Copies of these memorandums are released to the officer corps following approval and public release of the board results. That portion pertaining to specialization has been expanded significantly to indicate that, in today's Army, the specialist has a significant role and responsibility. The instructions highlight the need for the different officer professional development patterns required for accomplishing the Army's total mission. Instead of a single traditionally accepted career pattern through various grades, multiple paths for advancement exist as the Army recognizes divergent Service needs and individual capabilities. Further, instructions to promotion boards prescribe that promotion potential will be determined, for the most part, based on an officer's record of performance in their designated branch or FA and the officer's overall performance.

f. Promotion board membership. Personal qualifications, experience, and performance determine promotion board membership. The ACOM, ASCC, and DRU commanders recommend board members (colonel and below) from lists provided by the HQDA Secretariat for Selection Boards of eligible candidates who meet qualifications in a broad spectrum of military fields. Following policy guidance from the Secretary of the Army, membership is designed to adequately reflect the skills, commands, and diversity of the competitive category under consideration. The Director of Military Personnel Management, DCS, G-1, approves the final slate of members on behalf of the Secretary of the Army. The CSA, approves general officer membership.

g. Special selection boards. Special selection boards (SSBs) are convened, as required, to consider officers with dates of rank above or in the promotion zone that were erroneously omitted from consideration or whose official records contained material errors seen by the original board. Erroneous entries or omissions on DA Form 4037 generally do not justify reconsideration by a SSB. The officer's responsibility to review his or her DA Form 4037 at least annually and the provision of AR 600-8-29 entitling officers in the zone of consideration to submit a letter to the president of the board are considered sufficient opportunity to overcome minor administrative deficiencies.

Chapter 6

Officer Evaluation System

6-1. Overview

a. The Officer Evaluation System identifies those officers most qualified for advancement and assignment to positions of increased responsibility. Under this system officers are evaluated on their performance and potential through duty evaluations, school evaluations, and HQDA evaluations (both central selection boards and HRC officer management assessments).

b. The assessment of an officer's potential is a subjective judgment of the officer's capability to perform at a specified level of responsibility, authority, or sensitivity. Potential is normally associated with the capability to perform at a higher grade. However, the Army also assesses the officer's potential for retention and increased responsibility within a specified grade.

c. Officer qualifications provide the real link between the needs of the Army and individual officer performance. They focus on an officer's background in terms of experience and expertise and include such items as specialty qualification, successful performance in demanding positions, civil and military schooling, and physical profile. Performance is the execution of tasks in support of the organization or Army missions. While results or accomplishment of a series of tasks is the primary focus, the manner in which tasks are approached and a general adherence to officer corps professional values are also important. The performance assessment by HQDA differs significantly from that accomplished in the organizational duty environment. The organizational duty assessment involves personal knowledge of the situations surrounding a specific performance for a specified period of time. The HQDA assessment is accomplished by an after-the-fact assessment of a series of reports on performance over a variety of duty positions and covering the officer's entire career.

6-2. Officer evaluation reporting

a. The officer evaluation reporting is a subsystem of the Officer Evaluation System. It includes the methods and procedures for organizational evaluation and assessment of an officer's performance and an estimation of potential for future service based on the manner of that performance.

b. The official documents of these assessments are the DA Forms 67-10 series and DA Form 1059 .

(1) The performance evaluation contained on the OER is for a specific rating period only. It focuses on comparing the officer's performance with the duty position requirements and the standards of the rating officials. Performance includes the methods or means of effort used by an officer in accomplishing tasks assigned by superiors or implied by the duty position. Performance assessments are then determined as a result of the rated officers efforts, degree of task accomplishment, and the degree of compliance with competencies and attributes encompassed within the leadership requirements model that apply to all officers, regardless of duty position, grade, or specialty.

(2) The potential evaluation contained on the OER is a projection of the performance accomplished during the rating period into future circumstances that encompass greater responsibilities. The primary focus of this assessment is the capability of the officer to meet increasing levels of responsibility in relation to his or her peers.

(3) DA Forms 1059 are prepared for officers who take part in resident and nonresident training at service schools and civilian educational institutions. It explains the accomplishments, potential, and limitations of students while attending courses. Furthermore, performance assessments are linked to the leadership requirements model in accordance with ADP/ ADRP 6-22.

c. The OER system is directly linked to the OPMS. Raters and senior raters are required to recommend a potential functional category Branch and/or FA for future service on all ACC captains in Parts Vc and VIId on each OER. These rating chain recommendations, given by rating officials over a series of OERs, will provide pertinent information for Functional Designation Boards and for the VTIP that provides for lateral movement between specialties.

6-3. Relationship with the Officer Personnel Management System, leader development, and character development process

a. The primary function of the OERS is to provide information from the organizational chain of command to be used by HQDA for officer personnel decisions. The information contained in the OER is correlated with the Army's needs and individual officer qualifications. It provides the basis for OPMS personnel actions such as promotion, branch and FA designation, elimination, retention in grade, retention on active duty, reduction in force, command and project manager designation, school selection, assignment, and specialty designation.

b. An equally important function of the OERS is to encourage the professional development of the officer corps. To accomplish this, the system uses the Army's leadership doctrine to relate teaching, coaching, counseling, and assessing core leader competencies and attributes to improve performance and enhance professional development. Particularly valuable is the developmental counseling fostered through senior officers linking the Army's evaluation system to its leader development and personnel management systems. Developmental counseling is the responsibility of senior officers to provide feedback concerning professional growth, potential and career pathways to success. While these aspects of developmental counseling through mentorship have always been a major element of the evaluation process, they must be continually emphasized.

c. For further information on the Officer Evaluation System, see AR 623-3 and DA Pam 623-3 .

Chapter 7

Reserve Component Officer Development and Career Management

7-1. Purpose

a. The RCs of the Army include the ARNG and the USAR. The OPMS for the RC is executed by HRC for lieutenant colonels and below for (AGR, IMA, IRR) for the USAR. The Office of the Chief, Army Reserve (OCAR) manages the Ready Reserve colonels for the USAR. The State AGs manage the officer population for the ARNG. Some elements of OPMS are executed at local unit level due to the unique aspects of RC duty. The purpose of OPMS as it is applied to the RC is the same as outlined in paragraph 3-1 . This chapter discusses the unique aspects of OPMS for the RC.

b. The RCs of the Army include the ARNG and the USAR. When not in a federalized status (under Federal control), the ARNG comes under control of the states, the territories of Guam and the Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or the District of Columbia. The USAR is a Federal force within the Department of the Army.

7-2. Factors affecting Officer Personnel Management in the National Guard

a. OPMS within the ARNG is also influenced by factors described in paragraph 3-2 . In addition OPMS for RC officers is influenced by the different categories that National Guard officers serve in.

b. The RC consists of three categories: the Ready Reserve, the Standby Reserve, and the Retired Reserve. All Reserve and Guard officers are assigned to one of these three categories.

c. The Ready Reserve is the largest category in the RC and contains the overwhelming majority of RC officers. The Ready Reserve consists of the Selected Reserve, the IRR, and the inactive National Guard (ING).

d. It is common for RC officer pool to consist of a mix of officers who have served in various capacities throughout the force to include other Army components as well as varied lengths of service in a variety of duty status' and capacities. Efforts are ongoing to apply consistent standards, ease of transition, and recognition of the assignment broadening capabilities associated with the officers who balance a civilian career with their military service.

(1) The Selected Reserve consists of the following:

(a) Units manned and equipped to serve and/or train either as operational or as augmentation units. These units consist of:

(1) Troop program unit reservists. These are officers who are required to perform (drill) 48 unit training assemblies (UTAs) per year and 14 days (15 days for ARNG) per year in annual training status. These members are in a paid status while performing these duties.

(2) Active Guard Reserve. In accordance with 10 USC 101(16), the term "Active Guard and Reserve" means a member of a RC who is on active duty pursuant to 10 USC 12310 or 32 USC 502(f) and 709(a). These officers are Guard or Reserve members who are ordered to active duty or full-time National Guard duty for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the RC units. The AGR status is defined as officers serving in an active duty status for at least 180 days, performing administrative and training duties in direct support of the ARNG and USAR. The primary objective of the AGR Program is to improve the readiness of the RC.

(3) Army Reserve individual mobilization augmentee. These officers are trained individuals assigned to an AC, Selective Service System, or Federal Emergency Management Agency organization in billets that must be filled on, or shortly after mobilization. Officers assigned to this control group perform at least 12 days of annual training each year and are assigned to a specific duty position in an AA unit or organization.

(b) Training Pipeline (Non-deployable Account). These are officers who have not yet completed initial active duty for training, and include all officers who are in training for professional categories including: undergraduate flying training, chaplain candidates, health profession students, early commissioning program participants, and cadets enrolled in the Simultaneous Membership Program.

(2) The Individual Ready Reserve. These officers are Reserve officers not serving in the Selected Reserve. The IRR is a manpower pool comprised of trained individuals who typically have some period of their military service obligation or contractual commitment remaining. A remaining service obligation or contractual commitment is not however a requirement to be member of the IRR. The IRR is vital to the expansibility and reversibility of the active officer force pool and is critical to augmenting the RC manpower requirements. It provides officers the opportunity to continue serving in a more limited capacity to facilitate their pursuit of a civilian career track or other personal life obligations then transition to a TPU without losing accrued rank. Members may voluntarily participate in training for retirement points and promotions with or without pay. The IRR members may be required to meet the same training requirements as Selected Reservists. Required training (involuntary) may not exceed 30 days a year. Members of the IRR will be geographically affiliated with a RC unit in order to provide IRR Soldiers and their Families with a local network of support, improve IRR Soldier readiness, promote Continuum of Service and retain Soldiers with valuable skills, knowledge, abilities and experiences. The intent for the IRR Affiliation Program is communication versus participation to ensure members of the IRR and their Families are aware of dedicated support and available resources. IRR officers serve in one of three control groups —

(a) Control Group-Annual Training. Ready Reserve officers with a training obligation, but who do not belong to an Army Reserve unit. They must perform annual training when so directed.

(b) Control Group-Reinforcement. All other non-unit Ready Reserve officers not assigned to another control group.

(c) Control Group-Officer Active Duty Obligor. Active duty officers who are appointed in the USAR but do not enter onto active duty at the time of their appointment. These officers maintain their obligated status and may be ordered to active duty or duty with an ARNG or USAR unit.

(3) Army Reserve National Guard Inactive National Guard personnel. The ING consists of National Guard personnel in an inactive status in the Ready Reserve, not in the Selected Reserve, attached to a specific National Guard unit. To remain ING members, they muster once a year with their assigned unit, but do not participate in training activities. ING Soldiers are considered mobilization assets of the unit. Similar to other IRR, some ING members have legal and contractual obligations. ING members may not participate in training activities for points or pay and are not eligible for promotion.

(4) Retired Reserve. The Retired Reserve is comprised of all Reserve officers who receive retired pay on the basis of active duty and/or Reserve service; all Reserve officers who are otherwise eligible for retired pay but have not reached age 60 and who have not elected discharge and are not voluntary members of the Ready or Standby Reserve; and other retired reservists. All retired members who have completed at least 20 years active duty (Regular or Reserve), regardless of the retired list to which assigned, may be ordered to active duty involuntarily whenever required as determined by the Secretary of the Army.

7-3. Factors affecting Officer Personnel Management in the Army Reserve

a. OPMS within the USAR is also influenced by factors described in paragraph 3-2 . In addition OPMS for RC officers is influenced by the different categories in which USAR officers serve.

b. The USAR consists of three categories: the Ready Reserve, the Standby Reserve, and the Retired Reserve. All Reserve officers are assigned to one of these three categories.

c. It is common for RC officer pool to consist of a mix of officers who have served in various capacities throughout the force to include other Army components as well as varied lengths of service in a variety of duty status' and capacities. Efforts are ongoing to apply consistent standards, ease of transition, and recognition of the assignment broadening capabilities associated with the officers who balance a civilian career with their military service

d. The Ready Reserve is the largest category in the RC and contains the overwhelming majority of USAR officers. The Ready Reserve consists of the Selected Reserve and the IRR.

(1) The Selected Reserve consists of the following:

(a) Units manned and equipped to serve and/or train either as operational or as augmentation units. These units consist of:

(1) Troop program unit reservists. These officers are required to perform 48 battle assemblies (UTAs) and 14 days of annual training per year. These members are in a paid status while performing these duties.

(2) Active Guard Reserve . In accordance with 10 USC 101(16), the term "Active Guard and Reserve" means a member of a RC who is on active duty pursuant to 10 USC 12310. These Army Reserve officers are ordered to active duty for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the RC units. The AGR status is defined as officers serving in an active duty status and have been accessed into the AGR program performing administrative and training duties in direct support of the USAR. The primary objective of the AGR program is to improve the readiness of the Army Reserve.

(3) Individual mobilization augmentee. These officers are trained individuals assigned to an AC, Selective Service System, or Federal Emergency Management Agency organization in billets that must be filled on, or shortly after mobilization. Officers assigned to this control group perform at least 12 days of annual training each year and are assigned to a specific duty position in an AC unit or agency.

(b) Training pipeline (non-deployable account). These are officers who have not yet completed initial active duty for training, and include all officers who are in training for professional categories including: undergraduate flying training, chaplain candidates, health profession students, early commissioning program participants, and cadets enrolled in the Simultaneous Membership Program.

(2) The IRR are Reserve officers not serving in the Selected Reserve. The IRR is a manpower pool comprised of trained individuals who may have some period of their military service obligation or contractual commitment remaining or the officer desires to continue to serve in the Ready Reserve without being a member of a unit. Members may voluntarily participate in training for retirement points and promotions with or without pay. IRR members may be required to meet the same training requirements as Selected Reservists. Required training (involuntary) may not exceed 30 days a year. The IRR is vital to the expansibility and reversibility of the active officer force pool. It provides officers the opportunity to continue serving in a more limited capacity to facilitate pursuit of a civilian career track or other personal life obligations. Members of the IRR will be affiliated with an Army Reserve unit for the purpose of maintaining communication and a channel of support resources for Soldiers who transitioned off of active duty The IRR officers serve in one of three control groups —

(a) Control Group-Annual Training. Ready Reserve officers with a training obligation, but who do not belong to an Army Reserve unit. They must perform annual training when so directed.

(b) Control Group-Reinforcement. All other non-unit Ready Reserve officers not assigned to another control group.

(c) Control Group-Officer Active Duty Obligor. Active duty officers who are appointed in the Army Reserve but do not enter onto active duty at the time of their appointment. These officers maintain their obligated status and may be ordered to active duty or to serve with an USAR unit.

(3) The Standby Reserve is a pool of trained individuals manpower needs in specific skills. The Standby Reserve is managed in accordance to DODI 1235.09 . These officers maintain their military affiliation without being in the Ready Reserve. They may be designated as key civilian employees, or have a temporary hardship or disability. These individuals are not eligible for mobilization.

(a) Active status list. Standby Reservists temporarily assigned for hardship or other cogent reasons. Officers in this status may attend battle assemblies and perform annual training. Officers in this status are considered during mandatory promotion boards.

(b) Inactive status list. Standby Reservist are not required by law or regulation to remain in an active status to retain their Reserve affiliation in a nonparticipating status, and those who have skills which may be of possible future use to the Armed Forces. Standby Reservist include members transferred to an inactive status in lieu of separation. Officers in this status are prohibited from attending battle assemblies and performing annual training. Time served in this status is considered a break in service.

(4) The Retired Reserve is comprised of all Reserve officers who receive retired pay on the basis of active duty and/or Reserve service; all Army Reserve officers who are otherwise eligible for retired pay but have not reached age 60 and who have not elected discharge and are not voluntary members of the Ready or Standby Reserve; and other retired reservists. All retired members who have completed at least 20 years active duty (RA or USAR), regardless of the retired list to which assigned, may be ordered to active duty involuntarily whenever required as determined by the Secretary of the Army.

Table 7-1. U.S. Army Reserve categories
USAR categories See paragraph
Ready Reserve 7-2c
Selected Reserve 7-2c(1)
TPU members 7-2c(1)(a)1
AGR 7-2c(1)(a)2
IMA 7-2c(1)(a)3
IRR 7-2c(2)
Control Group-Annual Training 7-2c(2)(a)
Control Group-Reinforcement 7-2c(2)(b)
Control Group-Officer Active Duty Obligor 7-2c(2)(c)
Stand-By Reserve 7-2c(3)
Active status list 7-2c(3)(a)
Inactive status list 7-2c(3)(b)
Retired Reserve 7-2c(4)

7-4. Officer Personnel Management System

a. The flexibility of the OPMS enables USAR and ARNG unique policies, where necessary, to facilitate officer management and development for RC officers. The OPMS subsystems of: Strength Management, Assignments, Professional Development, Evaluation, Centralized Selection, and Review Process, described in paragraph 3-3 apply to both the AA and RC. Examples of RC-unique policies within these subsystems are:

(1) Assignments. Assignments for USAR TPU, IMA, and ARNG M-Day officers may be constrained by geography and structure. Assignment policies for the RC take into account these constraints and enable officers not serving full time to continue to develop while allowing those officers to establish and maintain civilian occupations. Assignment policies for AGR personnel have constraints, however USAR AGR assignments are not limited by geography, and ARNG AGR assignments are limited only by State boundaries.

(2) Centralized selection. The implementation of the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act in 1996 brought the RC company and field grade officer promotion systems in synchronization with the AC. It established a best-qualified promotion system for RC officers, replacing the fully qualified system previously used. There is a centralized selection process for officers in the USAR and ARNG. However, there are also policies and procedures to conduct decentralized unit vacancy promotions to fill critical positions, and both the USAR and the ARNG have policies and processes within OPMS for a decentralized selection process where required to account for geographic constraints. Within the ARNG, States conduct selection for brigade and battalion-level commands. Within the USAR, regions conduct selection for battalion-level commands under the new consolidated command selection boards AGR officers and TPU officers are considered under the best-qualified principle.

(3) Professional development. While RC officers share the same mission as their AA counterparts, the unique nature of the RC officer's role as a "citizen Soldier" poses a challenge for professional development. RC officers are expected to follow AA officer development patterns as closely as possible, except that RC officers, in some instances, have increased windows to complete mandatory educational requirements. To meet professional development objectives, RC officers may need to rotate among TPU, the IRR, and the IMA programs. These transfers are necessitated by geographical considerations, as well as the need to provide as many officers as possible the opportunity to serve with troops in leadership and staff positions. Additionally, there may be occasions when officers need to transfer to the IRR while they complete mandatory educational requirements. Such transfers will be temporary and should not be seen as impacting negatively on the officer's career. The success of an officer is not measured by length of service in any one component or control group, but by the officers breadth of experience, duty performance and adherence to branch and functional requirements.

b. The OPMS model described in paragraph 3-3 b applies to the AA and RC. The OPMS model provides the flexibility to allow officers to grow in their basic branch or FA, and gain and breadth of experience. Managing officers within the functional aligned design will provide opportunities for officers to be well-grounded in their branch and FA, provide opportunities to gain additional competencies to create multiple-skilled leaders, and still provide the flexibility necessary to compensate for the challenges of civilian employment, geography, and structure.

7-5. Officer development

a. RC officers are accessed into the RC at company grade and field grade level. Initial accession is into the Army's basic branches; and officers should seek educational and developmental assignment opportunities outlined by their proponent to gain depth in their chosen branch. Officers previously commissioned by another component are accessed in either their current branch/FA or will undergo a branch/FA transfer.

b. RC officers do not have a centralized functional category designation, but choose to transition to a FA and functional categories at critical points of their career. Officers who choose to designate in a FA will complete PME or other qualification training necessary. Once a RC officer commits to a FA designation, normally at the senior company grade/junior field grade level, officers should seek assignment to positions requiring expertise in the particular specialty associated with the officer's functional category branch or FA skills. Senior RC officers well-grounded in their branch/FA should increase their breadth by seeking assignments outside their basic branch/FAs, in broadening and developmental positions that require leadership and managerial skills common to all officers. Add assignments to the Operational and Generating Force.

c. The objectives of OPMS in the RC are achieved through interaction between the individual, proponent, career managers, and the field commander. The level of control and the nature of that interaction differ based on the component and status of the officer. Each plays a vital role in the officer's development. As a general rule human resources (HR) organizations at the Army and State level play a greater role in AGR officer's assignment development. Individuals and commanders are more influential in the development of TPU and M-Day officers.

(1) Development in a designated specialty. Although RC officers serve in the same branches and FAs as the AA, RC officers may be limited to certain branches and FAs based on their geographic location and the military structure.

(2) Progressive operational assignments. Progressive operational assignments serve to give officers depth in their chosen branch or FA. RC officers should aggressively seek operational assignments of increasing responsibility and complexity. The assignment and transfer of officers is a collective effort between the assignment officer, the officer and his or her unit. The applicable TOE or TDA prescribes the grade, branch, and MOS requirements for positions to which officers may be assigned. In the RC environment, assignment options are constrained by the force structure and demographic and geographic limitations. For these reasons, RC officers may need to accept assignments throughout the Selected Reserve. RC officers must also realize the possibility of occasional temporary transfers to the IRR, especially in conjunction with the completion of PME requirements. These transfers provide the officer an opportunity to complete required studies without the distraction of a troop assignment and allow other officers the opportunity to gain troop leadership experience. The concepts of equivalent assignment and constructive credit should be considered when determining RC operational assignments. There are numerous leadership positions within the RC structure that do not fall into the traditional definition of TOE/TDA command. TOE leadership and command positions should be recognized, and desired as potential assignments, however there are also TDA staff positions in Regional and State commands that require quality leaders and provide similar operational experience as battalion and brigade staff positions. Careful planning and programming by agencies, commanders and the individual officer are essential to maximize the career potential and efficient use of officer skills, knowledge, and attributes. Experience gained through challenging and varied assignments enhances officer development and provides trained officers able to meet the dynamic needs of the RCs.

(3) Professional development counseling and mentoring. Counseling and mentoring is a critical component of RC officer development and is conducted by commanders at all levels as well as by assignment officers at HRC or the State. However, the development of each officer will vary due to the assignment opportunities available to the officer given his geographic location and civilian occupation. These realities of RC service make mentors especially critical for RC officer professional development.

(4) Designation and election of branches, functional areas, and functional categories.

(a) Branch designation. Upon commissioning, lieutenants are designated in a basic branch for training and initial assignment. Officers attend the company grade level education at the school of the branch to which they are detailed. During the early years of service, professional development within the branch follows the proponent' s life-cycle model. Generally, the first 8 to 12 years of service are devoted to branch developmental assignments and training that prepares the company grade officer for further advancement. Company grade officers may request, in writing, a voluntary branch transfer in accordance with AR 140-10 .

(b) Functional designation. The Army promotion list groups interrelated branches and FAs into officer management categories called functional categories and functional groups. The RC officers may choose, based on operational or civilian experience, structure limitations, or personal preference to specialize in a FA. AR 140-10 outlines how RC officers are designated in a FA. Officers who choose to designate in a FA are encouraged to continue to choose assignments that continue to build depth in their chosen specialty. Education, training and experience; and evaluation reports are taken into account in determining an officer's suitability to serve in a FA and additional training required to be qualified in the chosen FA.

(1) Many RC officers are leaders in industry, the community and in the corporate world. Many positions in corporations provide training and experience not only useful to the military but closely related to military specialty skills. Officers at all levels should be sensitive to the relationship between civilian occupations and training and military skills. Being the financial officer for a corporation certainly provides evidence of qualification as a military finance officer. Leadership in a civilian occupation provides evidence of potential for military leadership positions. These are examples of constructive credit possibilities that should be considered in determining an officer's qualification for branch and FA designation, and award of AOCs and skills. AR 611-1 provides guidance for evaluating civilian education and occupation experience in the classification of RC officers. Officers may also apply for constructive or equivalent credit for military education courses in accordance with AR 135-155 .

(2) The ARNG Officer Personnel Classification Boards can determine an officer to be qualified in his or her duty position, however, the officer may not be considered fully qualified until meeting other related criteria in this pamphlet (for example 12 months service in a FA assignment or 36 months as a commander). The officer does not have to be considered fully qualified in his or her branch (BR) AOC or FA AOC to be considered for favorable personnel actions. Additional requirements beyond the mandatory military education for award of the AOC will not preclude the officer from being promoted or reassigned.

(c) Joint duty assignment Reserve. Officers in the RC serve in Joint Headquarters, Joint State Task Force Headquarters, and in other assignments that interact with other services and agencies. The definitions and management processes for Joint accreditation for RC officers were established 1 October 2007 as part of the John Wagner National Defense Authorization Act 2007. Experience-based Joint duty assignments are assignments and experiences that demonstrate an officer's mastery of knowledge, skills, and abilities in joint matters. Experience-Joint duty assignments include non-Joint duty assignment list RC in OSD, the Joint Staff, Combatant Command headquarters, and Defense Agencies headquarters. This includes joint credit for Desert Shield/Desert Storm and for service in designated Joint Task Forces. All officers are eligible to have their non-Joint duty assignment list billet experiences reviewed for possible award of joint experience points. These points, along with completion of the requisite JPME would make them eligible for joint qualifications. RC officers have opportunities to gain JPME I and II credit, and will gain JPME credit along with their AA counterparts at ILE (JPME I) and at the Joint Forces Staff College, or in a SSC (JPME II). RC officers also serve in numerous positions that involve assignments/experiences in the JIIM arena.

d. The RC has positions that are independent of branch or FA coding and are designated as branch/FA generalist, immaterial positions. RC company and field grade officers can expect to serve in these assignments at various times during their careers, regardless of their functional designation. Officers are selected for these positions based on overall manner of performance, previous experience, military and civilian education and estimated potential for further service.

e. Both branches and FAs may require more specific job skills and qualifications to further prepare their officers to meet highly specialized AOC position requirements. AOCs are described in the branch/FA chapters of this pamphlet.

f. Branch/FA development fosters a mastery of skills for an officer's grade in a specific branch or FA. Branch development enables captains to achieve mastery of common core and branch skills that assure a strong professional development foundation essential for success as a field grade officer. Generally speaking, branch development for RC captains equates to completion of the appropriate CCC and successful performance in a KD assignment. Branch development for majors results from completion of ILE and successful performance in a branch or FA assignment. During an RC officer's field grade years, OPMS allows for the broadening of an officer's development from mastery of branch skills to more multifunctional skills. RC officers have the opportunity and are encouraged to expand their knowledge and skills beyond their specific branch through multiple avenues. These opportunities for Army Reserve officers include, but are not limited to, assignments in the OCAR/U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC) staff, DA staff, and JIIM assignments for AGR officers and use of the IMA program for TPU officers.

g. Under the current OPMS, RC Army promotion list majors and lieutenant colonels compete for promotion without regard to their branch or FA. Selection for promotion is based on the fundamentals of performance and potential for further service. These are measured by the officer's relative standing with his peers as indicated by their evaluation reports, educational qualification, and assignment history. The selection boards are instructed as to the number of field grade officers to select based on Army needs, law, policy, and budget. As with the AA promotion boards, the boards receive guidance on the officer qualities expected for in the Secretary of the Army's Memorandum of Instruction. Congress and the Secretary of the Army approve promotion selection lists prior to publication. In addition to selection for promotion via a DA-centralized selection board or a unit vacancy promotion process, RC officers have differing rules for promotion dependent on their status. TPU officers must be assigned in a position of higher grade in order to be promoted. IRR officers, if on a standing promotion list, will be promoted at maximum time in grade or when they report into a TPU position of the next higher grade, whichever is earlier. AGR officers compete for promotion separately from the rest of the RC and are promoted by sequence number.

Table 7-2. Military education requirements for promotion intermediate level education "Complete" for promotion to colonel
Grade from To Requirement
2LT 1LT BOLC
CPT MAJ CCC
MAJ LTC ILE Common Core
LTC   ILE Common Core
WO1 CW2 WOBC
CW2 CW3 USAR - WOBC and in 2010 WOAC
ARNG - WOBC and WOAC
CW3 CW4 USAR - WOAC and in 2010 WOSC
ARNG - WOAC and WOSC
CW4 CW5 WOSSC

Notes:
. Officers attain JPME I qualification by completing the full ILE curriculum. Completing only the ILE Common Core will preclude serving in Joint assignments and attending JPME II/AJPME institutions, including SSCs.

7-6. Company grade development

The goals of OPMS for the RC are the same as those for the active duty. Laws and regulations specific to the ARNG and USAR affect OPMS implementation. OPMS in the ARNG is executed by the state, within the guidance and policies established by HQDA and NGB. OPMS for USAR is executed by the HRC (AGR, IMA, IRR) (HRC), and the USARC (TPU). Specific guidance for USAR officers is addressed in AR 135-175 . DA Memo 600-4 offers a wealth of information on reserve officer selections.

a. Branch-specific development. BOLC I is the commissioning source (Officer Candidate School (OCS), ROTC, Direct Appointment). Upon commissioning, all RC officers begin their professional development by attending BOLC II, followed by BOLC III.

(1) Basic education. BOLC marks the beginning of a company grade officer's formal military professional development training following commissioning. BOLC II and III prepare officers for their first duty assignment and provide instruction on methods for training and leading individuals, teams, squads, and platoons. Additionally, the course provides officers with a detailed understanding of equipment, tactics, organization, and administration at the company, battery or troop level. All phases of BOLC must be completed within 2 years of commissioning for an officer to be eligible for promotion, a mobilization asset, and remain in the USAR and ARNG. For additional information on BOLC II and III refer to paragraphs 4-7 a through c .

(2) Initial assignments. USAR TPU and ARNG officers are normally assigned to a predetermined unit of assignment upon accession into the USAR. Included in these assignments are CONUS or overseas troop units where officers begin to develop their leadership skills. All junior officers should seek leadership positions in troop units whenever possible. Troop leadership is the best means to build a solid foundation for future service.

(3) Eligible for promotion. To be eligible for promotion to captain, RC officers must complete both their baccalaureate degree and phases II and III of BOLC.

(4) Captains Officer Education System. The Army's current formal education process for captains is the CCC which officers attend either in resident or nonresident status. The RC officers should attempt to attend and complete their branch CCC before or immediately following their promotion to the grade of captain. The course combines the instruction formerly taught in the branch Officer Advanced Course and the Combined Arms and Services Staff School. If an officer's CCC does not include the Combined Arms Exercise (formerly CAS3), then the officer must also attend Combined Arms Exercise to be eligible for further education opportunities. Selected captains deemed to have demonstrated superior performance in their basic branch may be selected to receive this training at schools other than their basic branch. Officers seeking accession into SF will normally attend the Maneuver CCC. For additional information about the Captains Officer Education System, refer to paragraph 4-7 d .

(5) Branch opportunities. All company grade officers should focus their efforts during the company grade years on mastering the basic skills of their specific branch. Much of the value an RC officer brings to future assignments is dependent on experience gained by leading Soldiers and mastering basic branch skills. Officers who have demonstrated the potential and desire to command Soldiers should seek command positions. The number of company commands within a specific branch, or a specific area may not afford all officers the opportunity to command at the captain level. Command opportunities for captains are found in traditional TOE line units or TDA units in training, garrison, and headquarters organizations.

b. Post-initial branch development. After a company grade officer has been afforded a branch development opportunity, a number of options for continued professional development are available. At this time, the officer, commanders, and assignment officers assess the individual's developmental objectives for the post-branch development phase. The types of assignments and developmental patterns for this phase are as follows:

(1) Branch assignments. The range of further assignments to branch-coded positions is a function of the Army's structure, unit fill, and officer's flexibility. These assignments may include staff and faculty positions at training schools, duty with Regional or State Headquarters, or staff positions in tactical or training units. Branch assignments further develop the basic branch skills and employ the officer's accumulated skills, knowledge, and attributes.

(2) Branch/functional area generalist assignments. Some company grade officers may serve in positions coded 01A (Officer Generalist) or 02A (Combat Arms Generalist). For career progression, officers seeking combat arms generalist positions should refer to the National Guard. These branch/FA generalist positions do not require an officer from a specific branch or FA but may be performed by an officer with certain experiences, manner of performance and demonstrated potential.

(3) Functional area designation. Officers who choose to designate into FAs should expect training and education opportunities to focus on their areas of specialization and include progressive and repetitive assignments of increasing responsibility. Each of the FA chapters in this pamphlet outlines developmental positions.

(4) Advanced degrees. Officers should seek opportunities to obtain graduate-level degrees in designated disciplines. Advanced degree programs for RC officers are currently limited; however officers should try to further their education through tuition assistance, and State and local programs.

(5) Joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational training opportunities. This emerging program intends to provide short-term (90 to 180 days) training for officers providing them the skills necessary to lead the Army of the future.

(6) Training With Industry. Some branches and FAs participate in Training With Industry, where officers are assigned to a civilian industry to observe and learn the technical and managerial aspects of that field. The total number of training quotas varies annually from 50 to 70 based on budget, policy, and requirements. Officers selected for this program must be proficient in their branch, have a manner of performance that reflects a strong potential for future service and be able to serve a utilization tour upon completion of training. The Training With Industry program is outlined in AR 621-1 and in the specific branch and FA chapters later in this pamphlet.

(7) Army Acquisition Corps. HRC hosts an Acquisition Accession Board annually to select branch-qualified captains for FA 51. The Army Acquisition Corps officers may receive a fully funded master's degree (if not already at civilian education level 2), attend the Materiel Acquisition Management Course and other FA related training, and serve repetitive assignments in their acquisition specialties to prepare them for critical acquisition positions at field grade level. The Army Acquisition Corps, created in early 1990, is described in detail in chapter 48 of this pamphlet.

(8) Selection for promotion to major. Below the zone opportunities are currently being considered for USAR officers. Below the zone opportunities occur approximately a year earlier than officers are currently considered for the DA Board.

7-7. Major development mandatory intermediate level education enrollment

a. This phase begins with selection for promotion to major. The junior field grade years serve to develop the officer cohort in a variety of branch or FA assignments within their functional category.

b. The general development goals are to complete MEL ILE, and successfully complete other branch, FA or broadening assignments prior to consideration for promotion to lieutenant colonel. The ILE will provide a quality education for all field grade officers and prepare them for their next 10 years of service. See paragraph 4-7 e for further discussion of ILE.

c. The minimum time in grade for majors is 4 years and the maximum time in grade is 7 years.

d. Resident ILE selections are made via DA-centralized selection board and USAR TPU graduates are assigned to organizations based on guidance from the Chief, Army Reserve (CAR). Assignments for USAR AGR resident ILE graduates will be made by HRC to fill operational assignments.

e. School of AMSP. TPU officers who are selected to the SAMS Course will agree to a 2 year utilization tour upon completion of the course. Their assignment will be based upon guidance from the CAR. AGR graduates will be assigned by the officer's assignment officer with input from the HRC SAMS manager.

7-8. Lieutenant colonel development — mandatory Advanced Operations Course attendance and completion

a. This phase generally occurs when an officer has at least 3 years time in grade. Officers in the grade of lieutenant colonel serve as senior leaders and managers throughout the Army providing wisdom, experience, vision, and mentorship mastered over many years.

b. The professional development goals for a lieutenant colonel are to broaden their branch, FA and skill proficiency at the senior levels through assignments and schooling. Most of these officers will serve in high visibility billets in their branch, FA or JIIM positions, and a possible assignment to a cross-branch/FA developmental position.

(1) Branch assignments. RC lieutenant colonels can expect branch-coded assignments to both TDA and TOE positions. These billets can range from positions within a battalion through echelons above corps. Branch proponents have outlined developmental standards in their respective chapters of this pamphlet.

(2) Functional area assignments. The OPMS design allows officers to serve in repetitive assignments within a FA to gain a high degree of expertise. FA proponents have outlined developmental standards in their respective chapters of this pamphlet.

(3) Joint duty assignments. The RC does not have a formal Joint Credentialing program, and there are limited assignments available in the RC to gain exposure and experience in joint operations. RC officers may apply for joint duty credit for qualifying assignments as specified for AC officers.

(4) Branch/functional area generalist assignments. Some officers will serve outside their branch or FA in billets coded as branch/FA generalist. Such assignments are found throughout the Army in troop and staff organizations from the installation to Department of the Army level.

(5) Semi-centralized selection. A semi-centralized board is held by each Regional Readiness Command (RRC)/Regional Support Command (RSC) which selects a limited number of officers for command and key billets. The Lieutenant Colonel Command Assignment Selection Board contains both TOE and TDA positions. The command board meets at least annually (usually semi-annually) to select commanders from the eligible officers. Command opportunity varies based on force structure and the command categories for which an officer competes. On average, lieutenant colonels serve in their command tours during their 18th through 20th years of service

(6) Senior Service College. The Army War College does not accept individual applications into its SSC programs except through special exceptions. A DA-centralized board is held on behalf of the CAR to identify officers to attend SSC. USAR officers are selected according to AR 350-1 . Commissioned officers from all components should remember that according to the provisions of AR 350-100 , attendance at the Army War College incurs a 2-year service obligation. U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course allows you to participate in a 2-year, rigorous program of instruction that results in the award of the same graduation certificate and the same fully accredited master of science degree awarded to graduates of the resident program. You will need to devote 15 hours each week to a program that is delivered to you via the Internet, one that leverages technology to enhance the educational experience. Only the resident SSC courses and nonresident Army War College course award MEL SSC and JPME II upon completion. SSC graduates are assigned to organizations based on guidance from the CAR, and Director of ARNG. Tours following graduation are to the Army Staff, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Secretary of Defense, ACOM, and combatant command staffs in branch, FA, branch/FA generalist or joint positions.

c. Below the zone selection is possible, and officers will only be considered once prior to their primary zone consideration.

7-9. Colonel development

a. Those officers selected for promotion to colonel continue their senior field grade phase that concludes with their separation or retirement from an active status or selection for promotion to brigadier general. Attaining the grade of colonel is realized by a select few and truly constitutes the elite of the officer corps. As colonels, their maximum contribution to the Army is made as commanders and senior staff officers.

b. The general professional development goals for colonels are to further enhance branch or FA skill proficiency through additional senior-level assignments and schooling.

(1) Branch assignments. Many colonels can expect to receive assignments to branch coded or immaterial positions at the brigade, division, corps and echelons above corps in the TOE environment. TDA organizations throughout the Army also need the expertise of senior field grade officers.

(2) Functional area assignments. Under OPMS, FA officers should strive to work predominantly in their specialties after selection for promotion to major. Having risen above their peers at the grade of major and lieutenant colonel, those promoted to colonel are truly the world-class specialists in their respective fields. These officers should seek senior managerial billets in the RC coded for their specialty.

(3) Joint duty assignment. Although there is currently no RC Joint duty assignment reserve list, officers should seek joint development in positions that provide Joint experience. Credit for the joint duty can be applied for in the same manner used by AC for non-Joint duty assignment list duties that qualify as joint service.

(4) Command selection. Some officers are selected for command at the colonel level. Most positions are branch-coded and branch officers compete within designated categories for these positions. The command billets are board-selected positions in the USAR. Command selections are approved by the CAR or the State AG. The majority of officers in a cohort year group do not command; they make their maximum contribution to the Army in other important branch or FA senior staff assignments.

7-10. Warrant officer development

Career management is of critical importance to the modern RC warrant officer. The modern RC warrant officer is a complex person with numerous skills and disciplines, both civilian and military. The need for a thorough, professionally designed leader development plan is both obvious and imperative. The career RC warrant officer must be well trained to fill his or her mobilization role.

a. Army National Guard.

(1) ARNG warrant officer career management is the responsibility of the State AG.

(2) The National Guard Bureau (NGB) communicates DA policy to the State AG in all matters concerning warrant officer career management.

(3) Leader development is a primary command responsibility. Commanders at all levels assist in the administration of WOLDAP-ARNG by coordinating with the officer personnel manager to develop and properly guide the career of each officer in their command, recommending assignments according to qualifications, aptitudes, potential and desires of their officers, serving as mentors, conducting periodic evaluations and counseling, and recommending leader development schools and training.

(4) Organization personnel officers, especially at battalion level, play a vital role in career management for ARNG warrant officers. The responsibilities of the personnel officer include maintaining liaison with the officer personnel manager, assisting warrant officers in maintaining their records, counseling warrant officers concerning requirements for designation of MOS and FA, and making recommendations to the commander and the Military Personnel Management Office (ARNG) for changes to the personnel status of warrant officers.

(5) Warrant officers have the final responsibility for ensuring they are progressing satisfactorily in their professional development. They establish goals and evaluate progress, making necessary adjustments to achieve personal goals and professional proficiency.

(6) The Army Military Human Resource Records for all ARNG warrant officers are maintained at NGB. The appropriate State AG office maintains a field military personnel record jacket for each warrant officer.

(7) The AG of the State establishes unit location and stationing.

b. U.S. Army Reserve.

(1) Commanders and assignment officers are charged with the duty of developing the most professionally competent USAR warrant officers possible by consistently providing meaningful training opportunities for the warrant officers within their area of management responsibility. The assignment officer has training programs available which are designed to provide a balance of military experience during each USAR warrant officer's career.

(2) The TPU is one important training vehicle. In the TPU, warrant officers gain the operational assignment experience necessary for leader development. In this area, commanders must be closely involved with the developmental process of their subordinate warrant officers by offering progressive and sequential assignments and ensuring that appropriate skills, knowledge, and attitudes are developed.

(3) A balance must be maintained between assignments to TPUs and assignments within the IMA and IRR. Diversity of assignment reduces the probability of narrow, limited training and assignment experience. Stagnation in any category of assignment can be counterproductive to the development of the individual officer, as well as improperly utilizing the availability of assignments to enhance the professional capability of the entire warrant officer cohort.

(4) In the IRR, the warrant officer is able to "update" his background by training with the AA in progressive career field assignments. This type of assignment is called "counterpart training." IMA assignments may also be available.

c. Warrant officer management considerations.

(1) Army National Guard. To properly plan for the development and assignment of warrant officers into positions of increasing responsibility, it is necessary to have an overview of the State force structure and an inventory of warrant officer positions. States develop a State Master Development Plan (SMDP) as a tool for this purpose. The SMDP allows for analysis of all MOSs authorized by State force structure documents, to determine career progression patterns for warrant officers within the State. The SMDP is used to determine how many warrant officers in each MOS the AG needs to develop. The proper selection, training, and utilization of warrant officers is dependent on each State's MOS requirements. Institutional training must be completed at the appropriate warrant officer career point, the best-qualified warrant officers must receive progressive operational assignments in recognition of their demonstrated skills, and all warrant officers must be aware of their responsibility to achieve the highest possible goals of self-development.

(a) All warrant officers are assigned according to individual qualifications that are properly documented.

(b) The professional capabilities of all warrant officers are developed through planned and progressively responsible assignments. This ensures a sufficient number of qualified warrant officers at all times to accomplish assigned missions.

(c) All warrant officers have equal opportunity for promotion selection and for higher assignments on the basis of their demonstrated abilities.

(d) All warrant officers are aware of the guidelines and expectations in their career planning.

(2) U.S. Army Reserve. Decisions on assignments will be made on the basis of the "whole person" concept and unit requirements. Military training priorities must be integrated with the officer's civilian job as well as personal and community responsibilities.

(a) The assignment officer/career manager will ensure that the background information on each warrant officer is complete. Each record will be reviewed to determine the extent and quality of activity during service. Those IRR officers without recent active participation may be programmed for counterpart training, if available, with an ACunit prior to consideration for assignment to a troop unit.

(b) Warrant officers serving in the IRR will be considered for reassignment to a TPU or an IMA assignment based on the following factors. The assignment officer/career manager and when applicable the senior leader development office senior warrant officer must ensure that officers have the prerequisite and, when appropriate, civilian schooling required to prepare them for the reassignment.

(1) Availability and type of TPUs within a reasonable commuting distance ( AR 140-1 ), normally within a 50-mile radius or a 90-minute travel time. Distance is based on travel by car, one way, under normal traffic, weather, and road conditions over the most direct route to the warrant officer's home or current residence.

(2) Prior experience, both active and RC, and the level of this experience compared to a typical warrant officer of the same grade, MOS/FA, and age.

(3) Career field and level of military schooling or potential to acquire the required skills within 3 years of assignment.

(4) Amount of time the warrant officer can make available for military activities and officer's preferences for types of assignments.

7-11. Warrant officer one development

A WO1 is appointed by warrant with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position given by the Secretary of the Army. WO1s are basic level, technically and tactically focused officers who perform the primary duties of technical leader, trainer, operator, manager, maintainer, sustainer, and advisor. They also perform any other branch-related duties assigned to them. They also provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. WO1s have specific responsibility for accomplishing the missions and tasks assigned to them and, if assigned as a commander, the collective or organizational responsibility for how well their command performs its mission. The WO1s primarily support levels of operations from team through battalion, requiring interaction with all Soldier cohorts and primary staff. They provide leader development, mentorship, and counsel to enlisted Soldiers and NCOs. The appropriate WOBC must be completed within 2 years of appointment to be a mobilization asset and remain in the ARNG and USAR.

7-12. Chief warrant officer two development

A CW2 is a commissioned officer with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position as given by the Secretary of the Army. CW2s are intermediate level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, trainer, operator, manager, maintainer, sustainer, and advisor. They also perform any other branch-related duties assigned to them. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They have specific responsibility for accomplishing the missions and tasks assigned to them and, if assigned as a commander, the collective or organizational responsibility for how well their command performs its mission. CW2s primarily support levels of operations from team through battalion, requiring interaction with all Soldier cohorts and primary staff. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs, other warrant officers and company grade branch officers.

7-13. Chief warrant officer three development

A CW3 is a commissioned officer with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position as given by the Secretary of the Army. CW3s are advanced level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, trainer, operator, manager, maintainer, sustainer, integrator, and advisor. They also perform any other branch-related duties assigned to them. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. CW3s have specific responsibility for accomplishing the missions and tasks assigned to them and, if assigned as a commander, the collective or organizational responsibility for how well their command performs its mission. CW3s primarily support levels of operations from team through brigade, requiring interaction with all Soldier cohorts and primary staff. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs, other warrant officers and branch officers. CW3s advise commanders on warrant officer issues.

7-14. Chief warrant officer four development

A CW4 is a commissioned officer with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position as given by the Secretary of the Army. CW4s are senior-level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, manager, maintainer, sustainer, integrator, and advisor. They also perform any other branch-related duties assigned to them. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. CW4s have specific responsibility for accomplishing the missions and tasks assigned to them and, if assigned as a commander, the collective or organizational responsibility for how well their command performs its mission. They primarily support battalion, brigade, division, corps, and echelons above corps operations. They must interact with NCOs, other officers, primary staff, and special staff. CW4s primarily provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs, other warrant officers and branch officers. They have special mentorship responsibilities for other warrant officers and provide essential advice to commanders on warrant officer issues.

7-15. Chief warrant officer five development

A CW5 is a commissioned officer with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position as given by the Secretary of the Army. CW5s are master-level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, manager, integrator, advisor, or any other particular duty prescribed by branch. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. CW5s have specific responsibility for accomplishing the missions and tasks assigned to them. CW5s primarily support brigade, division, corps, echelons above corps, and major command operations. They must interact with NCOs, other officers, primary staff, and special staff. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to warrant officers and branch officers. CW5s have special warrant officer leadership and representation responsibilities within their respective commands. They provide essential advice to commanders on warrant officer issues.

7-16. Management considerations

a. Army National Guard. Orderly career planning provides for progressive duty assignments and military schooling to meet current needs and develop officer skills for future assignments. The success of the officer career planning and management program is dependent upon policies and plans that ensure:

(1) All officers are assigned according to individual qualifications that are properly documented.

(2) The professional capabilities of all officers are developed through planned and progressively responsible assignments. This ensures a sufficient number of qualified officers are available at all times to accomplish assigned missions.

(3) All officers have equal opportunity for promotion selection and for higher assignments based on their demonstrated abilities.

(4) All officers are aware of the guidelines and expectations concerning career planning.

b. U.S. Army Reserve-management consideration.

(1) Previous active duty assignments. When evaluating an officer's active duty assignments, consideration should be given to the duty positions held by the officer, as well as his or her experience level. Active duty experience should be capitalized upon by assigning these officers to positions in which they can share their experiences and expertise.

(2) Experience. The officer's record should be reviewed for previous assignments, the level of assignment, command and staff experience, active duty for training assignments, and other RC oriented training.

(3) Military education. The officer's record should be reviewed for military schools that have been completed. Enrollment into resident and nonresident schools should be accomplished in a timely manner to ensure successful completion of military education requirements. Education that incurs a service obligation must be fulfilled in either the unit that sent the officer or in a like-type unit. Although assignment officers are not responsible for ensuring that managed officers complete the requirements, they play an important role in monitoring the officer's progress until the course is successfully completed.

(4) Civilian background. Assignment officers should evaluate the officer's civilian education and occupational background for potential skills, knowledge, and attributes that have military applications. Consideration may be given for designation of a SI for a civilian-acquired skill.

(5) Level of participation. The most critical factor in an officer's development is his or her willingness to participate in leader development over an extended period of time. The successful Army Reserve officer keeps his or her assignment officer informed of the type of duty, training, and education that best conforms to the officer's attributes, interests, and professional development needs. Although statutory and regulatory requirements for participation in education and training exist, the Army Reserve remains a volunteer organization. Ideally, every officer participates in educational opportunities to the maximum extent possible within the funding constraints that exist within the Army Reserve environment. It is also realized that Army Reserve officers are constrained by civilian employment, Family considerations, and community responsibilities. However, Army Reserve officers must make every attempt to participate consistently in training and education opportunities. Failure to do so may result in the officer's administrative elimination from the service through either voluntary or involuntary means (board action).

(6) Branch officers serving in command positions. Army Reserve officers must meet branch criteria for the type of unit they will command. This requirement is fundamental to our America's Army concept; therefore, requesting a waiver from this requirement is strongly discouraged. Officers can request a waiver through their chain of command and assignment officer to the CAR. In the absence of compelling reasons, approval of the request is not likely.

(7) Reassignment-Individual Ready Reserve. Officers serving in the IRR are considered for placement in a TPU position or an IMA assignment, based upon current position availability and the officer's career progression needs. The assignment officer ensures that officers have the military and civilian schooling necessary for TPU or IMA assignments, while taking the following factors into consideration:

(a) Availability and type of TPUs within a reasonable commuting distance. Officers are assigned according to established procedures using the request vacancy system. (See AR 140-1 and applicable directives.)

(b) Availability and type of IMA assignments currently available.

(c) Prior experience (both AA and RC) and the level of this experience compared to a typical officer of the same grade, branch, FA and time in service/time in grade.

(d) Career field and level of military and civilian schooling or potential to acquire the necessary skills within 3 years of assignment.

(e) Officer's annual training control group affiliation. (Obligated members of the annual training control group or Officer Active Duty Obligor control group may be involuntarily assigned to a TPU or IMA position vacancy.)

(8) Reassignments. AGR and IMA warrant officers are managed by HRC and will be reassigned based off of the CAR Manning Guidance. Assignments will support (in this order) the needs of the USAR, professional development needs of the officer, and the personal needs of the officer. TPU warrant officers are managed at the USARC and subordinate commands. A thorough review of an officer's file will be completed upon transfer to the IRR, and the officer should be prepared to discuss future career development needs and type of assignments desired. An officer in the IRR should continue to seek training opportunities to remain current in branch and/or FA skills.

7-17. Individual mobilization augmentee/drilling individual mobilization augmentee assignments (U.S. Army Reserve)

a. General. USAR officers fill a number of key positions throughout the DOD and other Governmental agencies. These positions are used to rapidly expand the agencies during the early phases of mobilization. Pre-selected, specially qualified officers are assigned to these positions and are trained during peacetime to augment the commands and agencies to enhance mission accomplishment upon mobilization. These officers are called IMAs/drilling individual mobilization augmentees (DIMAs) and are assigned to Army Reserve Control Group-IMA in a Selected Reserve status. IMAs are given pre-mobilization orientation and qualification training for the positions to which they are attached. This is accomplished during 12-day annual training tours. Officers assigned as DIMA receive an additional 12 days of training per year in an inactive duty training status, which are performed with their unit or organization of attachment. These tours are coordinated between the unit or organization, the career management officer (CMO) and the officer. (For further guidance on the IMA program, see AR 140-145 .)

b. Training. IMA officers training requirements are coordinated through the gaining agency. All requests for training in lieu of, or in addition to, annual training tours are submitted on DA Form 1058-R (Application for Active Duty for Training, Active Duty for Special Work, Temporary Tour of Active Duty, and Annual Training for Soldiers of the ARNG and USAR) through the proponent agency to Commander, U.S. Army Human Resources Command (ARPC-PLM-I-IMA), 1600 Spearhead Division Road, Fort Knox, KY 40122-5200. HRC publishes orders if the unit or organization concurs and funds are available. Units or organizations should provide IMA/DIMA officers the opportunity to participate by completing projects for retirement credit throughout the year.

c. Federal employees. Federal employees are declared available for mobilization by their employing command or agency. As IMA officers, DA civilian employees may not hold IMA positions with the same HQDA general or special staff element in which they are employed. USAR members should report employment conflicts to their proponent agencies and HRC assignment officers when they occur.

7-18. Company and field grade officer education

a. Resident courses. The RC officers are authorized to attend resident Army service schools to become qualified in their present or projected assignments as funds and allocations allow. Attendance at resident service schools is the preferred option for all RC officers since it allows for peer-to-peer interaction and an ongoing exchange of ideas and experiences. It also allows RC officers to interact with their AA counterparts and provide them with information about the RC. It is understood, however, that not all RC officers will be able to attend all service schools in residence due to budgetary, time or training seat constraints. For this reason, type of school attendance (resident or nonresident) is not a discriminator for promotion or duty assignment in the RC. Officers may also attend courses that contribute to the military proficiency of the unit or enhance their specific abilities.

b. Nonresident courses. With the exception of the BOLC, military schools may be taken through nonresident courses, TASS and through Distributed Learning courses. The CCC and ILE are available in both TASS and nonresident versions. The CMOs at HRC (for Army Reserve) and the State officer personnel manager (for ARNG) should ensure that officers are enrolled in military education courses in a timely manner to ensure that all RC officers remain fully competitive for promotion and assignment considerations. Table 7-2 discusses the options available for RC officers to complete their military education and the amount of time that each officer has to complete the nonresident instruction after enrollment before being dropped from the school.

c. Branch and functional area educational requirements. All RC officers are designated a branch upon appointment. Branching decisions are made based upon the needs of the Army, although officer preference is considered. Branching is usually determined prior to commissioning, although RC officers can be re-branched at any time based upon the needs of the service until they attend BOLC; at which point their branch is fixed. Once an officer has attended BOLC, he or she cannot be re-branched until they have either attended another BOLC or completed other branch development courses, such as CCC.

(1) Basic Officer Leaders Course. All officers attend BOLC in their branch to meet branch development and mobilization requirements; no alternative training method is available. Although attendance at BOLC immediately after commissioning is preferable, RC officers must complete BOLC within 2 years of commissioning.

(2) Captain Career Course. The RC officers will enroll in the RC CCC upon completion of BOLC III and promotion to first lieutenant. Those who desire to enroll prior to this time require a waiver by the unit commander, or by the Commander, HRC-Fort Knox for members of the IRR. The RC officers must enroll in the CCC prior to completing 8 years of commissioned service. RC officers must satisfy the following prerequisites for enrollment into the CCC:

(a) Be a commissioned officer in the grade of first lieutenant or captain.

(b) Meet the standards of AR 140-1 , AR 600-9 , and AR 350-1 .

(3) Functional area training. RC officers may apply for FA designation once promoted to captain. Although a FA is not a branch, it is an area of specialization requiring additional training or experience. Many courses provided through the DOD and in the civilian community support FA training and qualification, as does civilian work experience. For example, some officers are qualified as Operations Research/Systems Analysts in their civilian profession; yet do not possess the Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49) FA. Since this FA is chronically short throughout the Army, these officers will be strongly encouraged to apply for it based on their civilian experience. FA selection is therefore based on such factors as the officer's experience and abilities, geographical requirements and the needs of the Army. FAs allow RC officers to broaden the scope of their experience and enhance both their assignment and promotion potential.

d. Intermediate level education. This mid-level school prepares majors for assignments at the division and corps level, as well as joint assignments. The school is branch non-specific and provides training in the military arts and sciences, as well as introductory courses in geopolitical issues and on how the Army runs. RC officers also receive credit for ILE by attending the resident Marine Corps, Navy or Air Force Command and General Staff College and the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation.

e. Associate Theater Logistics Studies Program. The Associate Theater Logistics Studies Program (ATLog) replaces the Associate Logistics Executive Development Course and is offered to officers in Ordnance, Transportation, Quartermaster, and some Medical Service. Attendance at the Combined Logistics Officer Advanced Course or the Combined Logistics Captains Career Course (CLC3) at Fort Lee satisfies the prerequisites for ATLog. The course targets logisticians at the Operational level who will be positioned in the Army as multifunctional, joint, and multinational logistics problem solvers. ATLog consists of five phases. Phase I and Phase V are mandatory resident phases. Phases II, III, and IV are nonresident phases. All nonresident phases are offered via blackboard. All phases are required to be taken in sequence (1, 2, 3 and so forth). This ensures that all students have the same educational background. ATLog requires students to take the 2 week resident Joint Course on Logistics as a prerequisite prior to enrollment into Phase IV. Students have 3 years to complete the entire ATLog course. ATLog also provides Defense Acquisition University (DAU) course equivalency for five DAU courses: ACQ 101, ACQ 201, CON 100, LOG 101, and LOG 201. HRC has approved award of a SI to ATLog graduates. This SI is for logistics officers focused upon becoming the Army's logistics planners and problem solvers in theater and expeditionary sustainment commands (ESCs), as well as joint and multinational staffs. The phases of ATLog are:

(1) Phase 1 — Theater Logistics (TLog) (resident).

(2) Phase 2 — Data Analysis and Application (nonresident).

(3) Phase 3 — Capabilities and Requirements/Contracting (nonresident).

(4) Phase 4 — Material and Distribution Management/Battle Logistics Analysis Paper (nonresident).

(5) Phase 5 — TLog (Capstone)/Regional Economic Implications (resident).

f. Senior Service School requirements. The SSCs provide field grade officers with advanced professional education in both military and sociopolitical topics. The SSCs, which include the Army War College and university fellowships, prepare officers for senior leadership positions throughout the DOD.

g. Field grade refresher courses. Branch refresher courses are conducted by branch proponent schools to provide current doctrine in branch matters and special subjects for field grade officers. While no credit for promotion is given for attendance at these courses, the opportunity to update professional knowledge is of great value to RC officers.

h. Language training. Where a TOE or TDA position requires language proficiency, officers may apply for language acquisition or sustainment training at either the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, CA, or the ARNG Language Center. These resident courses are very lengthy, lasting from 25 to 60 weeks.

i. Civilian education. The standard for civilian education for officers in the U.S. Army is a baccalaureate degree. Most officers commissioned into the RC already have a baccalaureate degree; however, some officers commissioned through the State OCS do not. Table 7-3 lists the educational requirements applicable to the appointment and commissioning of officers without baccalaureate degrees. Effective 1 October 1995, in accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1995, a baccalaureate degree from an accredited educational institution is required for promotion to any grade above first lieutenant. Army Nurse Corps officers appointed on or after 1 October 1986 must possess a baccalaureate degree in nursing (accredited by an agency acceptable to HQDA) prior to promotion to major.

j. Other military education.

(1) Total Army School System. The TASS offers ILE to RC officers. Since 1 October 1993, CCCs have been offered through the branch proponent schools in RC configured courses. The TASS option offers an excellent opportunity for completing educational requirements because of the presence of qualified instructors and the interaction with fellow officers.

(2) The Army Institute for Professional Development. The Army Institute for Professional Development at Fort Eustis, VA, administers the Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP). The ACCP provides progressive educational opportunities through correspondence for a wide variety of subjects. This type of military education is particularly well suited for RC officers who cannot take advantage of resident courses. Many courses are targeted at specific assignments, such as motor officer, personnel officer, or dining facility officer.

7-19. Warrant Officer Education System

a. Purpose. The purpose of this section is to outline the methods available to warrant officers in completing military education requirements and civilian education goals as they progress through their military careers.

b. Military education.

(1) The Department of the Army MOS proponents conduct courses in both AA and RC configured versions combining correspondence and active duty for training phases for most occupational specialties.

(2) Warrant officer training under Warrant Officer Education System has five levels that provide warrant officers with performance-based certification and qualification training. Warrant Officer Education System trains and develops warrant officers for progressively more difficult and complex assignments. The new course titles align more closely with comparable commissioned officer courses for consistency and ease of understanding by the Army at large. All warrant officers, supervisors, and commanders must familiarize themselves with the new Warrant Officer Education System and understand the affect on warrant officer leader and professional development. The five levels of Warrant Officer Education System are:

(a) Warrant Officer Candidate School. This course provides candidates with initial warrant officer training. Graduates are appointed to warrant officer (WO1). Completion of WOBC within 2 years (a 1-year extension may be granted on a case-by-case basis) of warrant officer appointment is required.

(b) Warrant Officer Basic Course. This is proponent training that provides MOS-specific instruction and certification following WOCS and is characterized by an increased emphasis on leadership. This course is an ARNG requirement for promotion to CW2, and an Army Reserve requirement for promotion to CW2 for a warrant officer with a date of rank of 1 January 05 or later. (Warrant officers with date of rank prior to 1 January 05 are grandfathered for promotion to CW3.)

(c) Warrant Officer Advanced Course. This training provides additional training for warrant officers serving at the company and battalion level and is a two phase course consisting of:

(1) Warrant Officer Advanced Course Prerequisite Studies Phase. This is a mandatory nonresident course that must be completed prior to attending resident WOAC training. Effective 1 October 1998, the Action Officer Development Course (ST7000) was adopted as the resource for this DL course. It can be completed online via the Internet, and provides warrant officers serving in CW2 or higher duty positions relevant training in topics such as management techniques, communication skills, preparing and staffing documents, meetings and interviews, problem solving, writing, coordinating, briefings, and ethics. In keeping with the Warrant Officer Education System model, enrollment must occur after promotion to CW2 in order to qualify for WOAC Prerequisite Studies credit. The course must be completed within 1 year of enrollment; however, CW2s now have the flexibility to enroll at any convenient time between 24 and 48 months of total warrant officer service. Completion of the Action Officer Development Course is mandatory requirement for promotion of all ARNG warrant officers to CW3 including those awarded an MOS that does not have an advanced course. To enroll online, go to http://www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/accp/st7000/top.htm and follow the enrollment instructions.

(2) The resident phase of the Warrant Officer Advanced Course. This course is administered and conducted by individual proponents and is an ARNG requirement for promotion to the grade of CW3. For USAR warrant officers, successful completion is a requirement for promotion to CW4 and CW5 until 2010 when it will be a requirement for promotion to CW3 for a warrant officer with a date of rank of 1 January 05 or later. (Warrant officers with date of rank prior to 1 January 05 are grandfathered for promotion to CW4.)

(d) Warrant Officer Staff Course. This common core 5-week resident course prepares warrant officers to serve in staff positions at the brigade and higher levels. WOSC is an ARNG requirement for promotion to CW4. (At this time, WOSC is not a prerequisite for the WOSSC). For Army Reserve warrant officers, successful completion will be a requirement for promotion to CW4 and CW5 beginning in 2010.

(e) Warrant Officer Senior Staff Course. This 2-week resident course is conducted at the Warrant Officer Career Center (WOCC), Fort Rucker, AL and prepares warrant officers selected for promotion to chief warrant officer (CW5) to serve at the highest level staff positions. (This course is an RC requirement for promotion to CW5).

(3) Correspondence courses. The Army Institute for Professional Development at Fort Eustis, VA is responsible for the administration of the ACCP. The ACCP provides progressive education opportunities through correspondence for a wide variety of subjects. This type of military education is particularly suited for RC personnel who cannot take advantage of resident courses. Many courses are targeted at specific assignments.

(4) Language training. Where the MTOE or TDA position requires language proficiency, warrant officers may apply for language training at the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, CA or the ARNG Language Center in Puerto Rico.

c. Civilian education. There is a demand for warrant officers with an education beyond high school level to accommodate the changing technological environment within the Army. The RC warrant officer corps must keep pace with these changes if it is to meet the challenges of the future. Applicants for initial appointment must meet all MOS-specific additional civilian education requirements as specified for the particular warrant officer specialty. Applicants whose native language is not English must be tested and achieve a minimum raw score of 80 on the English Comprehension Level Test. Civilian education goals are as follows:

(1) The ARNG goal for warrant officers is the attainment of a specialty-related associate degree or 60 college semester hours by the eighth year of warrant officer service.

(2) The Army Reserve goal for warrant officers is the attainment of a specialty-related associate degree or 60 college semester hours by the 5th year of warrant officer service, and a bachelors degree by the 10th year of warrant officer service.

Table 7-3. Nonresident military schools
Nonresident school Method allowed Time allotted for instruction
BOLC Resident only N/A
CCC Distributed Learning and Resident 13 months
ILE Distributed Learning; TASS 3 years
WOBC Resident only 2 years
WOAC Phase I — Action Officer Development Course
Phase II — Resident
1 year
WOSC Resident 5 weeks
WOSSC Resident 2 weeks


Table 7-4. Civilian education requirements for commissioning
Fiscal year of commissioning College semester hours required
1993 70
1994 80
1995 and later 90

7-20. Promotion

See AR 135-155 and NGR 600-101 for all promotion details. Law for promotion automatically considers commissioned officers of the RCs who are on the Reserve active status list for 1 year or more and when they have served the required years in grade, per the 1-year rule outlined in 10 USC 14301(a). The AR 135-155 requires that each USAR warrant officer who is in an active status be considered for promotion at such time as he or she has served the required number of years in grade. Promotion consideration occurs whether officers are assigned to an ARNG unit, TPU or a control group, except for the Standby Reserve (Inactive) and the Inactive ARNG. The RC officers assigned to an ARNG unit or USAR TPU have an additional opportunity for promotion to fill unit position vacancies at such time as they have completed the education and time in grade requirements. Warrant officers in the Standby Reserve (Inactive) and ING are not considered for promotion. Army Reserve warrant officers assigned to TPUs have the additional opportunity to be considered for promotion to fill unit vacancies at such time as they have completed the required years in grade, without regard to total years of service. The ARNG warrant officers are promoted by the State AG to fill vacancies in ARNG units. Time in grade requirements for vacancy promotions are contained in AR 135-155. Army Reserve warrant officer promotion time lines are shown in AR 135-155. ARNG promotion time lines are outlined in NGR 600-101.

7-21. Consideration (C), Selection (S), and Promotion (P) requirements for company and field grade officers

a. General. To be eligible for selection for promotion, an RC officer, other than a warrant officer, not on extended active duty must —

(1) (C) Be on the Reserve active status list.

(2) (P)/(S) Be an active member and participating satisfactorily in RC training.

(3) (S) Meet the prescribed military educational requirements shown in table 7-1 .

(4) (S) Meet the prescribed civilian educational requirements of 10 USC 12205. The USC states that no person may be appointed to a grade above the grade of lieutenant in the Army Reserve or be federally recognized in a grade above the grade of first lieutenant as a member of the ARNG unless that person has been awarded a baccalaureate degree by a qualifying institution. This does not apply to the following:

(a) (S) The appointment to or recognition in a higher grade of a person who is appointed in or assigned for service in a health profession for which a baccalaureate degree is not a condition of original appointment or assignment.

(b) (C) The appointment to or recognition in a higher grade of any person who was appointed to, or federally recognized in, the grade of captain before 1 October 1995.

(c) (C) Recognition in the grade of captain or major in the Alaska ARNG of a person who resides permanently at a location in Alaska that is more than 50 miles from each of the cities of Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau by paved road, and who is serving in a scout unit or a scout supporting unit.

(5) (S) Meet the prescribed civilian educational requirements of AR 135-155 .

(a) (S) Army Nurse Corps officers appointed on or after 1 October 1986 must possess a baccalaureate degree in nursing from an accredited educational institution prior to promotion to major.

(b) (S) Officers other than Army nurses appointed on or after 1 October 1987 must possess a baccalaureate from an accredited educational institution prior to promotion to major.

(6) (C) Have served the required time in grade in accordance with AR 135-155.

b. (C) Reserve appointments. Upon release from active duty, officers with Reserve appointments are transferred in the grade satisfactorily held while on the ADL and, if accepted, may transfer to an ARNG unit or Army Reserve TPU; otherwise, they are transferred to the IRR. The officer also retains his or her time in grade. Officers on the ADL selected for promotion, removed from the ADL before being promoted, and transferred to the Reserve active status list in the same competitive category, shall be placed on an appropriate promotion list for Reserve of the Army promotion without the need for further consideration. RA officers who leave active service must apply and be accepted for a first-time Reserve appointment to enter Reserve duty.

7-22. Promotion selection board

a. The minimum military education requirements shown in table 7-1 , paragraph 7-4 , are a prerequisite for promotion. Since annual selection boards consider officers for promotion far enough in advance of the date on which the required time in grade will be completed as prescribed in AR 135-155 , educational requirements, both military and civilian, must be completed no later than the day prior to the date the board considering the officer convenes. The promotion board schedule is established annually by HQDA and is adjusted as required.

b. Selection boards consider the promotion of officers for all grades first lieutenant to colonel. Officers considered qualified and selected for promotion to first lieutenant will be promoted when they have completed 18 months service in grade. Second lieutenants are not promoted unless they have completed an Army BOLC. Second lieutenants who are not obligated and not promoted upon completion of 36 months commissioned service are separated.

c. Warrant officers of the ARNG are appointed and promoted by the States under section 8 of the U.S. Constitution. In order for an ARNG warrant officer to be concurrently promoted and receive Reserve Warrant Officer of the Army designation, the State promotion action must be federally recognized. To accomplish this process, the promotion action requires the conduct and examination by a Federal Recognition Board. The senior RA advisor of the State for the numbered Army Area (continental United States Army (CONUSA)) commanders appoints Federal Recognition Boards. Appointments to the Federal Recognition Board are made by authority of the Secretary of the Army. The Secretary of the Army provides administrative instructions and guidance to be used by the Federal Recognition Board in a memorandum of instruction to the board. Federal Recognition Boards consist of a total of three commissioned officers of the AA and the ARNG who are senior to the officer being considered. The senior member of the board will serve as president of the board. A minimum of one member (preferably two) should be in the same branch as the officer to be considered. The board will consist of at least one minority member as a voting member, if possible, when minorities are being considered. Normally, at least one female officer will be appointed as a voting member whenever there are females being considered. When feasible, a commissioned aviator will be included as a member of the board when considering promotion of Aviation warrant officers. Applicants for ARNG promotion are examined in accordance with NGR 600-101 .

d. The Army Reserve CW3 and CW4 selection board selects officers for promotion without regard to vacancies in the next higher grade using a "fully qualified" methodology. The Army Reserve CW5 selection board selects officers for promotion utilizing a "best-qualified" methodology and considers both MOS and promotion ceilings when determining who will be promoted to fill the projected vacancies in authorized CW5 positions. Army Reserve selection boards will be composed of at least seven members: a brigadier general as board president, two colonels, and four CW5s. At least one-half of all selection board members will be RC officers not on active duty. Each selection board will consist of at least one minority member as a voting member. Normally, at least one female officer will be appointed as a voting member whenever there are females being considered. Army Reserve unit vacancy boards, when needed, convene on a date announced by HQDA. Selection boards convene each year as announced by HQDA.

Part Two

Operations

Chapter 8

Infantry Branch

8-1. Unique features of the Infantry Branch

a. Unique purpose of the Infantry Branch. The Infantry Branch is the maneuver branch with the mission to close with and destroy the enemy by means of fire and movement to defeat or capture him, or repel his assault by fire, close combat and counterattack. The Infantry is the only branch specifically designed to engage the enemy in direct ground combat. Infantry officers are valued for their physical and mental toughness, and their innate ability to focus on mission accomplishment in the most austere environments.

b. The way ahead. The continued evolution of the Army after 10 plus years of protracted conflict, changes in strategic focus, and unprecedented resourcing challenges will alter but not significantly change how the Infantry Branch trains, assigns, and develops officers. Although the means, methods, and time available to develop Infantry officers may change in the upcoming years, the fundamental goal and requirements remain unchanged. The end state remains the development of agile, adaptable, physically and mentally tough Infantry officers with a solid foundation in the core warfighting skills required to close with and destroy the enemy in close ground combat. While the focus of the Infantry Branch has always been the development of combined arms warriors, the Army's development and fielding of combined arms formations has amplified this requirement. These formations require a deliberate focus on the development of Infantry company grade officers who are experts in branch-specific individual, leader, and collective tasks, who can employ their units as part of a combined arms element. Field grade officers in these organizations require a broader understanding in the application of combined arms maneuver, joint and coalition capabilities to plan and execute brigade combat team (BCT) level tactical operations in support of unified land operations. As the Infantry officer progresses through the ranks their development must also prepare them to successfully serve across the entire JIIM environment. The assignment of Infantry officers will continue to be made based on (1) the needs of the Army, (2) the professional development needs of the officer and (3) the officer's preference. While HRC will make every effort to synchronize the three priorities, the needs of the Army and the professional development needs of the officer must continue to take precedence over individual preference.

c. Unique functions performed by the Infantry Branch. Infantry leaders are expected to synchronize all elements of combat power on the battlefield to defeat the enemy. Infantry officers are prepared to train, lead, and employ all types of Infantry and other maneuver and fire assets on the battlefield in unified land operations (offense, defense, and stability operations). The Infantry arrives on the battlefield by parachute assault, air assault, mechanized vehicle, wheeled vehicle or on foot. Insertion means are dependent upon the mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available and civilian considerations.

d. Unique features of work in the Infantry Branch. Infantry officers work at all levels of command and staff and can perform the following functions and tasks:

(1) Execute mission command of infantry and combined arms forces in combat.

(2) Provide coordination for employment of combined arms forces at all levels of joint, Army, and coalition commands.

(3) Develop doctrine, organizations, and equipment for Infantry unique missions and formations.

(4) Instruct Infantry skills at service schools and CTCs.

(5) Serve in positions requiring general combat skills such as staff officers in all levels of headquarters and activities requiring Infantry or maneuver expertise.

(6) Serve as Infantry instructors at pre-commissioning programs, service schools, and colleges.

(7) Serve as Infantry advisors to DOD, ARNG, USAR, and JIIM organizations.

e. Branch detail. Infantry Branch participates in the branch detailing of officers into Infantry for development and growth at the grade of lieutenant. Officers detailed Infantry (branch code 11) will lose their Infantry designation once they reach their branch detail expiration date and they have been reassigned into their new branch. Although branch detail times vary they generally occur prior to selection for captain and attendance at the CCC.

f. Branch eligibility. Specific eligibility requirements can be found in DA Pam 611-21 . Officers of other branches who desire a branch transfer to Infantry should submit a request in accordance with AR 614-100 .

8-2. Officer characteristics required

a. General. Infantry Branch requires officers who are, first and foremost, leaders of Soldiers. They should be mentally and physically disciplined and well-versed in Infantry and combined arms tactics, techniques and procedures. Infantry leaders will embody the Warrior Ethos. They will place the welfare of their Soldiers ahead of their own, and they will live the Army Values without exception. Their example will inspire others to achieve the same level of commitment and professionalism. The Infantry must produce agile and adaptive leaders who are flexible, critically reflective, and comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty, and agents of change. Infantry officers must be challenged and imbued with the confidence to be innovative and adaptive while competently performing in a JIIM environment. Infantry officers must be:

(1) Proficient in the art and science of the profession of arms.

(2) Comfortable employing both lethal and nonlethal means.

(3) Able to confront the uncertain situations of the contemporary operational environment.

(4) Adept at using ethical decision-making to solve complex, dynamic problems.

(5) Team builders, able to confidently lead Soldiers while engendering loyalty and trust. Additionally, there are several branch-unique skills that require professional development. Infantry Branch is the proponent for the following SIs (detailed descriptions contained in DA Pam 611-21 ):

(a) 2B-Air Assault.

(b) 3X-Bradley Leader.

(c) 3Z-Mortar Unit Officer.

(d) 5P-Parachutist.

(e) 5R-Ranger.

(f) 5S-Ranger/Parachutist.

(g) 5Q-Pathfinder.

(h) 5W-Jumpmaster.

b. Competencies and actions common to all. Infantry officers are valued for their skills as leaders, trainers, and planners: these skills are acquired and perfected through realistic training, PME and service in the most demanding positions Infantry Branch offers. Infantry officers must be proficient at maneuvering both vehicular and non-vehicular Infantry formations as well as serving in equally critical assignments within the generating force. The goal of the branch is to provide each officer with a series of leadership, staff, and developmental assignments; institutional training; and self-development opportunities in order to develop combined arms warriors with broad experience who can successfully operate in infantry specific, branch immaterial and JIIM assignments.

c. Unique skills. Infantry officers should consistently display outstanding performance across a wide variety of operating and generating force positions. Infantry officers should demonstrate excellence in their warfighting skills; technical proficiency; a well developed understanding of combined arms, joint, and coalition warfare; and the ability to lead, train, motivate, and care for Soldiers.

8-3. Critical officer developmental assignments

a. Lieutenant. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is to develop the requisite Infantry Branch skills, knowledge, and abilities. Lieutenants will focus on development of Infantry tactical and technical warfighting skills and the utilization of these skills in an operating force assignment.

(1) Education. Infantry officers will attend the Infantry BOLC. The Infantry BOLC course takes the graduate of OCS/BOLC I and continues development with the mission to "Educate and train Infantry lieutenants who are competent, confident, and professional leaders; able to lead platoons to fight and win in any operational environment." The Infantry BOLC endstate is: A physically rugged, competent, and confident Infantry officer proficient in Infantry skills who is adaptable, flexible, and prepared to train and lead Infantry platoons on any mission in any terrain. To further the development and tactical and technical proficiency required of Infantry officers there are a multitude of functional and combat/specials skills courses available following Infantry BOLC. It is the goal of the branch to provide all Infantry lieutenants with the opportunity to attend the Airborne Course and Ranger Course following Infantry BOLC. The Ranger Course is essential in developing the knowledge, skill, abilities required to serve as a rifle platoon leader. Additionally, any officer assigned to an armored BCT or a Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT) should attend the Bradley Leaders Course or the Stryker Leader Course prior to reporting for duty. Some officers will be selected to attend the Infantry Mortar Leader Course. Regardless of unit of assignment and follow-on schools, the objective is for Infantry lieutenants to complete all the required and branch directed training within 10 months from the 1st day of Infantry BOLC in order to ensure that they are able to complete the requisite assignments in their first duty station to provide them with the skills, knowledge, and experience necessary to build a strong foundation. The Infantry expects all Infantry lieutenants to volunteer for and complete Ranger training. The Ranger course develops the technical and tactical proficiency of Soldiers to improve their ability to plan and conduct missions to close with and destroy the enemy in direct ground combat normally associated with Infantry platoons. Successful completion of the Ranger Course is an indication that an officer possesses the skills and stamina necessary to effectively lead Soldiers in the Infantry.

(2) Operational and broadening assignments. The typical Infantry lieutenant will be assigned to a BCT as his first unit of assignment. The KD assignment during this phase is serving as a platoon leader in an operating force unit. Early experience as a rifle platoon leader is critical, as it provides Infantry lieutenants with the opportunity to gain tactical and technical expertise in their branch while developing leadership skills. Other typical assignments for lieutenants are battalion specialty platoon leader (recon, mortar, or weapons), company executive officer, or battalion staff officer.

(3) Self-development. Self-development during this phase should focus on Infantry tactical fundamentals, troop-leading procedures, leadership skills, organizational maintenance, resupply operations, basic administrative operations, and other branch technical proficiency skills. Infantry lieutenants must take the initiative to gain knowledge and experience for the next level of assignments and responsibilities as a captain. Self-improvement and development can be achieved through observing different activities and officers at the battalion and brigade levels, seeking out mentors and by gaining experience in other duty positions after successfully serving as a rifle platoon leader. The CSA's Professional Reading List for Company Grade Officers is an excellent source of information to assist the lieutenants in the self-development process. Additional resources are available through the U.S. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence Maneuver Self Study Program available online.

(4) Desired experience. Each Infantry lieutenant must complete all BOLC phases, successfully serve as a rifle platoon leader in an operating force assignment, and continue development of his technical and tactical abilities through assignment to a specialty platoon, executive officer, or in a staff position. The goal is a lieutenant with an understanding of how to employ an Infantry Platoon independently or in support of a company or larger combined arms team. He should have a working knowledge of special operations and air ground operations. A limited number of Infantry lieutenants will also serve in generating force assignments as executive officers, instructor/writers, or commanders prior to attending Maneuver Captain's Career Course (MC3).

b. Captain. The professional development objective for this phase is to develop Infantry officers with the technical, tactical, and leadership skills to serve successfully as a company commander and staff officer at the BCT level within the operating force, and who have rounded out their knowledge through successfully completing an assignment in the generating force. Infantry captains who have served in both operating and generating force positions have honed their tactical skills and expanded their capabilities through their developmental assignments.

(1) Education. Completion of the MC3 is mandatory during this period. Specialized training will be scheduled for officers after MC3 on an as needed basis. The majority of officers attending MC3 will be assigned to a different type of Infantry organization (vehicular or non-vehicular) than they served in at their first duty station. Exceptions may be made based on operational needs. Infantry officers who have not successfully completed the Ranger course should attend prior to or immediately following their career course. Infantry captains on orders to an armored BCT as a first time assignment will attend the Bradley Leaders Course and those assigned to SBCTs will attend the SBCT Leader Course prior to reporting.

(2) Operational and broadening assignments. The KD assignment for a captain is command of an operating force Infantry company for 12 to 18 months for a single command and no more than 24 months for two commands. Infantry captains should bear in mind that they will most likely be assigned to a type of Infantry unit they did not serve with as a lieutenant (vehicular or non-vehicular). Officers who command generating force companies encounter significant responsibilities and are therefore, extremely well prepared for operating force command. Generating force company commanders, having their first commands at the United States Army Infantry School, will be given a follow-on operating force assignment and the opportunity to compete for company command in operational BCTs. The Infantry encourages officers to seek company command opportunities on Fort Benning, prior to attendance at MC3. Infantry captains can expect to command within these organizations for 10 to 12 months and then immediately attend MC3. Officers who command in these generating force assignments will be provided the opportunity to compete for command in operating force units. Captains should aggressively seek command and developmental assignments in battalion and brigade-level staff positions in order to further their understanding of Infantry leadership and tactics. Some officers will have the opportunity to compete for selection and assignment to unique units where they may command again, such as the 75th Ranger Regiment, 3rd Infantry Group (Old Guard), SMUs, and the Ranger Training Brigade. Upon completion of company command, a wide variety of developmental assignments are available. The purpose of these assignments is to meet critical Army requirements, further develop the officer's knowledge base and provide him broad professional experience. Broadening assignments for Infantry captains include —

(a) Service school instructor or small group leader.

(b) Aide-de-camp.

(c) AC/RC and CTC observer/coach-trainer or staff positions.

(d) Generating force staff.

(e) Doctrine developer.

(f) Training developer.

(g) ACOM and higher-level DA staff.

(h) USMA faculty and staff.

(i) U.S. Army Recruiting Company command and staff.

(j) ROTC Assistant Professor of Military Science.

(k) Multinational and coalition trainer and staff officer.

(l) Army sponsored fellowships and scholarships.

(m) Other combat arms or branch generalist positions.

(n) JIIM organizations and commands.

(3) Self-development. During this phase, Infantry officers must hone their leadership, tactical, and technical skills and concentrate on those critical tasks required to accomplish their wartime mission while winning on the battlefield. The officer should also begin to develop a more thorough understanding of combined arms operations in a joint environment. Captains must take the initiative to gain knowledge and experience for the next level of assignments and responsibilities as a field grade officer. Self-improvement and development can be achieved through observing staff activities at the battalion and brigade levels, seeking out mentors, and by gaining experience in other duty positions after successful completion of company command. Officers should continue their professional military reading with books from the CSA's Professional Reading List for Field Grade Officers .

(4) Desired experience. There is no substitute for an operating force company command. It develops an Infantry officer's leadership and tactical skills and prepares him for future leadership assignments at successively higher levels of responsibility.

(5) Voluntary Transfer Incentive Program. This program allows officers to transfer into another branch or FA beginning in their 4 th year of active Federal service all the way through their 14 th year. This program also allows officers who are branch detailed into another branch to remain Infantry if they so desire. The VTIP panel meets every quarter to determine if an officer is eligible to transfer into another branch/FA. Submission of a VTIP packet does not guarantee that an officer will be branch transferred. Small numbers of Infantry officers from each year group will volunteer and be accessed into the Army Acquisition Corps through the VTIP process. These officers form a critical link between the operational and material development that benefits all branches.

c. Majors. The professional development objective for this phase is to expand the officer's tactical and technical experience and continue to broaden the officer as a combined arms warrior and leader with a comprehensive understanding of operations in a JIIM and expeditionary environment. Additionally, through a series of operating and generating force developmental assignments, the Infantry major continues to increase his understanding of how the Army operates. The goal is to provide the Infantry major with the tools that prepare the officer for future battalion command and for increasingly complex developmental assignments.

(1) Education. Military education required during this phase is completion of ILE conducted under the auspices of the Command and General Staff College or sister Service/foreign equivalent. The Army conducts ILE selection boards in conjunction with the Major ACC Promotion Selection Board to consider officers for resident or nonresident ILE opportunities. Officers will be selected for resident Command and General Staff College, satellite ILE or DL. Officers may also compete for sister Service ILE, foreign ILE and interagency fellowships. Officers may also compete to be selected for the SAMS, following the Army Operating Warfighting Course. Upon graduation from SAMS, the officer is required to serve up to two SAMS Utilization Tours (minimum of one) as a corps or division plans or operations/assistant DCS, G-3/5/7 staff officer.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Each officer should have sufficient experience in KD assignments in order to develop an understanding of Infantry and combined arms operations. There is no substitute for these KD assignments at the brigade level and below for preparing an Infantry officer for future command and for building his Infantry maneuver and combined arms skills. The Infantry major may further expand his tactical and technical skills by serving in staff assignments at division level and higher. The division chief of plans/chief of operation position are only considered KD assignments for the SAMS graduate Infantry officers. SAMS officers must then serve a minimum of 12 months in a battalion or brigade S3/XO position. KD assignments for an Infantry major are:

(a) Battalion/squadron operations officer.

(b) Battalion/squadron executive officer.

(c) Brigade/regiment operations officer.

(d) Operations officer and executive officer equivalent positions within a SMU.

(e) Division chief of plans (SAMS utilization only).

(f) Division chief of operations (SAMS utilization only).

(g) Senior Ranger regimental liaison officer.

(3) Infantry majors will also meet the Army's mission requirements and broaden their experience before or after their KD assignments. Broadening positions for Infantry majors include:

(a) AC/RC and CTC observer/controller-trainer or staff positions.

(b) Doctrine developer.

(c) Training developer.

(d) DA staff officer.

(e) Joint staff officer.

(f) Aide-de-camp.

(g) Brigade, division or corps staff.

(h) ACOM staff (CONUS and OCONUS).

(i) Command and General Staff College staff and faculty.

(j) Service school instructor.

(k) USMA faculty and staff.

(l) ROTC Assistant Professor of Military Science.

(m) Multinational and coalition trainer and staff officer.

(n) Army sponsored fellowships and scholarships.

(o) JIIM organizations and commands.

(4) Self-development. Infantry majors are expected to continue self-development efforts to build organizational leadership, strategic perspective and hone operational skills. Infantry majors will be required to develop and use a diverse set of skills as they move between combined arms leadership positions in operating and generating force organizations as well as in JIIM assignments.

(5) Desired experience. The Infantry major must hone his skills in the planning and execution of combined arms warfare to develop expertise in the JIIM operational environment. While 12 months is the minimum standard, an Infantry major will normally serve 24 months in a KD assignment. In order to produce agile and adaptive leaders, Infantry majors who have not yet met the requirements of the vehicular to non-vehicular imperative may be assigned to units for which they have not had previous experience following ILE. Moving between operating and generating force assignments will further broaden an Infantry officer's experience.

(6) Additional factors. The goal of the branch is to develop an inventory of field grade officers who embody a collective knowledge of JIIM experience. While not every officer will receive an assignment in a qualifying joint assignment or serve a fellowship in a JIIM agency, the goal is to provide the maximum opportunity for Infantry majors to receive JIIM experience. The JIIM assignments for Infantry majors are dependent on Army demands and position/fellowship availability.

d. Lieutenant colonel. The professional development objective for this phase is demonstrated excellence in tactical skills, technical proficiency, and the ability to lead, train, motivate, and care for Soldiers in both the staff and command environments. As the Infantry officer increases in rank, opportunities to serve within the operating force will decrease, while opportunities to serve in the generating force will increase. The officer's previous generating force assignments prepare the officer for an expanded role in the generating force in positions of increasing responsibility.

(1) Education. Lieutenant colonels selected for command-complete PCCs and may be selected for SSC following command.

(2) Operating and broadening assignments. The KD assignment for Infantry lieutenant colonels is to serve as a centrally selected (CSL) battalion command in the operating or generating force. Infantry lieutenant colonels selected for command will normally serve 2 years in command at battalion level. Broadening positions for Infantry lieutenant colonels include:

(a) CTC task force trainer.

(b) Brigade or regiment XO, and deputy BCT commander.

(c) Division-level officer under DCS, G-3/5/7 ( Normally a former battalion commander ).

(d) ROTC PMS.

(e) Division or corps staff.

(f) Service branch school staff and instructors.

(g) HQDA or joint staff, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) staff, combatant commands staff.

(h) JIIM organizations and commands.

(i) RC support.

(j) ACOM staff.

(k) Battle Command Training Program observer/controller-trainer.
Note. Assignment opportunities for some Infantry lieutenant colonel positions will be limited to former battalion commanders.

(3) Self-development. During this phase, self-assessment, off-duty civil schooling, and perfecting mentoring and managerial skills are essential to the development of the Infantry officer. The officer should also continue to hone his combined arms warfighting skills and his understanding of the joint operational environment. Continue to read books from the CSA's Professional Reading List for Field Grade Officers .

(4) Desired experience. Command selection only includes a small percentage of the Infantry lieutenant colonel population. Infantry lieutenant colonels not selected for battalion command continue to make significant contributions at all levels of the Army and in JIIM assignments. Infantry lieutenant colonels can expect to serve in a wide variety of professionally challenging and personally rewarding assignments in the operating and generating forces. Former battalion commanders will be assigned to specific billets coded for former battalion commander and will be assigned based on needs of the Army. All former battalion commander assignments are vetted through the Director, Officer Personnel Management Directorate. Some examples of former battalion commander billets include division-level officers under DCS, G-3/5/7, CTC task force senior observer/controller-trainer, Joint Staff, OSD, Army, corps, or division staff, TRADOC duty, Infantry Branch chief in officer or enlisted assignments, USAREC duty, or 75th Ranger Regiment CSL command.

e. Colonel. The professional development objective for this phase is sustainment of warfighting, training, and staff skills, along with utilization of leadership, organizational and executive talents. The majority of strategic level leaders in the Army are colonels. Colonels are expected to be strategic and creative thinkers; builders of leaders and teams; competent full spectrum warfighters; skilled in governance, statesmanship, and diplomacy. They must understand cultural context and work effectively across it.

(1) Education. Infantry colonels compete to attend a SSC. Attendance at the U.S. Army's War College, or a Sister Service's SSC is only one methods to become MEL 1 qualified. Officers selected may volunteer to attend in an allied nations SSC equivalent or gain constructive credit through an academic fellowship.

(2) Assignments. Infantry colonels contribute to the Army by serving in crucial assignments in branch and combat arms or branch immaterial positions. The critical task during this phase is to fully develop the broad skills and competencies required of an agile and adaptive leader, while maintaining branch competency (warfighting skills). Officers should make maximum use of their talents. Infantry officers will make full use of their operations and JIIM experience, managerial skills and executive talents to meet the needs of the Army. The KD assignment for an Infantry colonel is to serve in a CSL billet in a brigade, regimental or colonel-level garrison command. The normal command tour is between 18-24 months. Garrison command tour lengths are 24 months but can be extended to 36 months. Broadening positions for Infantry colonels include:

(a) CTC operations group commander/chief of staff.

(b) TRADOC capabilities manager.

(c) Division or corps chief of staff.

(d) Division, corps or field army assistant chief of staff, G-3/5/7.

(e) Executive officer to a general officer.

(f) Department director, U.S. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence.

(g) HQDA or joint staff.

(h) USMA brigade tactical officer

(i) Senior ROTC program PMS

(3) Self-development. Infantry colonels must maintain their branch skills and remain current on all changes that affect the Soldiers they command and/or manage. JIIM assignments are important during this phase.

(4) Desired experience. The primary goal at this stage is to fully use the experience and knowledge gained in a position where the officer can provide significant contributions to the operating and generating force. The KD assignment for an Infantry colonel is brigade-level command. No other position provides the Infantry officer the opportunity to fully use his depth of experience in joint and combined arms warfare and to capitalize on his generating force assignments in service to the Army. Only a limited number of Infantry officers will have the opportunity to command. Those officers not selected for command will continue to provide exceptional service in developmental assignments within the Army and in JIIM assignments. These officers also provide the critical bridge between the operating and generating force, and serve as the advocate of commanders in staff positions at all echelons.

f. Joint assignments. Infantry officers will be considered for joint duty assignment based on the needs of the Army, professional development needs of the officer and availability of a joint assignment. Infantry officers and units will continue to be called on to participate in joint operations around the world. Joint experience, developed through sequential assignments, will provide the joint perspective on strategic operations to be successful now and in the future.

8-4. Assignment preferences

The professional development goal of Infantry Branch is to produce and sustain highly-qualified officers who are tactically and operationally oriented to lead Soldiers and command units in combat and perform other assigned missions. Assignments in combined arms organizations will be made to develop the officer's overall ability to achieve that goal. The officer's assignments will be based on the needs of the Army, the officer's professional development needs and the officer's preference. While Infantry Branch, HRC makes every effort to support individual officer's assignment preferences, the needs of the Army and the officer's professional development needs must take priority.

8-5. Duration of critical officer life-cycle assignments

a. Infantry Branch assignments. The Infantry Branch officer will serve in several KD and broadening positions as they progress through their career in order to develop a joint and expeditionary mindset, tactical and technical expertise in combined arms warfare, a firm grounding in Infantry operations, and knowledge of JIIM organizations. There is no substitute in the Infantry Branch for service with troops in leadership positions. The goal of the Infantry officer PDM is to provide the Infantry officer a series of leadership and operational staff positions, supplemented by opportunities to round out their knowledge in generating force positions, in order to achieve success in positions of leadership at successively higher levels. The primary positions that develop this level of expertise, in sequence, are platoon leader, company commander, S3/XO, battalion command, and garrison/brigade/regimental command. The goal is to ensure that every Infantry officer is given the opportunity to serve in each of these leadership assignments (based on their individual manner of performance at each preceding level). While operational realities and the limited number of positions will prevent the branch from providing every officer the opportunity to command at the battalion and brigade level, the goal remains to provide every Infantry officer a variety of leadership, command, and developmental assignments at each grade to develop and use their skills as combined arms warriors. Those officers who do not command at the battalion level will continue to provide critical support to the Army.

b. Infantry Branch life-cycle. Figure 8-1 shows how Infantry Branch time lines, military and additional training, KD assignments, and self-development fit together to support the Infantry Branch goal of growing agile and adaptive leaders.



Figure 8-1. AA Infantry officer development


8-6. Requirements, authorizations, and inventory

a. Goal. The goal is to maintain a healthy, viable career path for all Infantry Branch officers. To do this, the field grade inventory must be optimized in order to meet branch authorizations, to provide sufficient flexibility to support branch/FA generalist positions, and to provide majors with the opportunity to serve in KD assignment. The branch's goal is to afford every major 24 months S3/XO time.

b. Officer Personnel Management System implementation. The number of authorized Infantry billets, by grade, will vary as force structure decisions are made, and actions to implement them are taken. Officers who desire more information on Infantry Branch authorizations or inventory, by grade, are encouraged to contact their HRC branch assignment officer.

8-7. Officer life-cycle initiatives for Infantry

a. Structure. The majority of assignment opportunities in the operating force will reside within the Armored, Infantry, and Stryker BCTs. As an officer progresses in rank, there are significantly greater opportunities to serve within the generating force.

b. Acquire. Infantry officers are accessed through USMA, ROTC, and OCS. Officers are accessed into Infantry based on proponent criteria, commissioning source selection processes, needs of the Army, and individual preference,. Infantry is a recipient branch under the current system of branch detailing. Infantry receives officers from the other operations, Force Sustainment, and operations support branches to fill lieutenant authorizations. Branch detailed officers return to their basic branch upon their selection to captain and assignment to their branch transition course.

c. Distribute. The goal of Infantry Branch is to provide a variety of assignments to Infantry officers that will develop their skills, broaden their experience base and prepare them for higher levels of responsibility and service to the Army. The priority is on developing a depth of experience in Infantry operations while concurrently developing a depth of experience in JIIM organizations and combined arms warfare. They will also be provided the opportunity to serve in generating force assignments in order to fully develop their knowledge of how the Army operates. Officers may also rotate between CONUS and OCONUS assignments. Officers will have more time to gain the requisite skills in their branch and their branch/FA generalist assignments. Infantry officers are rotated between assignments to ensure they develop the full range of skills necessary to perform as senior leaders.

d. Deploy. Infantry officers remain the Army's principal warfighters. Whether assigned to the operating or generating force, all Infantry officers must be prepared to deploy on short notice anywhere in the world to lead Soldiers. Infantry officers may deploy with their units or as individuals to deter potential adversaries, protect national interests, or conduct humanitarian and peace keeping missions. Infantry Branch officers must prepare themselves and their families for this most challenging life-cycle function.

e. Sustain. Infantry combat skills are maintained through institutional training, assignments in the operational force, and self-development.

(1) Promotion. Field grade officers designated to remain in Infantry and in the Operations functional category will compete for promotion only within this functional category. If an Infantry officer is designated to one of the two other functional categories, he will no longer compete against Infantry officers for promotion.

(2) Command. Infantry Branch commanders will continue to be centrally selected (CSL) for command at the battalion and brigade level. These commands are organized into four command categories: operations, strategic support, recruiting and training and installation. Recent changes require officers to compete for all categories and through an additional process will be slated to units based on their skills and experience, their personal preference, their position on the OML and Army requirements for that CSL cycle.

(3) Officer evaluation report . The OER is the single most important tool for the management assignment, promotion, selection, and slating of officers. Raters and senior raters must ensure they fairly and honestly articulate an officers abilities, performance, and potential for service in increasingly complex and higher echelon organizations.

f. Develop. Infantry officers are developed through a logical progression of operating and generating force assignments. The focus of Infantry officer professional development is on the attainment and utilization of warfighting skills, and the utilization of those skills to support the critical doctrine, organization, training, materiel systems, leader development, personnel, and facility development missions of the branch. The goal is to professionally develop officers to employ firepower and maneuver skills in support of combined arms, joint, and coalition unified land operations. Development also occurs through the TASS; all officers selected for major should complete some form of ILE education, and all officers selected for colonel should complete SSC.

g. Separate. The Infantry Branch has no unique separation processes.

8-8. Infantry Reserve Component officers

a. General career development.

(1) RC Infantry officer development objectives and qualifications parallel those planned for their active duty counterparts, with limited exceptions. The increase in advanced technology weaponry and the lethality of modern weapon systems requires that RC officers train at the appropriate level. This is necessary in order to acquire those skills required for commanding, training and managing RC organizations for peacetime operation, as well as mobilization. The RC officer must realize that a large portion of his education and training will be accomplished on his own time, in accordance with his unit duty assignments. A variety of correspondence courses are available as well as a full range of schools that he may attend as a resident student. Junior officers must develop a strong foundation of Infantry tactical and technical expertise through assignments in their branch before specializing in a specific area/skill.

(2) The RC Infantry officer serves the same role and mission as his AA counterpart. The unique nature of his role as a "citizen Soldier" will pose a challenge to his professional development program. However, RC officer professional development is expected to mirror AA officer development patterns as closely as possible, except as noted below. The two primary exceptions are: RC officers tend to spend more time in leadership positions and RC officers have increased windows to complete mandatory educational requirements. Refer to chapter 7 for a detailed description of RC officer career management and development.

b. Branch development. Even though RC officer development is challenged by geographical considerations and time constraints, each officer should strive for Infantry assignments and educational opportunities that yield the same developmental opportunities as their AA counterparts.

(1) Introduction. RC (ARNG and USAR) officers must also meet certain standards in terms of schooling and operational assignments to be considered fully qualified in the Infantry Branch at each grade. Due to geographical, time and civilian employment constraints, RC Infantry officers may find it difficult to serve in the operational assignments required at each grade in order to remain fully qualified as an Infantry officer. Nevertheless, RC Infantry officers are expected to complete the educational requirements discussed below and to aggressively seek out the operational assignments to remain proficient in the branch.

(2) Lieutenant. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is to develop the requisite Infantry Branch skills, knowledge, and abilities. The focus of the officer at this stage of his career is on development of Infantry tactical and technical warfighting skills and the utilization of these skills in an operational assignment.

(a) Education. The BOLC and Infantry BOLC must be completed during this phase. Infantry BOLC provides the Infantry lieutenant the basic skills necessary to function as an infantry platoon leader. RC Infantry lieutenants may attend Ranger School, Infantry Mortar Leader Course, Airborne Course, or any number of unit specific functional courses. In addition to the Lieutenant's PME, all officers who have not earned a baccalaureate degree must complete their mandatory civilian education requirements. Officers must obtain a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university to qualify for promotion to captain.

(b) Assignments. Officers should seek and be assigned to leadership positions in troop units whenever possible. The critical assignment during this phase is serving as a rifle platoon leader in a BCT. The typical Infantry lieutenant will be assigned as a rifle platoon leader or staff officer in an infantry battalion upon completion of the basic course. Other typical assignments for lieutenants are battalion specialty platoon leader (recon, weapons, or mortar), company executive officer, battalion liaison officer, S3 air or logistics officer (S4). An Infantry officer may also serve in a staff position after promotion to captain, but prior to attendance at the Maneuver CCC (MC3).

(c) Self-development. Self-development during this phase should focus on Infantry tactical fundamentals, troop-leading procedures, leadership skills, organizational maintenance, resupply operations, basic administrative operations, and other branch technical proficiency skills.

(d) Desired experience. Each Infantry lieutenant must complete all BOLC phases, successfully serve in an operating force platoon leader assignment, then supplement his technical and tactical abilities through assignment to a specialty platoon or staff position. The goal is to develop lieutenants with an understanding of Infantry maneuver tactics at the platoon level.

(3) Reserve Component captain.

(a) Formal training. Mandatory education during this phase is completion of the MC3 which is a prerequisite for promotion to major. MC3 can be completed through attendance at the resident course or the RC course (MC3-DL) that has a DL phase and a 2-week resident phase.

(b) Assignments. Assignments in a company, battalion, or brigade organization should follow a progressive order. The command of a unit is the essence of leadership development at this stage of an officer's career. Units fill company command positions with officers who have demonstrated the potential for and the desire to command Soldiers. Most command tours are 36 months long with the tour length set by the higher commander and should be preceded by attendance at the company-level PCC. The number of company command positions may not afford every officer to have the opportunity to command at the captain level. Command can be of traditional MTOE line units or TDA units. Some officers may receive more than one command opportunity, but those cases are rare. Battalion staff experience is also desired during this period, but the focus should be to command a unit.

(c) Typical duty assignments. Officers should aggressively seek Infantry company command. Following successful company command, officers can be assigned to similar types of non-troop assignments as AA officers. In addition, they may participate in the IMA and AGR Programs.

(d) Functional area training. The RC officers are awarded a FA based upon the needs of the Army, the officer's geographic location, individual experience, education, and training. FA assignments offer the Infantry officer flexibility and the opportunity for additional assignments in both the ARNG and USAR. Officers who received a FA designation while on active duty may continue to serve in that FA or may request award of a different FA based upon the availability of such assignments and the needs of the Army. FA designators are awarded at the officer's request once all prerequisites for award of the FA have been met.

(4) Reserve Component major. Promotion to major normally occurs between the 12th and 14th year of commissioned service. Promotion prior to consideration by the Department of the Army mandatory promotion board (position vacancy promotion) is possible. Selection for major is based on performance and potential for further service in positions of greater responsibility. These qualities are measured by the officer's assignment history, level of branch development achieved, and the relative standing of the officer to his peers as indicated in the OER.

(a) Formal training. Officers should complete ILE but must complete ILE Common Core to be promoted to lieutenant colonel. Officers can complete the requirements for ILE in numerous ways: Command and General Staff College (resident or nonresident), sister Service resident Command and General Staff College or Associate Logistics Executive Development Course.

(b) Assignments. The KD assignment during this phase is service as a battalion S3 or XO, or brigade S3. An Infantry major should serve for a minimum of 24 months in an S3/XO position. There is no substitute for time spent as an S3/XO in preparing the Infantry major for battalion command and for expanding his knowledge of combined arms maneuver warfare. Developmental assignments on brigade/division staffs (non-S3/XO positions), Joint Forces Headquarters (JFHQ); USARCs; general officer commands (GOCOMs); or major USAR Command staff positions is also desired to develop the officer for positions of greater responsibility. Duty in progressively challenging assignments is an essential ingredient in the career development of officers prior to promotion to lieutenant colonel. Officers may participate in the AGR Program. The IRR and IMA programs for majors offer many unique opportunities for training and development. The IMA program provides the Infantry officer an opportunity to train in the position he will occupy upon mobilization.

(5) Reserve Component lieutenant colonel. The promotion board considers the RC major for promotion to lieutenant colonel at the 16th year of commissioned service. Promotion prior to consideration by the Department of the Army mandatory promotion board (below the zone promotion) is possible. Duty in progressively challenging assignments is an essential ingredient in the career development of officers and subsequent promotion to lieutenant colonel.

(a) Formal training. The RC lieutenant colonel must complete ILE Common Core prior to promotion to colonel. Selectees for battalion command attend the appropriate branch-specific Infantry PCC. Qualified Infantry lieutenant colonels may apply for the U.S. Army War College or other SSCs (resident or correspondence).

(b) Assignments. The KD assignment for lieutenant colonels is as a battalion/squadron commander of an MTOE or TDA unit for 36 months (plus or minus 12 months). While every Infantry officer will not command at the battalion level, the goal of Infantry officer professional development is to provide every Infantry officer the assignments, institutional training, and experience to prepare the officer for command at this level. The Infantry officers selected for command will remain competitive for promotion to colonel and brigade command. Developmental assignments include: brigade deputy commanding officer (DCO)/XO; division primary staff; various JFHQ, USARC, GOCOM; or major USAR Command staff positions. Colonels may also participate in the AGR, IRR, or IMA programs.

(6) Reserve Component colonel.

(a) Formal training. Although no mandatory education requirements (other than PCC for command selectees) exist during this phase, officers are encouraged to complete SSC (resident or nonresident).

(b) Assignments. The KD assignment for an RC colonel is brigade/regiment command for 36 months (plus or minus 12 months). Broadening assignments include AGR program participation and various senior duty positions at the division, JFHQ, RSC, GOCOM, major USAR Command levels, and HQDA and joint staff assignments.

c. Life-cycle development model. The RC life-cycle development model for Infantry officers is shown at figure 8-2 .



Figure 8-2. RC Infantry officer development


Chapter 9

Armor Branch

9-1. Unique features of Armor Branch

a. Unique purpose of Armor Branch. The Armor Branch is a command centric branch that prepares officers to command combined arms formations across the full spectrum of military operations. The Armor Branch serves two primary functions in support of unified land operations: firstly, to provide combined arms formations the capability to close with and destroy the enemy using fire, maneuver, and shock effect; secondly, to provide cavalry and scout formations the capabilities to perform reconnaissance and security during combined arms maneuver and wide area security operations.

b. The way ahead. The Army's continual change, limited resources, and lessons learned from more than a decade of war continually impact how the Armor Branch trains, assigns and develops officers. The Armor Branch develops agile and adaptive experts in branch competencies, who are multi-skilled leaders that readily operate in a JIIM environment. Armor officers are assigned based on the needs of the Army in accordance with the HQDA manning guidance, the professional development needs of the officer and the officer's preference. While HRC makes every effort to synchronize the three priorities, the needs of the Army and the professional development needs of the officer take precedence over individual preference.

c. Unique functions performed by Armor Branch. Armor officers initially focus on development of the core technical and tactical Armor mobile protected firepower and reconnaissance and security skills. Following initial focus on skills development, Armor officers continually deepen their core skills while developing broader skills in combined arms maneuver, wide area security in support of unified land operations as they progress through their careers. Armor officers fulfill their mission through: the application of mission command and synchronization and integration of warfighting functions; providing expertise on the employment of combined arms forces at all command levels; and developing doctrine, organizations, training, materiel and leaders necessary to support the mission.

d. Unique features of work in Armor Branch. The Armor Branch currently has one AOC and eight SIs. Detailed descriptions of the AOC and SIs listed below can be found in DA Pam 611-21 .

(1) Armor officer, general (19A). These officers will receive technical and tactical institutional Armor School and Maneuver Center of Excellence training. Training is focused on the core competencies associated with mobile protected firepower, reconnaissance and security to successfully lead and employ mounted and dismounted formations in combined arms maneuver and wide area security.

(2) SIs associated with Armor AOCs:

(a) M1A2 Abrams Tank (3J).

(b) M2 BIFV/M3 CFV/M7 Bradley fire integration support team leader (3X).

(c) Stryker Leader Course (R4).

(d) Army Reconnaissance Course (R7).

(e) Ranger/Ranger-Parachutist (5R/5S).

(f) Airborne (5P).

(g) Air Assault (2B).

(h) Pathfinder (5Q).

e. Branch detail. Armor Branch participates in the branch detailing of officers into Armor at the grade of lieutenant. Officers detailed Armor will lose their Armor designation once they reach their branch detail expiration date and have been re-assigned into their basic branch.

f. Voluntary Transfer Incentive Program. The VTIP program replaces the functional designation board. This program allows officers to transfer into another branch or FA from their 4th year of active Federal service through their 15th year. This program also allows officers who are branch detailed into another branch to request to remain in Armor. The VTIP panel meets quarterly. Submission of a VTIP packet does not guarantee branch transfer.

g. Branch eligibility. Officers of other branches who desire a branch transfer to Armor should submit a request in accordance with AR 614-100 , DA Pam 611-21 ; and VTIP MILPER messages.

9-2. Officer characteristics required

a. Competencies. Armor officers are valued for their skills as leaders, trainers, and planners. Skills are acquired and perfected through realistic training, PME, self-study and service in the most demanding positions. Armor Branch values assignments in both the operational force and generating force. Armor officers are effective leaders that possess competence, confidence, social, and cultural awareness, and effective oral and written communications skills to cultivate trust, teamwork and commitment, all oriented towards mission accomplishment. The goal of the branch is to provide each officer with a series of leadership, staff and functional assignments, institutional training, broadening and self-development opportunities to develop combined arms warriors with well-rounded backgrounds and the ability to successfully operate in the JIIM environment.

b. Unique skills. Armor officers should display consistent outstanding performance across a wide variety of operational and generating force assignments. Armor officers demonstrate excellence in their warfighting skills, technical and tactical proficiency, a well developed understanding of joint and combined arms warfare, a superior ability to integrate a wide variety of lethal and non lethal assets to support the mission, and the ability to lead, train, motivate, and care for Soldiers. Armor officers maintain a high-level of resilience to retain the ability to lead and operate across a myriad of organizations.

9-3. Key officer life-cycle initiatives for Armor

a. Structure. The primary operational assignments for Armor officers include combined arms battalions and cavalry squadrons across all three types of BCTs. Armor officers may also serve in critical developmental assignments in generating force organizations.

b. Acquire. Armor officers are accessed through USMA, ROTC, and OCS. Officers are accessed into Armor based on their branch preference, assessment of their talents, and the needs of the Army. Armor is a recipient branch under the current system of branch detailing. Armor receives detail officers from the combat support and service support arms to fill lieutenant authorizations.

c. Distribute. The goal of Armor Branch is to provide every Armor officer a variety of leadership, staff, functional and broadening assignments at each grade to develop and employ their skills as combined arms leaders. The priority is on developing a depth of experience in Armor and Cavalry operations while concurrently developing a depth and breadth of experience in JIIM organizations, combined arms maneuver and wide area security. Officers may also have the opportunity to serve in key generating force assignments to develop their knowledge of how the Army operates. Officers will have opportunities to serve in key staff, functional and broadening assignments to further develop their warfighting skills and provide value to the Army. Officers may also rotate between CONUS and OCONUS assignments. Armor officer assignments are managed with a goal to develop the full range of skills necessary to perform as senior leaders.

d. Deploy. Armor Branch officers are warfighters who remain personally and professionally prepared to deploy worldwide at all times. Whether assigned to operational force units with high levels of readiness or fixed-site generating force organizations, all Armor officers remain deployable to accomplish missions across the full spectrum of conflict. Armor officers may deploy with units at any time to deter potential adversaries and to protect national interests, or as individuals to support joint and multinational operations. Armor officers prepare themselves and their families for this most challenging and rewarding expeditionary mindset.

e. Sustain. Armor combat skills develop through institutional training, experience in assignments, self-development, and personal and professional commitment to resilience (physical, social, family, spiritual, and emotional).

(1) Promotion. Armor Branch field grade officers designated to remain in Armor and the Operations functional category will compete for promotion only within their functional category. If an Armor officer is designated to one of the two other functional categories, the officer no longer competes with Armor officers for promotion.

(2) Officer evaluation report. The OER requires the rater and senior rater to recommend a functional category for all ACC captains through lieutenant colonels. When recommending functional categories for rated officers, rating officials will consider the whole person with factors such as: demonstrated performance, educational background, technical or unique expertise, military experience or training, and the personal preference of the officer. Functional category recommendations of raters and senior raters on the OER will be an important factor taken into consideration during the functional category designation process.

f. Develop. Armor officers are developed through a progression of operational and generating force assignments, broadening assignments, institutional training, and self-development. The focus of Armor officer professional development is on the growth and utilization of warfighting skills. Armor officer development seeks to prepare officers for ever-increasing command and staff responsibilities at higher levels to successfully lead organizations to mission success. These skills support the critical doctrine, organization, training, material, leader development, personnel, and facility solutions for branch Force Management.

g. Separate. Armor Branch has no unique separation processes. All current and former Armor force Soldiers are strongly encouraged to remain involved with the development of the branch. This involvement increases participation in professional associations and through editorial contributions to Army official journals and online forums. Current online sources include: the Armor School website ( https://www.benning.army.mil/armor ), the Maneuver Net Forum ( https://forums.army.mil ), and the Office of the Chief of Armor ( https://www.benning.army.mil/armor/ocoa ).

9-4. Officer developmental assignments

a. Lieutenant. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is to develop requisite baseline Armor Branch skills, knowledge and attributes. The focus of the Armor lieutenant is on the development of Armor and cavalry tactical and technical warfighting skills and the utilization of these skills in an operational assignment as a tank, MGS, or scout platoon leader.

(1) Education. Armor BOLC provides the Armor lieutenant the baseline skills necessary to function as a tank and scout platoon leader. Armor lieutenants receive assignment oriented training following Armor BOLC to prepare them for their specific assignments as tank, MGS, or scout platoon leaders. These courses include, but are not limited to: Army Reconnaissance Course, Airborne, Air Assault, Ranger, Infantry Mortar Leader Course, Bradley Leader Course, and Stryker Leader Course. Army Reconnaissance Course is required for all Armor lieutenants. Assignment oriented training will be synchronized to minimize the delay between courses and get the lieutenant to the unit of assignment in the shortest time possible. The requisite assignment oriented training for the Armor lieutenant based on the officer's initial assignment is:

(a) Armored brigade combat team. The officer attends the Army Reconnaissance Course and is strongly encouraged to attend Ranger School. The officer will attend other functional training based on availability and the needs of the unit. If the dates for Army Reconnaissance Course and any other functional training conflict, Army Reconnaissance Course is the priority.

(b) Infantry brigade combat team. The officer will attend Army Reconnaissance Course. The officer is also required to attend Ranger School. If the dates for Army Reconnaissance Course and any other functional training conflict, Army Reconnaissance Course is the priority. Armor officers assigned to an Infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) Airborne brigade will also attend Airborne School enroute to their assignment.

(c) Stryker brigade combat team . The officer will attend Army Reconnaissance Course and is strongly encouraged to attend Ranger School. The officer will attend the Stryker Leader Course. The officer may also attend other functional training courses based upon availability and the needs of the unit. If the dates for Army Reconnaissance Course and any other functional training conflict, Army Reconnaissance Course is the priority.

(2) Assignments. The KD assignment during this phase is serving in an operational force operational unit as a tank, MGS, or scout platoon leader.

(a) Armor lieutenants should be assigned as platoon leaders or staff officers in a Cavalry squadron or combined arms battalion upon completion of Armor BOLC and requisite functional training. The goal of the branch is to assign lieutenants to the operational force as an initial assignment.

(b) A limited number of Armor lieutenants will serve as TRADOC training company executive officers or staff officers for up to 12 months followed by assignment to the operational force. Armor lieutenants that have completed a minimum of 24 months in an operational force unit may be assigned as a TRADOC training company executive officer or staff officer.

(c) Other typical assignments for lieutenants are battalion or squadron specialty platoon leader (scout or mortar), company or troop executive officer, /battalion/squadron or IMCOM staff officer. An Armor officer may also serve in a staff position after promotion to captain, prior to attendance at the MC3.

(3) Self-development. Self-development during this phase focuses on Maneuver Leader Development Strategy (MLDS) tactical fundamentals, technical proficiency, troop-leading procedures, leadership skills, gunnery, organizational maintenance, resupply operations, basic administrative operations, and resiliency and other technical proficiency skills. Armor lieutenants are responsible to take the initiative to gain knowledge and experience to prepare themselves to be a captain. Self-improvement and development is gained by observing different activities of both officers and NCOs at the battalion and brigade levels, mentorship, gaining experience in duty positions following a tank, scout and/or MGS platoon leader duties, and a well developed self-study program. Additional information can be found at the following address: http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ .

(4) Desired experience. Each Armor lieutenant must successfully serve in an operational force tank or scout platoon leader assignment. Ideally, the officer's technical and tactical abilities will be augmented through assignment to a specialty platoon, company/troop executive officer, or battalion/squadron staff officer position. The goal is to serve a minimum of 12 months in a platoon leader position to develop lieutenants with expertise in mounted and dismounted maneuver. A limited number of Armor lieutenants will also serve in generating force assignments prior to attending MC3.

b. Captain. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is to develop officers as a company/troop commander and staff officer in an operational unit. They may also professionally develop through successfully completing one or more command/staff assignments in the generating force.

(1) Education. Completion of MC3 or a branch CCC is mandatory during this period. Some Armor officers will attend other branch CCCs or the Marine Corps Expeditionary Warfare School.

(2) Assignments. The KD assignment during this phase is company/troop command in either the operational or generating Army. Service as a primary or assistant staff officer is also desirable. Armor officers may serve on operational or generating force unit staffs at the brigade/regiment and battalion/squadron level prior to and/or following command.

(a) Most Armor officers will be assigned to a BCT immediately following completion of the CCC. Armor captains will attend the Cavalry Leader Course. All Armor captains assigned to IBCTs will attend the Ranger Course. All captains assigned to SBCTs will attend the Stryker Leader Course and are encouraged to attend the Ranger Course. All captains assigned to armored BCTs are encouraged to attend the Ranger Course. Select Armor captains will serve their company command and staff assignments initially in a generating force organization, with a follow-on assignment to an operational force assignment to compete for company command. Armor Branch assigns a limited number of Armor captains to a generating force command following an operational force assignment.

(b) Upon completion of company command and the MC3 or equivalent CCC, multiple broadening assignments are possible. The purpose of these assignments is to meet critical Army requirements, further develop the officer's knowledge base and provide the officer a more well-rounded professional experience. Armor captains should serve in a broadening assignment following company command. The Armor Branch goal is to grow an inventory of officers who are tactically and technically proficient and have expanded their professional skills. Examples of assignments are:

(1) AC/RC training support brigade trainer and staff.

(2) Army sponsored broadening opportunities fellowships and scholarships (refer to AR 627-1 for a complete listing).

(3) CTC observer combat trainer.

(4) Project Warrior.

(5) Doctrine developer.

(6) ROTC Assistant Professor of Military Science.

(7) Maneuver Center of Excellence or other Center of Excellence small group instructor.

(8) Battalion/brigade staff.

(9) Training developer.

(10) U.S. Army recruiting company command and staff.

(11) USMA service school faculty and staff.

(12) Warrior transition unit commander.

(13) Aide-de-camp and nominative positions.

(14) Other combat arms or branch generalist positions.

(3) Self-development. During this phase, Armor officers will advance their leadership, tactical and technical skills, develop a mastery of training management, resiliency, and concentrate on those critical tasks required to accomplish their wartime mission. The officer will develop a more thorough understanding of combined arms operations in a joint environment. Armor captains should initiate/complete a master's degree. Additional information can be found at the following address: http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/

(4) Desired experience. The KD assignment for an Armor captain is successful service as a company/troop commander in a 19A, or 02B coded position. There is no substitute for operational company/troop command for developing an Armor officer's leadership and tactical skills, and preparing the officer for future leadership assignments at successively higher levels of responsibility. To be KD complete, Armor captains must serve 18 months (+/- 6 months) company command time; ultimately, the priority for command is the quality of the the officer's performance over time. Armor captains may expand their tactical and technical capabilities through assignment as a battalion/squadron or brigade/regiment staff officer prior to assuming command. Armor captains may serve as company commanders in non-traditional commands in order to meet Army requirements in addition to operational command, and may serve in these positions prior to or after operational command.

c. Majors. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is to expand the officer's maneuver tactical and technical experience and continue development as a leader with a comprehensive understanding of combined arms warfare in a joint and expeditionary environment. Through a series of operational and generating force assignments, the Armor major increases contributions to the larger Army and gains greater understanding of how the Army operates.

(1) Education. Military education required during this phase is completion of ILE through completion of the Command and General Staff College or sister Service equivalent in residence or through distance learning. ILE is divided into two phases. Phase 1 is a 14-week common core training block of instruction. Phase 2 is the Advanced Operations Course which is the field grade credentialing course that is required for all Armor officers. In addition to Army and sister Service ILE programs, officers can also compete for foreign and interagency fellowship positions, which also meet the MEL 4 requirement. Officers may also compete for selection to the SAMS following the Advanced Operations and Warfighting Course. Officers may also choose to compete for a seat in SAMS. SAMS officers will serve a utilization tour as a corps or division plans/assistant G3 staff officer. Armor majors will attend the Cavalry elective at ILE.

(2) Assignments. KD assignments during this phase are:

(a) Operational force battalion/ squadron S3/XO.

(b) Operational force brigade/ regiment S3.

(c) Generating force battalion/ squadron S3/XO.

(d) Generating force brigade S3.

(e) Security force assistance assignments (along with additional operational force S3/XO time). Security force assistance assignments are vital to the success of the Army during global contingency operations. Armor majors will serve in these assignments. This experience, when combined with time spent as an operational force S3/XO, provides the Armor major the skills to prepare the officer for future operating and generating force assignments with increasing responsibility and for battalion command.

(f) Division chief of plans (SAMS Utilization). The division chief of plans position is considered a KD experience for the SAMS graduate Armor officer when served in conjunction with at least 12 months service in a battalion/squadron or brigade/regimental S3 position. Experience at the brigade/regimental level and below remain absolutely essential to the professional growth of the Armor officer and necessary for success at future levels of command.

(g) There is no substitute for KD time in preparing an Armor officer for future command and for building maneuver and combined arms skills. The Armor major may further expand tactical and technical skills by serving in staff assignments at division level and higher.

(3) Broadening assignments. Armor majors will also meet the Army's mission requirements and build on their institutional skills through varied generating force, joint, interagency, intergovernmental and multinational (JIIM) assignments. Examples of Armor major assignments beyond KD positions are provided below:

(a) AC/ RC S3/XO.

(b) Advisor positions for foreign schools.

(c) HQDA and ACOM staff.

(d) Army sponsored broadening opportunities fellowships and scholarships (refer to AR 627-1 for a complete listing).

(e) Brigade, division or corps staff.

(f) Combat developer.

(g) CTC observer combat trainer.

(h) HQDA staff officer.

(i) Doctrine developer.

(j) Joint staff officer.

(k) Multinational and coalition trainer and staff officer.

(l) ROTC Assistant Professor of Military Science.

(m) Service school instructor, staff, and faculty.

(n) Training developer.

(o) USMA faculty and staff.

(p) Advanced civil schooling.

(q) Nominative positions.

(4) Self-development. Armor majors are expected to continue self-development efforts to include off-duty schooling. Majors continue to build intellectual capacity, strategic perspective, develop operational skills, and improve resiliency conditioning. Armor majors will develop and use a diverse set of skills as they move between combined arms leadership positions in the operational force and generating force organizations as well as functional Armor, branch immaterial and JIIM assignments. Additional information can be found at the following address: http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ .

(5) Desired experience. At this stage of the officer's career, the Armor major hones skills in the planning and execution of combined arms/joint warfare and develops expertise in the JIIM operational environment. While the goal is to provide every Armor major a minimum of 18 months combined time in the KD positions, the quality of performance in the assignment, rather than time spent in the assignment, is the critical factor.

(6) Additional factors.

(a) The goal of the branch is to develop field grade officers who embody a collective knowledge of JIIM experience. While not every officer will receive an assignment in a qualifying joint assignment or serve in a fellowship in a JIIM agency, the goal is to provide the maximum opportunity for Armor majors to receive this opportunity.

(b) Armor majors may be credited for joint service either through assignment to a qualifying joint duty assignment list (Joint duty assignment list) position or through the point system based on qualifying joint service via the Joint Qualification System. The objective of the Joint Qualification System is to ensure a systematic, progressive, career-long development of officers in joint matters and to ensure that officers have the requisite experience and education to be highly proficient in joint matters, as directed in 10 USC, Chapter 38. Joint Qualification System allows officers to apply for joint credit based on experience in positions in the Contemporary Operating Environment.

d. Lieutenant colonel. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is demonstrated excellence in tactical skills, technical proficiency and the ability to lead, train, motivate and care for Soldiers in both the command and staff environments. An Armor officer's opportunity to serve in the operational force will decrease as the officer increases in rank and the percentage of generating force positions increases. The officer's previous assignments, institutional training, and self-development prepare the officer for role in the generating force positions of increasing responsibility.

(1) Education. Lieutenant colonels selected for command will complete a PCC, phases I, II, and III prior to command. Lieutenant colonels may be selected for SSC. Lieutenant colonels not selected for resident attendance must complete SSC by correspondence to achieve MEL 1.

(2) Assignments. Lieutenant colonels in Armor seek assignments of greater responsibility in branch and branch immaterial positions. Lieutenant colonel assignments allow the potential for greater contribution to the branch and the entire Army. This important phase of an Armor officer's career provides for assignments that further develop joint combined arms skill sets and improved warfighting skills. The most critical assignment for Armor lieutenant colonels in the Operations functional category is battalion/squadron level command. Armor lieutenant colonels selected for command will normally serve 18 to 24 months in command at battalion level. Armor officers are selected for command selection list commands in four major command categories: operations, strategic support, recruiting and training, and installation. All battalion-level commands are opt-in boards, and officers will compete for all command categories. Examples of duty assignments for lieutenant colonels are listed below. Note that assignment opportunities for some Armor lieutenant colonel positions are limited to former battalion commanders.

(a) Instructor at ILE.

(b) Nominative positions.

(c) Brigade DCO.

(d) CTC observer combat trainer.

(e) Division G3.

(f) Corps staff.

(g) HQDA or joint staff, NATO staff, combatant command staff.

(h) AC/RC CDR/observer/controller/staff.

(i) ROTC PMS.

(j) Maneuver Center of Excellence staff (doctrine, capabilities).

(k) Service branch school staff and instructors.

(3) Self-development. During this phase of an Armor officer's career, self-development takes the form of self-assessment, off-duty civil schooling, perfecting mentoring and managerial skills and sustaining resiliency. The officer continues to hone combined arms warfighting skills and the understanding of the joint operational environment. Additional information can be found at the following address: http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ .

(4) Desired experience. The goal of Armor officer development is to prepare every officer for command of a combined arms battalion, cavalry squadron, generating force training battalion, or other institutional command at the lieutenant colonel level. While not every officer will command, Armor lieutenant colonels provide exceptional contributions to the Army outside of command. The focus remains the development of officers imbued with technical and tactical knowledge of the joint, combined arms, maneuver warfare. The critical assignment for an Armor lieutenant colonel is command.

e. Colonel. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is improvement of warfighting, training, and staff skills, along with leadership, managerial and executive talents. Colonels are expected to be multi-skilled leaders: strategic and innovative thinkers; builders of leaders and teams; competent warfighters; skilled in governance, statesmanship, and diplomacy; and able to understand and operate within a cultural context.

(1) Education. Historically, the majority of officers selected for promotion to colonel are selected to attend SSC. Colonels not selected for resident attendance must complete SSC by correspondence to achieve MEL 1.

(2) Assignments. Armor colonels contribute to the Army by serving in crucial assignments in both branch and branch immaterial positions. The critical task during this phase is to fully develop the broad skills and competencies required of a multi-skilled leader, while maintaining and improving branch/maneuver competency (warfighting skills). Armor colonels will make full use of their broad operations and JIIM experiences, managerial skills and executive talents to meet the needs of the Army. A critical assignment for an Armor colonel is selection for command. Armor officers selected for brigade-level command will serve in the same four command CSL categories as lieutenant colonels. Critical assignments for colonels include:

(a) Brigade, regiment, or garrison command.

(b) CTC operations group commander.

(c) Combat trainer/leader developer.

(d) Department director, Maneuver Center of Excellence.

(e) Division chief of staff.

(f) Division or corps G-3.

(g) Executive officer to a general officer.

(h) HQDA or joint staff.

(i) TRADOC capabilities manager.

(3) Self-development. Armor colonels maintain their branch skills and keep current on all changes that affect the Soldiers they command and/or manage. JIIM assignments are important during this phase.

(4) Desired experience. The primary goal at this stage is to exploit the significant breadth and depth of experiences and knowledge gained in a position where the officer can provide a significant contribution to the operational and generating force. The critical assignment for an Armor colonel is brigade-level command. No other position provides the Armor officer with the opportunity to fully use depth of experience in joint and combined arms warfare and to capitalize on functional generating force assignments in service to the Army. However, only a limited number of Armor officers will have the opportunity to command. Those officers not selected for command will continue to provide exceptional service in Army and JIIM assignments of increasing responsibility. These officers also provide the critical bridge between the operational and generating force, and serve commanders in key staff elements.

f. Joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational assignments. The development of Armor officers will also focus on the development of agile, adaptive, and multi-skilled leaders who collectively embody knowledge of JIIM organizations. Armor officers will be considered for a billet on the Joint duty assignment list based on the needs of the Army, professional development needs of the officer and availability of a joint assignment. JIIM experience, developed through sequential assignments, provides the broad perspective necessary to be successful now and in the future.

9-5. Assignment preferences and precedence.

The professional development goal of Armor Branch is to produce and sustain highly-qualified officers who are tactically and operationally oriented to lead Soldiers, command units in combat and perform other assigned missions. Assignments in combined arms organizations develop the officer's overall ability to achieve that goal. The officer's assignments are based on the needs of the Army, the officer's professional development needs and the officer's preference. While the senior leader development office makes every effort to support individual officer's assignment preferences, the needs of the Army and the officer's professional development needs are the priority.

9-6. Duration of officer life-cycle assignments

a. Key developmental Armor Branch positions. The Armor Branch officer will serve in several KD positions as they progress through their career in order to develop a joint and expeditionary mindset, tactical and technical expertise in combined arms warfare, a firm grounding in Armor and Cavalry operations, and knowledge of JIIM organizations. There is no substitute in the Armor Branch for service with troops in key leadership positions. The goal of the Armor officer PDM is to provide the Armor officer a series of operational staff and leadership positions, supplemented by opportunities to augment their knowledge in key generating force positions, in order to achieve success in positions of leadership at successively higher levels. The primary positions that develop this level of expertise, in sequence, are platoon leader, company/troop commander, S3/XO. The goal is to ensure that every Armor officer is given the opportunity to serve in each of these key leadership assignments. While operational realities and the limited number of positions will prevent the branch from providing every officer the opportunity to command at the battalion and brigade level, the goal remains to prepare every Armor officer for command. Those officers who do not command at the battalion level will continue to provide critical support to the Army in key positions. Their role will remain to ensure that generating force organizations continue to maintain focus on their critical role in supporting the warfight. Armor officers, experts in combined arms maneuver and wide area security, serve as the critical link between the operational and generating force.

b. Armor Branch life-cycle. The Armor Branch developmental goals directly support the goal of the Army with joint and expeditionary capabilities. Figure 9-1 shows how Armor Branch timelines, military and additional training, KD assignments and self-development fit together to support the Armor Branch goal of growing future combined arms warriors.



Figure 9-1. AA Armor officer development


9-7. Requirements, authorizations and inventory

a. Goal. The goal is to maintain a healthy, viable career path for all Armor Branch officers. To do this the Armor officer assessment will be optimized to meet branch authorizations, to provide sufficient flexibility to support branch/FA generalist positions.

b. Officer Personnel Management System implementation. The number of authorized Armor billets, by grade, will vary as force structure decisions are made, and actions to implement them are taken. Officers who desire more information on Armor Branch authorizations or inventory, by grade, are encouraged to contact their HRC assignment officer.

9-8. Armor Army National Guard officers

ARNG Armor officer career development objectives and qualifications parallel those of their AC counterparts. The two primary exceptions are: ARNG officers tend to spend more time in key leadership positions, and ARNG officers have increased windows to complete primary military educational requirements. A balance of realistic training, PME, self-development, and operational experience is necessary to develop those skills required for commanding, training and managing ARNG organizations for peacetime and deployment operations. The ARNG officer must realize that a portion of the officer's education and training will be accomplished during personal time. Refer to chapter 7 for a detailed description of ARNG officer career management and development.

a. Lieutenant. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is to develop the requisite Armor Branch skills, knowledge and attributes. The focus is on development of Armor and Cavalry tactical and technical warfighting skills and the utilization of these skills in an operational assignment.

(1) Education. PME during this phase is completion of the resident BOLC, which should be completed within 12 months (no later than 18 months) of commissioning and is a prerequisite for promotion to first lieutenant. BOLC provides the Armor lieutenant the basic skills necessary to function as a tank platoon leader and an overview of Cavalry tactics and techniques. Prior to assignment to a Cavalry platoon, the Armor lieutenant is strongly encouraged to attend the Army Reconnaissance Course. In addition, the Armor lieutenant may attend Ranger School, Infantry Mortar Leader Course, Bradley Leader Course, MGS Leader Course, Stryker Leader Course, Reconnaissance and Surveillance Leaders Course, Airborne, Air Assault and Pathfinder. Additional training following BOLC is primarily dependent on the lieutenant's unit of assignment. Officers must obtain a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university prior to consideration for promotion to captain.

(2) Assignments. Key development during this critical phase of the officer's career is assignment as a tank or scout platoon leader. Every attempt should be made to assign junior officers as platoon leaders. This duty provides the officer an understanding of operations and leadership that will build a solid foundation for future service and duties of increased responsibility. After completing a platoon leader assignment, Armor officers should seek a variety of broadening assignments, which will enhance their future performance and prepare them for company command. Broadening assignments for lieutenants include battalion or squadron specialty platoon leader (support, scout, or mortar), company or troop executive officer, and battalion or squadron liaison officer.

(3) Self-development. Self-development during this phase should focus on tactical fundamentals, troop-leading procedures, leadership skills, gunnery, organizational maintenance, resupply operations, basic administrative operations, physical conditioning, and other branch technical proficiency skills. After serving as a tank, scout and/or MGS platoon leader Armor lieutenants can gain experience by serving in other duty positions. Armor lieutenants must take initiative to gain knowledge and experience for the next level of assignments and responsibilities as a captain. Self-improvement and development can also be achieved by seeking mentors and participating in different activities with both officers and NCOs at the company, battalion, and brigade levels. The Maneuver Self Study Program provides additional resources for self-development. The Maneuver Self Study Program can be found at the following address ( http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ ).

b. Captain.

(1) Education. PME during this phase is completion of the MC3, which prepares the captain for company command and battalion and brigade staff assignments. MC3 can be completed through attendance at the six-month resident course or the RC (RC) course (MC3-RC), which has three distributed learning phases and two 2-week resident phases. Prior to assignment to a Cavalry troop captains are strongly encouraged to attend the Cavalry Leaders Course. Officers must obtain a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university to qualify for promotion to captain.

(2) Assignments. Assignments in a company, battalion, or brigade organization should follow a progressive order whenever possible. The command of a company or troop is key leadership development at this stage of an officer's career. The goal is for each captain to serve a minimum of 36 months company/troop command time (plus or minus 12 months); however, the quality of the officer's performance is more important than the length of time in command. An Armor officer may also command a mechanized infantry or rifle company, depending on various factors including availability, geographic proximity, and leadership preference. The limited number of company command positions may not afford every officer the opportunity to command an MTOE company or troop. Captains may command a TDA company, but the preference is command of an MTOE company which better develops the captain's tactical and technical expertise. Upon completion of company command a full spectrum of assignments are possible. The purpose of these assignments is to meet critical Army requirements, further develop the officer's knowledge base and provide the officer a more well-rounded professional experience. The objective of the branch is to grow an inventory of officers who are tactically and technically proficient and have expanded their skills in a variety of challenging assignments. Armor officers may serve on MTOE or TDA unit staffs at the battalion/squadron and brigade/regiment level prior to or subsequent to company command.

(3) Self-development. During this phase, Armor officers must hone their leadership, tactical and technical skills, develop a mastery of training management, physical conditioning and concentrate on those critical tasks required to accomplish their wartime mission. The officer continues to develop a more thorough understanding of combined arms operations in a joint environment. Armor captains should consider beginning work on a master's degree. The Maneuver Self Study Program provides additional resources for self-development. The Maneuver Self Study Program can be found at the following address ( http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ ).

c. Major. Promotion to major normally occurs on or after the tenth year of commissioned service. Selection for major is based on performance and potential for further service in positions of greater responsibility. These qualities are measured by the officer's assignment history, development within the Armor Branch, and the relative standing of the officer to peers as indicated in OER.

(1) Education. Completion of the CCC is required for promotion to major. Officers complete the requirements for ILE through Command and General Staff College (resident or nonresident) or a sister Service resident Command and General Staff College. JPME courses offered through Joint Forces Staff College or Joint Continuing and Distance Education School are available primarily to those officers with a follow-on joint assignment.

(2) Assignments. Key development during this phase is assignment as a battalion/squadron operations officer (S3), or battalion executive officer (XO). Successful assignments in positions such as XO and S3 best prepare officers for the rigors of battalion/squadron command. Higher headquarters positions such as division staff and JFHQ is also recommended. Duty in progressively challenging assignments is an essential ingredient in the career development of officers prior to promotion to lieutenant colonel.

(3) Self-development. Armor majors are expected to continue self-development efforts to build intellectual capital, strategic perspective, hone operational skills and sustain physical conditioning. Armor majors will develop and use a diverse set of skills as they move between combined arms leadership positions in operational and generating force organizations as well as functional Armor, branch immaterial and JIIM assignments. Armor officers should complete their masters degree before their selection board for lieutenant colonel. Although not a requirement, a masters degree makes the Armor officer more rounded in education and more competitive for the board. The Maneuver Self Study Program provides additional resources for self-development. The Maneuver Self Study Program can be found at the following address ( http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ ).

d. Lieutenant colonel. The DA promotion board considers the major for promotion to lieutenant colonel at the 16 th year of commissioned service. Highly-qualified officers in this phase may be selected to command a battalion or squadron. Other assignments include brigade/regimental S3 or XO, division primary staff, various JFHQ assignments, or other staff positions.

(1) Education. Completion of ILE Common Core Course is a requirement for promotion to lieutenant colonel. The Advanced Operations and Warfighting Course (AOWC) phase of ILE is a requirement for selection for battalion command. Selectees for battalion command attend the Maneuver Pre-Command Course. Qualified Armor lieutenant colonels may apply for the U.S. Army War College or other SSC (resident or DL). JPME courses offered through Joint Forces Staff College or Joint Continuing and Distance Education School are available primarily to those officers with a follow-on joint assignment.

(2) Assignments. Highly-qualified lieutenant colonels may be selected to command a battalion, squadron, or Armor TASS battalion. Other typical assignments include: brigade or regimental S3 or XO, division primary staff, and various JFHQ, or other staff positions. Joint assignments are important during this phase and may be critical for promotion to colonel.

(3) Self-development. During this phase of an Armor officer's career, self-development takes the form of self-assessment, off-duty civil schooling, perfecting mentoring and managerial skills, and sustaining physical conditioning. The officer should also continue to hone combined arms warfighting skills and understanding of the joint operational environment. The Maneuver Self Study Program provides additional resources for self-development. The Maneuver Self Study Program can be found at http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ .

e. Colonel.

(1) Education. Completion of ILE is a requirement for promotion to colonel. Selectees for brigade command attend the Maneuver PCC. Colonels are encouraged to complete SSC (resident or nonresident).

(2) Assignments. Highly-qualified colonels may be selected to command an Armored BCT, Stryker BCT or Infantry BCT. Other typical assignments include AGR program participation and various senior duty positions at the division and JFHQ levels, and HQDA and joint staff assignments.

(3) Self-development. Armor colonels must maintain their branch skills and keep current on all changes that affect the Soldiers they command and/or manage. JIIM assignments are important during this phase. The Maneuver Self Study Program provides additional resources for self-development. The Maneuver Self Study Program can be found at http://www.benning.army.mil/mssp/ .

Chapter 10

Aviation Branch

10-1. Unique features of the Aviation Branch

a. Purpose of the Aviation Branch.

(1) Army Aviation is an Operations branch. Army Aviation provides a maneuver advantage to Army and joint force commanders in unified land operations through its capabilities to overcome the constraints of limiting terrain and extended distances. Army Aviation essentially operates in the land domain, with the majority of its combat power in formations at the same echelon as supported ground formations and responsible to the same higher command. Aviation combat power is integrated with the ground force at the lowest practical level, ensuring responsiveness to the needs of the ground commander. Army Aviation conducts reconnaissance and security to develop actionable combat information; employs fires to destroy, neutralize, or suppress enemy forces; conducts air assault to maneuver ground forces to positions of advantage in relation to the enemy; provides air movement of personnel, equipment, and supplies to points of need; conducts air medical evacuation and provides air traffic services (ATS). When required, select Army Aviation units can establish and operate Army and Joint airfields in support of operations.

(2) In general, the Aviation company equipped with either manned rotary-wing or fixed-wing platforms or unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) is the basic 'building block' of the Army Aviation force. Aviation company types include: attack-recon (equipped with attack/reconnaissance helicopters such as the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior or AH-64 Apache), assault (equipped with assault helicopters, primarily the UH-60 Blackhawk), command and control (also primarily equipped with the UH-60 Blackhawk), heavy helicopter (equipped with the CH-47 Chinook), medical evacuation (primarily equipped with the HH-60 Blackhawk variant), UAS (equipped with either the Hunter, Shadow, or Gray Eagle UAS), security and support (equipped with the LUH-72 Lakota helicopter), fixed-wing (equipped with manned fixed-wing aircraft such as the C-12 and UC-35), ATS (equipped with the a mobile ATS tower and supporting communications equipment), and Aviation maintenance (equipped to provide maintenance and supply support for the aircraft). These companies are organized into functional attack-recon battalions/squadrons, assault helicopter battalions, and fixed-wing battalions or into multifunctional general support Aviation battalions, security and support battalions, and Aviation sustainment battalions. Various mixes of these battalions are organized into Combat Aviation Brigades (CABs) and theater Aviation brigades, Army Aviation's primary warfighting formations. In addition to these primary organizational structures, a number of Aviation platoons, detachments, and TDA organizations are to be found throughout the force. There are also specialized ATS (airfield operations battalions and theater airfield operations groups) and Aviation maintenance (theater Aviation sustainment maintenance groups) formations. In addition to conventional Aviation formations, there is also special operations Aviation units organized under the Army Special Operations Aviation (ARSOA) Command.

(3) Army Aviation manpower consists of Aviation officers, warrant officers, NCOs, and enlisted Soldiers. The officers and warrant officers are categorized by various AOCs, and MOSs outlined below. The majority of Aviation officers and warrant officers are aviators, although not exclusively so. The 150A ATS, 150U UAS, and 151A Aviation maintenance (nonrated) warrant officers are the most notable exceptions. The majority of Aviation NCOs and enlisted Soldiers are Aviation maintainers, but-again-not exclusively so. The major exceptions are the 15P Flight Operations Specialist, the 15Q ATS Specialist, and the 15W UAS Operator.

b. Aviation career development and progression. Like other branches, Aviation career development is based on operational experience and training, institutional education, and self-study/development. Early career development focuses on developing tactical expertise in Aviation employment and sustainment as part of the air ground, integrated, combined arms team and technical expertise in the operation of Aviation platforms/systems. Mid-career development continues to refine tactical and technical expertise and focuses on developing competency in operational-level employment and sustainment of Aviation and integration into JIIM environments. Later career development focuses on the strategic level employment and sustainment of Aviation and integration into the force as a whole. Progression is dependent upon a number of factors, including: time in grade, duty performance, experience, schooling, and skills acquired. The Army dictates minimum time in grade requirements for progression to the next rank. Officers and warrant officers will only be considered for promotion when they have met the minimum time in grade requirement for their present rank. Duty performance — no matter what the position — is the single most important factor in selection to progress to the next higher rank. Exceptional duty performance at the current rank is normally considered a strong indicator of potential at the next higher rank. Operational experience is also a factor in progression, particularly in the early and mid-career development periods. Operational assignments that develop tactical and technical expertise are important at these stages. Broadening assignments that develop competencies beyond tactical and technical Aviation expertise become increasingly important during the mid-career and later development periods. Schooling and the acquisition of critical or unique skills can also enhance potential for progression. Certain PME courses are required for advancement to the next rank. Overall, officers and warrant officers should strive to first establish a solid foundation of Aviation tactical and technical expertise, then expand their operational and strategic level competence in respect to the Army and JIIM environments. All Aviation AOCs and skills are open to women. Female Aviation officers and warrant officers have career opportunities equal to those of their male counterparts.

c. Unique features of work in Army Aviation. As mentioned above, most officers and warrant officers in Army Aviation are aviators. These officers and warrant officers must achieve designation as an Army aviator at the beginning of their officer/WOS and maintain the rating through annual flight proficiency and aeromedical assessments. Aviators must also undergo readiness level training and certification upon arrival at each new flight unit to confirm their competency to perform as a crew member in their assigned aircraft. Aviators must achieve pilot-in-command status in order to be entrusted as the 'aircraft commander' in an aircraft crew. Certain non-flight AOC warrant officers also have annual proficiency and medical assessments to maintain certification in their particular skill area. In order to maintain aircrew incentive pay, Aviation officers and warrant officers must accrue mandated thresholds of total operational flying duty credit through assignment to positions designated as operational flying positions (see AR 600-105 ). The employment of Aviation units as part of combined arms or joint teams in support of the broad range of unified land operations brings a number of unique challenges. Aviation officers and warrant officers must understand all aspects of integrating Aviation platforms/systems/units into effective air ground operations. Aviation officers and warrant officers must understand the fundamentals of airspace management and ATS requirements. This includes compliance with the airspace regulations of the Joint Force Airspace Control Authority, the host nation, the International Civil Aeronautics Organization, the Federal Aviation Administration, and/or other airspace governing bodies-as applicable. Sustainment of Aviation platforms/systems-particularly aircraft maintenance-offers other unique aspects of work in Army Aviation. Aviation maintenance standards, processes, and procedures are distinctly different from those for ground systems and Aviation officers and warrant officers need a solid understanding of Aviation sustainment.

10-2. Characteristics required of Aviation officers

Talents/attributes. Army Aviation demands intellectually agile leaders who can operate within a multidimensional world. They must be able to translate vast amounts of complex data into abstract concepts and solutions. Aviators must be able to recognize and mitigate unacceptable risks and be able to identify new and creative solutions to problems that occur during Aviation operations in all environments. Aviation Branch has identified six talents/attributes that are essential to success in such environments. While this list is not all-inclusive, it does highlight those talents or attributes that are of particular importance for Army aviators:

a. Interdisciplinary. Defines an individual who integrates and applies expert knowledge from multiple disciplines into a coherent overarching perspective. Aviators must operate in fast-paced, dynamic environments that call for a wide base of knowledge and competencies. Aviation operations encompass a wide variety of complex missions conducted in challenging and potentially unfamiliar environments. Consequently, aviators must draw from a broad-based perspective to identify, prioritize, and develop solutions for the challenges posed by the broad spectrum of problem sets they will face.

b. Prudent risk taker. This person recognizes and mitigates unacceptable risks, enabling mission accomplishment without unnecessarily compromising safety. Aviators are responsible for the safe operation of extremely expensive aircraft in challenging environments, including combat, adverse weather, obscured battlefields, and at night. While always focused on mission accomplishment, aviators must be able to make tough, timely decisions, often independently and without firm guidance from higher, to find the right balance between mission accomplishment and the safe operation of their aircraft and formations. There are often ways to accomplish difficult missions with lower levels of risk; aviators must be able to quickly and effectively adjust their operations to reduce the likelihood of mishap, damage, or injury while at the same time achieving the commander's intent.

c. Interpersonal. This individual is able to connect with others and is skilled in developing appropriate relationships. Army aviators support many types of units and communities. Frequently called upon to bring their unique flexibility and capabilities to bear on short notice, aviators must quickly and effectively establish relations with outside organizations. Increasingly, these organizations are outside of familiar chains of command and often outside of the military itself. Aviators must be able to establish trust, exchange nuanced communications, and perceive the intents of others, often in dangerous, confusing, and rapidly changing situations. Strong interpersonal skills will be essential in accomplishing missions under these circumstances.

d. Spatially intelligent. This person easily perceives, understands, and operates within the multidimensional world. Army aviators must be able to quickly and accurately define their own position with respect to other aircraft, airspace control measures, instrument flight procedure components, and other objects that influence or operate in three-dimensional space. The ability to quickly orient oneself and gain situational understanding in complex, crowded airspace is increasingly important for the successful Army aviator.

e. Innovative. Suggests an individual who is creative, inquisitive, and insightful and who easily identifies new solutions and catalyzes change. Army Aviation's ability to quickly overcome distances and obstacles that challenge peers on the ground are great strengths, but will also often thrust aviators into complex, rapidly changing environments that present unusual or unfamiliar problem sets. Aviators must be able to quickly identify and implement solutions to these problems. The increasingly complex and technological aspects of Army Aviation operations will pose difficult challenges for which Army aviators must quickly devise effective, executable courses of action that lead to mission accomplishment.

f. Multi-tasker. This person rapidly processes and prioritizes multiple demands simultaneously and then takes appropriate action. Army aviators must be able to successfully manage a variety of tasks at once, whether personally operating aircraft or supervising unit operations. The modern cockpit calls for the simultaneous and precise execution of a variety of complex tasks, many of which will be vital to mission accomplishment. Aviators must prioritize, control, monitor, assess, and sometimes take emergency actions on multiple systems and processes. Similarly, most operations involving Army Aviation will include a wide variety of participants and systems, including those from other branches, other services, and other nations. Successful Army aviators will be able to comprehend, communicate with and synchronize the effects of these external organizations and systems.

10-3. Aviation branch officer development

The primary domains of leader development — PME (institutional training), KD assignments, developmental assignments, broadening assignments, and self-development — define and engage a continuous cycle of education, training, selection, experience, assessment, feedback, reinforcement and evaluation which helps to encourage officer development throughout career progression.

a. Lieutenant. Lieutenants must meet the requirements outlined in AR 611-110 for entry into the Aviation Branch.

(1) Professional military education. All newly commissioned Aviation lieutenants attend BOLC and Initial Entry Rotary Wing training at the U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence (USAACE), Fort Rucker, AL. BOLC includes training on general military subjects such as leadership, weapons, combined arms operations, physical training and warrior skills training. Initial Entry Rotary Wing or flight school, training consists of aeromedical factors, basic flight, aerodynamics, meteorology, instrument flight and combat skills training. Training is conducted from the preflight through the primary and instrument qualification phases in the TH-67 aircraft. Basic warfighting skills, such as navigation, are trained in the OH-58C. Students then transition into one of 4 advanced aircraft: the AH-64D/E Apache, UH-60A/L/M Blackhawk, OH-58D Kiowa Warrior and CH-47D/F Chinook to complete day and night advance combat skills. Students must also complete survival, evasion, resistance, and escape level C and helicopter overwater survival (dunker) training prior to being awarded the Basic Army Aviator Badge. Follow-on schooling en route to the officer's next assignment (for example, Airborne, Air Assault, Ranger, and Cavalry Leader's Course) may be approved based on mission requirements.

(2) Key developmental assignment. The single most important assignment consideration for personnel managers and commanders is ensuring that the new lieutenant is assigned to a job which will allow the officer adequate opportunity to develop flight experience and troop-leading skills. Lieutenants should serve 18 to 24 months in a platoon leader position. Due to the length of flight school, this may overlap into the officer's first year as a captain. Promotions will not automatically alter positions. Promotion from lieutenant to captain while still serving in an operational assignment such as platoon leader will not be a negative consideration when determining the officer's future potential for promotion. The overall goal is for an officer to attain pilot-in-command status and gain as much flight and leadership experience as possible prior to moving to another operational assignment.

(3) Developmental assignments. Junior officers initially assigned to a CONUS or overseas installations (OCONUS) will be stabilized at their first installation for an extended period of time that allows for branch advancement to the rank of captain. This initial extended tour may include hardship tours or attendance at leader development schools (in TDY or PCS status) but in each case the officer should return to their stabilization installation. Lieutenants should serve at the platoon and company level to gain troop-leading and flight experience. The officer will concentrate on planning and executing the tactics, techniques and procedures specific to their weapons platform and unit mission.

(4) Self-development. All officers should be afforded every opportunity to achieve qualification as a pilot-in-command prior to attendance of the Aviation Captains Career Course (AVCCC) or CCC equivalent. A lieutenant's focus should be to refine troop-leading, aviator, tactical, logistic (maintenance and supply), force protection (risk management) and administrative skills. The key milestone in a lieutenant's development should be attaining pilot-in-command status. In doing so, lieutenants will acquire much needed technical and tactical experience, which will serve them well in future assignments. For example, company commanders are expected to set the standard for other pilots within their company. Being a pilot-in-command better enables commanders to be in the position to direct critical assets where needed. Lieutenants should also strive to obtain key training experiences that enhance normal garrison training, including, but not limited to: CTC rotations, joint and combined exercise deployments, and worldwide contingency operations. To successfully compete for promotion to captain, an officer must possess a thorough knowledge of Aviation tactics and principles and have obtained a baccalaureate degree. Officers may take advantage of pre-commissioning educational incentives such as incurring an additional 3 year ADSO in exchange for the opportunity to pursue a master's degree later in their careers.

b. Captain. A captain must successfully complete a branch CCC.

(1) Professional military education.

(a) Captains Career Course. Captains must earn a baccalaureate degree prior to attending a CCC. Aviation officers will attend a branch CCC between their 5th and 8th year of commissioned service and will be awarded AOC 15B upon successful completion. Aviation officers may attend other branch's CCC. The branch phase of the AVCCC is 21 weeks. It prepares officers to serve as combined arms experts, company commanders and battalion/brigade staff officers. The AVCCC meets established prerequisites for total operational flying duty credit assignments. Aviators earn 1 month of total operational flying duty credit for each month spent at AVCCC. Aviators attending another branch CCC do not earn total operational flying duty credit.

(b) Military Intelligence Captains Career Course. Officers selected for AOC 15C (All-Source Intelligence Officer) attend the Military Intelligence Officer Transition Course if they did not attend Military Intelligence BOLC. The AOC 15C officers attend the 20-week Military Intelligence CCC and receive training as a branch 35 (All-Source Intelligence Officer). They attend the Fixed Wing Multi-Engine Qualification Course before or after the Military Intelligence CCC with appropriate follow-on Aircraft specific training.

(c) Aviation Captains Career Course. Officers selected for AOC 15D Aviation Maintenance Officers will attend either the AVCCC or the CLC3. The officer will also attend the Aviation Maintenance Officers Course and the Maintenance Test Pilot course for AOC designation as a 15D.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Captains serving in one of the following assignments for 12-24 months acquire KD time:

(a) Platoon leader (15D) in an Aviation support company.

(b) Captain-level company/detachment command.

(3) Developmental assignments. Captains are utilized as the senior leader at the company level. Their primary goal is to successfully command a TOE/TDA company for 18-24 months. Captains can hold platoon leader positions in units authorized captains as platoon leaders. These units include the Aviation support company and ARSOA units. Captains also fill key staff positions at the battalion and brigade level, in addition to positions within the brigade Aviation element, Air Defense Airspace Management (ADAM) cell, CTC/observer/controller positions, and small group instructor positions at the proponent and USMA. Even when assigned to staff positions, captains should continue to hone their direct leadership skills, build flight experience, and achieve/ maintain pilot-in-command status.

(4) Broadening assignment. Opportunities available for captains include, but are not limited to:

(a) Observer controller/evaluator at a CTC.

(b) Course manager/instructor at USAACE/USAIC USMA.

(c) Training With Industry.

(d) HRC assignments.

(e) Collection manager (15C).

(f) Battalion primary and CAB assistant staff officer.

(g) Brigade Aviation element.

(5) Self-development. Captains should gain an in-depth understanding of Aviation brigade operations, combined arms operations, and aircraft maintenance. Aviation captains should dedicate time to a professional reading program to gain a historical perspective on solutions to tactical and leader challenges. Captains should strive for the same qualitative leadership building experiences as during their lieutenant years: CTC rotations, joint and combined exercises, and deployment on real-world contingency operations. The challenges at the captain/commander level will greatly enhance the officer's tactical and technical skills, as well as build critical flight experience. Captains should strive to meet the requirements for award of the Senior Aviator Badge by the time they are promoted to major. Captains should broaden their understanding of warfighting through extension courses and independent study. Commanders should maintain healthy officer professional development programs within their units.

(6) Key developmental. Captains should seek the KD assignments that assist them in promotion and create the qualities of a tactically and technically proficient Aviation officer. In addition, opportunities exist at TRADOC organizations as staff and logistics officers.

(a) Aviation captains can request to attend the Joint Air Ground Operations School at Hurlburt Field, FL 32544, or the Cavalry Leaders Course at Fort Benning, GA 31995-3781. If attendance at Air Ground Operations School is desired, the 3-week Joint Air Tasking Order Process Course located at Hurlburt Field, FL is recommended for officers who are required to understand and apply airspace mission command and the application of the air tasking order. The 2-week Joint Firepower Course at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, is more suited to an understanding of the application of joint fire support systems.

(b) Project Warrior is a program in which captains serve 2 years as an observer-coach-trainer at a maneuver combat trainer center, followed by 2 years as a small group instructor at a TRADOC Center of Excellence. Project Warrior was suspended due to operational requirements in Iraq and Afghanistan. The intent in reinstituting Project Warrior is to infuse observations, insights, and lessons gained from multiple maneuver combat trainer center decisive action rotations against hybrid threats, back into the force through the TRADOC Center of Excellence.

(c) Officers may receive Advanced Civilian Schooling or Expanded Graduate School Program participation if career timeline permits or if necessary for a FA or special assignment (for example, Army Acquisition Corps, FAO or USMA instructor). See paragraph 3-5b(4) for specifics.

(7) Volunteer Transfer Incentive Program. VTIP boards meet to consider officers in their seventh year of service for designation into other FAs or Branches. Officers will submit their top three choices at the seven year mark. Officers receive a new career manager upon selection by the VTIP for a different branch or FA. Only a limited number of Aviators will be given a FA or branch outside of Aviation, usually based on specific Aviation skill requirements in select FAs. Aviation officers will not participate in the Army's 4 Year VTIP.

(a) Volunteer Transfer Incentive Program eligibility. To participate in the VTIP officers must be eligible for transfer based on "in/out call" matrix provided in each MILPER message prior to each VTIP board. The officer must be an ACC officer. Must be a first lieutenant promotable, captain, or captain promotable. officers must submit a DA Form 4187 (Personnel Action) (signed only by the officer requesting the transfer, block 9), a memorandum for record (MFR) stating reason for request and one letter of recommendation from a lieutenant colonel or higher. Officers must submit their request electronically to usarmy.knox.hrc.mbx.opmd-retention@mail.mil . Any questions or concerns about the VTIP program or eligibility can be addressed via email at usarmy.knox.hrc.mbx.opmd-retention@mail.mil .

(b) An aviator migrating out of the Operations functional category will serve in their new FA for the remainder of their career, and with the exception of FA 51. Acquisition, will no longer be authorized Aviation pay. Repetitive operational flying assignments through the grade of captain are critical in order for officers to make their first Aviation pay gate (96 months of credible operational flying duty assignments at the 12 year Aviation pay gate audit). If an aviator has not met their 12 year gate requirements, they will lose continuous Aviation pay beyond the 12th year of Aviation service unless they are assigned to a credible operational flying duty authorization, and continue to 'fly for pay'. Aviators who remain in Aviation Branch are expected to remain eligible to serve in operational Aviation assignments. See additional sections in this pamphlet and AR 611-110 for a complete description of each functional designation and associated skills.

(8) Army Acquisition Corps. Between the 7th and 8th year of service select officers are assessed into the Army Acquisition Corps by a HQDA selection board. Aviators assessed into Army Acquisition Corps do not compete for Aviation battalion or brigade commands. Instead, they compete for lieutenant colonel and colonel-level product, project and program manager positions. Officers assessed into the Army Acquisition Corps are re-designated with FA 51. Accession into FA 51 is based on the same criteria as mentioned above (Army needs, training and background, and officer skills). Again, Aviation Branch will only access enough aviators into the Army Acquisition Corps to meet Army Aviation acquisition requirements.

(9) Army Special Operations Aviation. Officers interested in joining the ARSOA, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment should understand the flight and leadership experience needed to be competitive for an ARSOA assessment. The ARSOA recruiters focus their recruiting efforts on experienced captains with solid leadership and flight experience. Interested captains should pursue company command as soon as possible following the CCC.

c. Major. Majors should complete the Command and General Staff College/ILE course, a sister Service equivalent institution (Navy, Marine, or Air Force), or schools in other nations before they enter the primary zone of consideration to be competitive for promotion to lieutenant colonel.

(1) Professional military education. Following Command and General Staff College/ILE, some officers are selected to attend the SAMS. Those officers selected for the SAMS must serve an initial utilization tour as an assistant plans officer for DCS, G-3/5/7 on division or Corps staffs. Aviation maintenance officers are encouraged to attend the Army Logistics Management Course (Support Operations).

(2) Key developmental assignments. Majors regardless of their AOC (B, C, or D) should seek KD assignments that assist them in promotion, either in the Aviation Branch or in a FA. Majors should seek KD assignments and should serve in one or more of the following assignments for 12 to 24 months to acquire KD time:

(a) Battalion/brigade XO.

(b) Battalion/ brigade S3.

(c) Command positions coded for majors.

(d) AOC 15B. Majors' KD assignments include Aviation combined arms operating generating force assignments as battalion CAB staff, company command, and brigade Aviation officer.

(e) AOC 15C. Majors' KD assignments include Aviation combined arms operating generating force assignments as well as CAB S2 and aerial exploitation battalion S3 and XO. Additional broadening opportunities include Aviation staff positions in Military Intelligence brigades, tactical intelligence groups, and division level all source collection elements.

(f) AOC 15D. Majors' KD assignments include Aviation Combined Arms operating generating force assignments as well as battalion staff in tactical battalions, major level company command assignments as well as Aviation support company command, Aviation support battalion/XO/support operations, brigade S4, and division Aviation maintenance officer. Additional opportunities exist at Army Materiel Command (AMC) depots and in Theater Aviation Sustainment Maintenance Groups.

(3) Developmental assignments. Aviation staff positions are at the battalion, brigade, group, HQDA, and joint staff levels. Some majors also serve as instructors or hold staff positions at Army service schools.

(4) Broadening assignments. Opportunities available for majors include, but are not limited to:

(a) CTC observer controller/evaluator.

(b) RC advisor.

(c) USAREC staff.

(d) USMA faculty and staff.

(e) TRADOC service school instructors/doctrine writers.

(f) Army Staff, joint staff and branch/FA generalist positions.

(5) Self-development. Majors should focus self-developmental efforts on acquiring expertise in organizational leadership techniques, operations at division level and above, Aviation logistical support operations. Their self-development must focus on joint, multinational, and combined arms operations. This can be accomplished through correspondence courses or institutional training. Majors should devote time to a professional reading program. Officers may take advantage of the Expanded Graduate School Program and attend advanced civilian schooling if the follow-on assignment requires an advanced degree. Many advanced degree programs are available in order for officers to obtain a graduate degree. Aviation majors will likely serve in operational flying positions after being away from the cockpit for some time due to schooling and required staff positions. Therefore, their self-development should also be focused on refreshing themselves with new Aviation technologies in the cockpit. They should set the example for the younger generation of officers by continuing to place a strong emphasis on their technical and tactical Aviation proficiency. Aviation majors in BR 15 should strive to attain the Master Aviator Badge by the time they are promoted to lieutenant colonel should seek a field grade joint duty assignment once tactical and technical experiences have been attained.

(6) Selection. Individuals selected and assigned to a brigade Aviation element or ADAM Cell may be selected by the CAB commander to serve in positions organic to the BCTs as the Aviation subject matter expert for the BCT commander. Ideally, these positions will serve as a second KD position for a major, after they have completed an S3/XO positions. Officers assigned to a brigade Aviation element/ADAM cell provide the critical linkage with the BCT's supporting CAB to facilitate the most efficient tactical employment of Aviation assets in the BCT's operational environment. Serving in a similar position at a higher level also satisfies this intent.

d. Lieutenant colonel. Lieutenant colonels should serve in an Aviation-coded position for 18 to 24 months.

(1) Professional military education. No specific military education requirements exist for lieutenant colonels. A HQDA board determines selection for resident SSC or the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course. Officers selected for command selection list battalion command will attend the Army's PCC at Fort Leavenworth, KS, and the Aviation PCC at Fort Rucker, AL. Select TDA battalion command designees may also be slated for attendance at the TRADOC PCC at Fort Jackson, SC. Battalion command designees who have special courts martial convening authority will attend the Senior Officers Legal Orientation Course at Charlottesville, VA. A master's degree is strongly recommended, but is not required for promotion. Aviation maintenance officers are strongly encouraged to attend the Army Logistics Management College (Senior Leaders Course).

(2) Key developmental. Lieutenant colonels should seek (KD) assignments that assist them in promotion, either in the Aviation Branch or in a FA. Lieutenant colonels serving in one of the following assignments for 12 to 24 months acquire KD time.

(a) Battalion commander.

(b) Brigade deputy CDR/XO/S3.

(3) Developmental assignments. Lieutenant colonels that successfully complete a CSL battalion-level command may remain competitive for brigade command and enjoy a higher potential for promotion to colonel and SSC selection. Commands on the CSL are organized into four functional categories: operations, strategic support, recruiting and training, and installation. the following assignments are not necessarily coded as Aviation, however they are considered developmental assignments: lieutenant colonel positions at the CTCs, brigade/regiment/corps assistant for DCS, G-3/5/7 or DCS, G-4, deputy assistant for DCS, G-3/5/7 or DCS, G-4, operations officer for DCS, G-3/5/7, assistant plans officer for DCS, G-3/5/7, ROTC or recruiting duty, ACOM/ASCC/DRU staff, Army Staff, joint staffs, and selected AA/RC assignments. Performance in demanding assignments is a prime consideration for promotion and school selection boards. Officers should complete a field grade joint duty assignment to be competitive for promotion to brigadier general.

(4) Broadening assignments. The following assignments are not necessarily coded as Aviation, however they are considered broadening assignments: lieutenant colonel positions at USAACE, CTCs, brigade/regiment/group XO, division primary staff, corps assistant for DCS, G-3/5/7 or DCS, G-4, deputy assistant for DCS, G-3/5/7 or DCS, G-4, operations officer for DCS, G-3/5/7, assistant plans officer for DCS, G-3/5/7, ROTC or recruiting duty, ACOM/ASCC/DRU staff, Army Staff, joint staffs, and selected AA/RC assignments. Performance in demanding assignments is a prime consideration for promotion and school selection boards. Lieutenant colonels should also seek a joint duty assignment.

(5) Self-development. Officers should continue to build warfighting, joint, expeditionary, and FA expertise.

e. Colonel. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is sustainment of warfighting, training, and staff skill, along with utilization of leadership, managerial and executive talents. The majority of strategic level leaders in the Army are colonels. Colonels are expected to be multi-skilled leaders — strategic and creative thinkers, builders of leaders and teams, competent decisive action warfighters, skilled in governance, statesmanship, and diplomacy, and understand cultural context and work effectively across it. Aviation colonels are assigned by the Army's Senior Leader Development Office. Colonels should serve 18-24 months in an Aviation assignment coded at the grade of colonel.

(1) Professional military education. Although no specific mandatory military education requirement exists for colonels, the primary professional development goal is completion of SSC. Resident or nonresident Attendance at a SSC also identifies those officers with exceptional promotion potential for service in positions of increased responsibility. An HQDA board determines who attends the resident course and participates in the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course. Officers selected for CSL brigade Command will attend the Army's PCC at Fort Leavenworth, KS, and the Aviation PCC at Fort Rucker, AL. Brigade command selectees may also attend the Senior Officers Legal Orientation Course at Charlottesville, VA. Officers selected as TRADOC capability managers (TCMs) will attend the Combat Developers Course at Fort Lee, VA and the Project Manager's Acquisition Category III Course (commonly known as the Project Manager's Survival Course) at Fort Belvoir, VA. The Acquisition Category III Course has several prerequisites. Officers selected for TCM billets should contact their assignment officer to discuss requirements.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Colonels serving in brigade command for 12 to 24 months acquire KD time. Successful brigade-level command marks officers as qualified for increased responsibility at the highest levels in the Army and DOD.

(3) Developmental assignments. The following positions (some not necessarily coded as Aviation) are also developmental assignments: senior-level joint duty, division (former brigade commander position), corps-level officer for DCS, G-3/5/7, or DCS, G-4, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, or deputy chief of staff, deputy assistant commandant, director of training development and doctrine, director, TRADOC program office-Aviation brigades, director of evaluation and standardization (DES), director of simulations, director, organization and personnel force development, chiefs of staff (at division, corps, USAACE) colonel positions at the CTCs, Army Staff, ACOM/ASCC/DRU staff, joint staffs, and selected AC/RC assignments.

(4) Broadening assignments. The following assignments are not necessarily coded as Aviation, however they are considered key broadening assignments: colonel positions at CTCs brigade/regiment/group XO, division primary staff, corps assistant for DCS, G-3/5/7 or DCS, G-4, deputy assistant for DCS, G-3/5/7 or DCS, G-4, operations officer for DCS, G-3/5/7, assistant plans officer for DCS, G-3/5/7, ROTC or recruiting duty, ACOM/ASCC/DRU staff, Army Staff, joint staffs, and selected AA/RC assignments. Performance in demanding assignments is a prime consideration for promotion and school selection boards. Colonels should also seek a joint duty assignment. Officers should complete a field grade joint duty assignment to be competitive for promotion to brigadier general.

(5) Self-development. Self-development goals should focus on perfecting organizational level leadership skills, joint and coalition operations, and theater-level operations. An advanced degree is not required but is strongly recommended.

f. Reserve Component officer. Development opportunities. RC Aviation officer development objectives and qualifications parallel those planned for their AA counterparts (see fig 10-5 ). The nature of the RC Soldier's role as a "citizen Soldier" poses a unique challenge for professional development. The RC officers are expected to follow AC officer development patterns as closely as possible, except that RC officers have increased time windows to complete mandatory professional educational requirements. Civilian career opportunities, military promotions and educational opportunities may force RC officers to transfer between ARNG units, USAR TPUs, IRR, IMA Program, and the AGR Programs. These transfers are often hindered by geographical considerations, as well as a limited number of positions to serve with troops in leadership and staff positions. Additionally, there may be occasions when ARNG officers will be transferred to the IRR or Army Reserve officers to the trainees, transients, holdees, and students (TTHS) account while they complete mandatory educational requirements. Such transfers are usually temporary and should not be seen as impacting negatively on the officer's career. The success of the RC officer is not measured by length of service in any one component or control group, but by the officer's breadth and depth of experience which are the metrics that accurately reflect an officer's potential to serve in positions of increasing responsibility. Officers should focus on job performance, as there are many paths that define a successful career within the Aviation Branch.

(1) Professional military education . As RC officers simultaneously advance both civilian and military careers, they have less available time than their AA counterparts to achieve the same military professional education levels. To minimize this problem, RC courses are specifically tailored to reduce the resident instruction time. This cannot be accomplished with graduate flight training courses.

(2) Key developmental assignments. The AGs of the 50 States, 3 U.S. Territories, and the District of Columbia (DC) primarily manage the officers within their States. HRC and USAREC manage officers in the Army Reserve.

(3) Self-development through the military schooling system. The Aviation RC officer plays an important role in the Aviation Branch mission. RC officers normally develop through one AOC and in one FA. However, a lack of suitable positions in a geographic area may lead to some RC officers becoming qualified in multiple AOC or FAs. The RC officers must attain educational levels commensurate with their grade and assignment, using resident and nonresident instruction options. RC officers have increased windows to complete military education requirements.

g. Reserve Component lieutenant. Lieutenants must meet the requirements outlined in AR 611-110 for entry into the Aviation Branch.

(1) Professional military education. RC officers commissioned into the Aviation Branch attend BOLC and Initial Entry Rotary Wing with their AA counterparts. RC officers must have completed this training by their 2nd year of commissioned service.

(2) Key developmental assignments. The single most important assignment consideration for personnel managers and commanders is ensuring that the new lieutenant is assigned to a job which will allow the officer adequate opportunity to develop flight experience and troop-leading skills. Lieutenants should serve 18 to 24 months in a platoon leader position. A lieutenant normally serves at company level to gain troop-leading and flight experience.

(a) Platoon leader.

(b) Battalion staff.

(c) XO.

(d) Section leader.

(3) Developmental assignments. Lieutenants should serve at the platoon and company level to gain troop-leading and flight experience. The officer will concentrate on planning and executing the tactics, techniques and procedures specific to their weapons platform and unit mission.

(4) Self-development. Lieutenants focus on gaining and refining troop-leading, aviator, joint and combined arms tactics, logistics, and administrative skills. Effective 1 October 1995, a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution is required for promotion to captain or higher.

h. Rersve Component captain. Captains should seek the KD assignments that assist them in promotion and create the qualities of a tactically and technically proficient Aviation officer. In addition, opportunities exist at TRADOC organizations as staff and logistics officers

(1) Professional military education. Captains must complete a CCC. Options are as follows: CCC-AC (CCC AA curriculum), CCC-RC (RC curriculum), or the four- phase CCC-USAR.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Captains serving in one of the following assignments for 12 to 24 months acquire KD time:

(a) Platoon leader (15D) in an Aviation support company.

(b) Captain-level company/detachment command.

(3) Developmental assignments. Captains are utilized as the senior leader at the company level. Their primary goal is to successfully command a TOE/TDA company for 18 to 24 months. Captains also fill key staff positions at the battalion and brigade level. Even when assigned to staff positions, captains should continue to hone their direct leadership skills, build flight experience, and achieve/ maintain pilot-in-command status.

(4) Broadening assignment opportunities available for captains include, but are not limited to:

(a) Brigade staff.

(b) Theater Aviation Sustainment Maintenance Group.

(c) NGB.

(5) Self-development. Captains should broaden their understanding of warfighting through extension courses and independent study. Captains should gain an in-depth understanding of joint and combined arms operations.

i. Reserve Component major. To achieve branch leadership developmental standards at this level, majors must have enrolled in the Command and General Staff College/ILE course prior to 18 years time in service. They must have completed 50 percent of Command and General Staff College/ILE to be competitive for promotion to lieutenant colonel.

(1) Professional military education. Most RC officers will complete the Command and General Staff College/ILE Common Core via TASS or an upgraded advanced distributed learning program. Some RC officers will continue to attend the Command and General Staff College/ILE in residence at Fort Leavenworth, some will depart upon completion of the Core Course and others will remain for the Advanced Operations Course.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Majors serving in one of the following assignments for 18 to 24 months acquire KD time:

(a) Company/detachment command.

(b) Battalion S3/XO/support operations.

(c) Group/brigade primary staff.

(3) Developmental assignments. RC Aviation majors serve as company commanders, and in staff assignments. These staff positions are at the battalion, group, brigade, HQDA, or Joint Staff levels. Some majors also serve as instructors or staff at Reserve Forces Service Schools.

(4) Broadening assignment. Opportunities available for majors include, but are not limited to:

(a) CTC observer controller/evaluator.

(b) ARNG Aviation Training Site branch chief.

(c) Reserve Forces service school instructor or staff.

(d) USAREC staff.

(e) State JFHQ staff.

(f) Branch chief.

(g) Aviation staff officer at the ACOM/ASCC/DRU level.

(h) Brigade Aviation element positions.

(i) Army Staff, joint staff and branch/FA generalist positions.

(5) Self-development. Self-development efforts should focus on becoming an expert in all aspects of Aviation support operations, including joint and combined arms operations. These objectives can be accomplished through correspondence courses or institutional training. Majors should also devote time to a professional reading program to broaden their Joint and combined arms operations perspectives.

j. Reserve Component lieutenant colonel. Lieutenant colonels should serve in an Aviation-coded position for 12 to 24 months.

(1) Professional military education. In order to qualify for promotion to colonel, RC officers must have completed Command and General Staff College/ILE.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Lieutenant colonels serving in one of the following assignments for 18 to 24 months acquire KD time:

(a) Battalion command.

(b) Brigade S3/XO/support operations.

(c) Brigade deputy commander.

(3) Developmental assignments. RC Aviation lieutenant colonels serve in staff positions at group/brigade, major subordinate commands, USAR GOCOMs, or joint staff levels. Some RC officers may also serve as Reserve Forces Service School instructors or staff.

(4) Broadening assignment. Opportunities available for lieutenant colonel include, but are not limited to:

(a) State JFHQ staff.

(b) Reserve school positions.

(c) ARNG Aviation Training Site branch chief or deputy commander.

(d) ACOM/ASCC/DRU, joint staff positions.

(e) Group brigade staff.

(f) Division or branch chief.

(g) USAACE, USARC, NGB, AGR Title 10/ Title 32 USC positions.

(h) Army Staff, joint staff and branch/FA generalist positions.

(5) Self-development. Self-development goals should be to continue building joint warfighting expertise. An advanced degree is preferred but optional unless required for a specific assignment.

k. Reserve Component colonel. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is sustainment of warfighting, training, and staff skill, along with utilization of leadership, managerial and executive talents. The majority of strategic level leaders in the Army are colonels. Colonels are expected to be multi-skilled leaders; strategic and creative thinkers; builders of leaders and teams; competent decisive action warfighters; skilled in governance, statesmanship, and diplomacy; and understand cultural context and work effectively across it. Aviation colonels are assigned by the Army's Senior Leader Development Office. Colonels should serve 18 to 24 months in an Aviation assignment coded at the grade of colonel.

(1) Professional military education. Completion of SSC by resident or correspondence course is a primary professional development goal.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Lieutenant colonels serving in group/brigade command for 12 to 24 months acquire KD time: Aviation RC colonels should serve in command of a TOE/TDA Aviation group or brigade positions.

(3) Developmental assignments. RC officer's serve in staff positions requiring their Aviation experience at the GOCOM or joint staff levels. Command opportunities exist at ARNG Aviation Training Site.

(4) Broadening assignment. Opportunities available for lieutenant colonel include, but are not limited to:

(a) Division/corps staff, such as chief of Aviation and Safety Division.

(b) Joint staff Aviation.

(c) Position NGB/state Army Aviation officer (SAAO).

(d) GOCOM.

(e) AGR/ Title 10/ Title 32 positions at USAACE.

(5) Self-development. Self-development goals should continue to build on warfighting expertise. An advanced degree is preferred but optional unless required for a specific assignment.

l. Skill identifiers for Aviation officers.

(1) SI help to further refine the assignment process by designation of aircraft qualification or other specialty skill. When combined with an AOC they become CMFs, which personnel managers use in the assignment process. See DA Pam 611-21 for a complete list of SIs.

(2) Other Aviation participation programs. Aviation officers may participate in the following voluntary programs, if qualified:

(a) ARSOA.

(b) Army Astronaut Program (contact Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC-IC-T)).

(c) Degree completion program (see AR 621-1 ).

(d) Army fellowships and scholarships (see AR 621-7 ).

(e) The AMSP, also known as SAMS (apply during Command and General Staff School/ILE attendance).

(f) Advanced civilian schooling (see AR 621-1 ).

(g) USMA Instructor Program (see AR 621-1 ).

(h) Training With Industry. The Training With Industry program provides officers the opportunity to train with selected civilian companies to gain knowledge of industrial procedures, policies and technologies (see AR 621-1 ).

(i) Experimental test pilot training program. This is an intense 11-month course at the Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, MD. Branch commissioned officers will transfer to the Army Acquisition Corps for the remainder of their career. Applicants must be AC rated aviators in the rank of captain and have an academic background that includes the completion of college math and hard-science courses with above average grades. (Contact HRC (AHRC-OPE-V)).

10-4. Aviation branch officer area of concentration career paths

a. Area of concentration 15A, Aviation, general (see fig 10-1). This AOC applies to officers that have been accessed into the Aviation branch but have not yet completed a CCC. Officers in this AOC will first complete the BOLC and Initial Entry Rotary Wing flight training (earning designation as an Army Aviator) along with the Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape Course. Officers in this AOC are typically lieutenants and junior captains. They typically lead sections and platoons, serve as company executive officers, and/or serve as assistant staff officers at battalion and brigade level. By exception, these officers can command companies and serve as primary staff officers at battalion or brigade level. Upon completion of a CCC, AOC 15A officers will be re-designated into either the 15B, 15C, or 15D AOCs.



Figure 10-1. AOC 15A developmental model


b. AOC 15B, Aviation combined arms operation (see fig 10-2). Upon completion of a CCC, all Aviation officers that have not met the prerequisites for designation as either a 15C or 15D AOC officer will be designated as a 15B. Officers in this command companies, battalions, and brigades. By exception, they can lead sections and platoons (this being normally done by 15A officers). Officers in this AOC will also serve as staff officers (both primary and assistant) in battalion and higher-level formations and in organizations outside of the operating force. Officers in this AOC may also serve in staff positions designated as "combat arms immaterial" and "branch immaterial." They may also be accessed into Special Operations Aviation. For CSL positions (typically battalion and brigade command). 15B officers may only compete for positions designated for 15Bs.



Figure 10-2. AOC 15B developmental model


c. AOC 15C, Aviation all-source intelligence (see fig 10-3). Aviation officers will be designated as AOC 15C upon completion of the Military Intelligence Officer Transition Course, the Military Intelligence CCC, and the Fixed Wing Multi-engine Qualification Course. Officers designed 15C will normally complete follow-on advanced Special Equipment Mission Aircraft Airframe Courses, as required, leading their formations. These officers primarily serve in positions designated for AOC 15C. Officers designated as 15Cs are also considered qualified as 35D Military Intelligence Officers and are encouraged to alternately serve in 15C and 35D positions for best professional development. Officers in this AOC will typically lead special equipment mission aircraft platoons and command companies and aerial exploitation battalions. As staff officers, they will typically serve in the S2 (Intelligence) sections of Aviation battalions and brigades and within aerial exploitation battalion and military intelligence brigade staffs.



Figure 10-3. AOC 15C developmental model


d. AOC 15D, Aviation maintenance officer (see fig 10-4). Officers in this AOC are graduates of the Aviation CCC or the Combined Logistics CCC, as well as the Aviation Maintenance Officer Course (AMOC) and the Maintenance Test Pilot Course in the officer's mission/design/series aircraft. To be eligible for this AOC the officer must have completed a platoon leader assignment and attained pilot-in-command status of their respective aircraft. They lead sections and platoons, command companies, battalions and brigades, and serve as staff officers in battalion and higher echelon units. They must understand air and ground logistics as well as Aviation combat arms operations to be effective. Aviation maintenance officers plan and direct Aviation maintenance and logistics operations in home station training, combat operations and industrial operations. Opportunities exist for selected personnel at AMC, Defense Logistics Agency, ACOM/ASCC logistics offices, the Army Staff and Joint Staffs, Army depots, and in theater Aviation support maintenance groups. Officers should seek additional assignments throughout the Army Aviation combat arms environment that would enhance their ability to function in a combat operational situation. After successful KD assignments, 15D officers will seek additional broadening opportunities prior to promotion to major. They will attend Command and General Staff Course/ILE and the Army Logistics Manager Course-Support Operations. Major level maintenance officers will serve as Aviation support company commanders, brigade S4, division Aviation maintenance officers, or other key logistical or operational combat arms staff officer positions. Lieutenant colonel Aviation maintenance officers selected as Aviation support battalion commanders will attend the PCC and the Army Logistics Manager Course-Senior Leaders Course. They will compete for colonel-level positions in operational combat arms assignments, and serve in key staff positions at DCS, G-4 Program Executive Office (PEO) Aviation, ARNG, or USAACE. They may compete for tactical brigade, training and maintenance brigade commands and colonel- level brigade-equivalent CSL commands. Colonel-level maintenance commands include: Aviation Center Logistics Command, 128 th Aviation Brigade, and Corpus Christi Army Depot. These aviators compete for command opportunities in AOC 15B and 15D.



Figure 10-4. AOC 15D developmental model





Figure 10-5. Aviation Branch RC officer


10-5. Aviation Branch Active Army warrant officer

a. MOS (150A) Air Traffic and Airspace Management technicians (150A) supervise the effective utilization of ATS equipment and ATS personnel at all categories of Army ATS facilities. They supervise fixed base ATS training and rating programs, combat support training and certification programs, and combat support and fixed base facility operations procedures; and supervises airspace management functions and airspace processing procedures into the National Airspace System. (See fig 10-6 .)

(1) Assignment oriented training is an important element in the development of the Aviation warrant officer. The goal of assignment oriented training is for warrant officers to receive the required specific training for the right grade, at the right time, in order to produce warrant officers who are capable, agile, tactical, and technical experts.

(2) Air Traffic and Airspace Management WO1/CW2 are basic level, tactical and technical ATS experts intended for assignment as platoon leaders in tactical ATS companies and airfield operations battalions. They may also serve as airspace managers in the brigade Air Defense and Airspace Management (ADAM) section in the ATS company or airfield operations battalion. They manage and supervise enlisted ATS personnel; are thoroughly knowledgeable of procedures and standards for the separation and control of aircraft and the management of airfields. They develop, revise, and review terminal instrument procedures; assist in the development and revision of controlled and special use airspace; provide tactical and technical expertise pertaining to the operation of all ATS equipment. They assure application of the standards, time limitations, and policies for the issuance of controller qualification, certification, and facility rating; and assure application of the procedures for the cancellation, suspension, reissue, or withdrawal of certificates and facility ratings. In the ADAM section the150A will assist in the development of the brigade airspace appendix in the operations order/operations plan, assist in the development of the brigade Aviation procedures guide; review, deconflict, consolidate, and forward brigade airspace control means requests. They supervise the execution of immediate airspace actions; continuously monitor the brigade's assigned airspace; and coordinate unforeseen airspace issues directly with the division Airspace Manager for rapid resolution as necessary.

(3) Air Traffic and Airspace Management CW3 performs the duties of paragraph (2) and can be expected to serve in the following capacities: airfield operations battalion airfield safety and standardization element staff member, division G3 Aviation staff member in the main command post, corps C3 Aviation staff member in the main command post, theater airfield operations group ATS standardization element staff member, and battlefield coordination detachment (BCD) airspace management staff member. A CW3 150A in the airfield operations battalion or theater airfield operations group will advise the commander and staff on ATS and airfield management requirements and application. They participate in the analysis of Army Aviation mishaps; review Army and Federal training requirements for air traffic control, and submit recommendations pertaining to program standardization of ATS testing. They conduct quality assurance assessments of subordinate units or elements; develop, review, and revise airfield management policies and procedures. They review, revise, and process terminal instrument procedures packets; develop, review, and process airfield improvement plans; monitor airfield construction projects; and provide recommendations to commanders to improve the safe and efficient operation of airfields, heliports, and tactical landing zones. A CW3 150A in the division, corps, or BCD will plan and request immediate airspace control measures as required; serve as the air traffic and airspace representative during the planning phases of missions and exercises; additionally, they lead the division/corps airspace command and control section when the tactical command post is deployed. They coordinate all airspace coordinating measure requests received from subordinate units or elements; coordinate with the fires section on airspace around launch and target points for Army tactical missile system missions; deconflict gun target lines for indirect fire weapons with established airspace coordinating measures; coordinate with the next higher echelon airspace agency for all Army aerial assets (including special electronic mission aircraft and unmanned aerial system operations). They monitor location and status of Army air traffic control facilities and navigation aids; advise the commander on all fire support coordinating measures and airspace coordinating measures for Army missions, including those supporting Army Aviation and Army tactical missile system missions beyond the fire support coordinating line; ensure appropriate airspace coordinating measures supporting current operations are published in the air tasking order and airspace control order; and continuously monitor the units assigned airspace. CW3s should attend Aviation WOAC conducted at Fort Rucker, AL no later than 1 year after promotion to CW3 and must attend prior to promotion to CW4.

(4) Air Traffic and Airspace Management CW4 performs the duties of paragraphs (2) and (3) and can be expected to serve as the division or corps deputy airspace command and control officer in the tactical command post. CW4s should attend the WOSC no later than 1 year after promotion to CW4 and must attend prior to promotion to CW5. They are the principal advisor to the commander and staff on airspace operations, and provide guidance and technical input to subordinate ATS and other staff elements. They provide updates to the airspace control estimate/appendix to future operations, G5 plans, and to the joint airspace control plan. They are responsible for ensuring the efficient completion of air and Aviation actions including air mission requests, memorandums of agreement, very important persons missions, equipment fielding, and airspace and airfield management. They maintain direct lines of communication and coordination for liaison with other airspace management agencies in ACOMs, subordinate units, separate brigades, local garrison and staff agencies, host nation agencies, and nongovernmental agencies.

(5) Air traffic and airspace management CW5 performs the duties of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) and can be expected to serve as an ACOM airspace command and control management officer or as a member of the theater airfield operations group command staff. CW5s will complete the Warrant Officer Senior Course no later than 1 year after promotion to CW5. The 150A CW5 provides subject matter expert guidance, advice, and counsel to senior commanders and other staff members on policies, procedures, and capabilities involving ATS, airfield management, or airspace command and control; provides guidance and technical input to subordinate elements and other commanders and staffs at any levels; coordinates directly with BCD for air tasking order/airspace control order production and with fire support elements and Air Defense elements at various echelons throughout the area of operations; establishes and maintains working relationships with airspace command and control elements or airspace management elements including host nations, coalition partners, NATO allies, other military branches, other governmental agencies, and non-Government agencies.



Figure 10-6. MOS 150A developmental model


b. Military occupational specialty 150U. UAS Operations technicians (150U) (see fig 10-7 ) identify the strategic and tactical employment strategies of UAS for all levels of command; supervise the enlisted management of the commander's Aircrew Training Program; supervise UAS operations to include mission planning, payload operations, and launch recovery, aerial reconnaissance, target detection, and target engagement. They manage the safety, maintenance, and reporting programs; coordinate UAS airspace frequencies, and requirements to facilitate UAS operations. Manage UAS logistical requirements, and interface with appropriate UAS system managers. They act as the Army liaison for UAS missions; assist command staffs at all levels with analysis of UAS data to satisfy aggregate priority requirements, and serve as an advisor and subject matter expert for all UAS related issues.

(1) Assignment oriented training is the key element in development of a fully capable senior 150U. Examples of assignment oriented training are: The Safety Officer Course, Army logistics courses, and the Government Flight Representative Course. The Contracting Officer Representative Course, the Army Maintenance Manager's Course, Small Unmanned Aircraft System Operator and Master Trainer Courses, should be scheduled to coincide with professional development courses and or PCS. Career managers should assign these officers in support of a different unmanned aircraft system at each PCS, to develop and instill a broad base of knowledge and experience.

(2) UAS operations technician WO1/CW2 supervises UAS operations, to include: mission planning, mission payload operation, and launch and recovery of unmanned aircraft systems. CW2s serve as intermediate level systems integrators who perform the primary duties of leader, trainer, manager, sustainer, and advisor. The CW2s provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs and other officers. They provide liaison for the integration of UAS capabilities in maneuver, fires, and intelligence operations. Typical assignments include UAS platoon leader and Aviation safety officer.

(3) UAS operations technician CW3 performs all duties outlined above and develops and instructs newly appointed warrant officers during their entry level training. They coordinate with higher and subordinate units for employment of UAS missions. They serve as advanced level systems integrators, and perform the primary duties of leader, trainer, manager, sustainer, and advisor. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They primarily support levels of operations from platoon through battalion, requiring interaction with all Soldier cohorts and primary staff while serving as a senior technical and tactical advisor to the commander. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs and other officers. A CW3 is expected to complete training as an Aviation safety officer. CW3s should attend Aviation WOAC conducted at Fort Rucker Alabama no later than 1 year after promotion to CW3 and must attend prior to promotion to CW4. Completing a baccalaureate degree prior to promotion to CW4 is highly encouraged. Typical assignments include UAS platoon leader and Aviation safety officer, CTC observer controller/trainer, service school instructor and course manager, proponent combat developer, doctrine writer, training developer, instructors, or TAC officer at U.S. Army training centers, SOF organizations or in ARSOA positions.

(4) UAS operations technician CW4 perform all duties outlined in paragraphs above and serves and as a senior-level systems integrator. They are senior-level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of leader, manager, sustainer, integrator, and advisor. They should attend the WOSC not later than 1 year after promotion to CW4 and must complete the course prior to promotion to CW5. These officers serve at the field grade level as senior UAS advisors and staff officers, as well as in some company-level command positions. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They primarily support battalion, brigade, division, corps, and echelons above corps operations and provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs and other officers. They serve as the senior technical and tactical advisors to the brigade commander, as the UAS operations officer in the brigade Aviation element, and may serve in nonoperational staff officer positions at all levels as required. Completing a graduate-level degree prior to promotion to CW5 should be a self-development goal for these officers. Typical assignments may include; brigade Aviation officer, Aviation safety officer, (battalion and above), company commander, higher-level assignments officer, service school instructors and course managers, proponent combat developers, doctrine writers, training developers, ACOM/ASCC/combatant command, brigade/division/corps-level staff; additionally, there are occasional opportunities for assignment at the national and Joint levels or in ARSOA positions.

(5) UAS operations technician CW5 performs all duties outlined in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) above, serves as master-level systems integrators who are expected to perform their primary duties in the brigade level and above. CW5s will complete the Warrant Officer Senior Course no later than 1 year after promotion to CW5.They coordinate with higher echelons for the employment of UAS throughout the continuum of operations at the operational and strategic levels. When assigned to operational positions, they should sustain annual completion of all Aircrew Training Program requirements. Typical assignments include: Aviation safety officer (from brigade and above), tactical operations officer (brigade and above), commander, command chief warrant officer (CCWO), ACOM, ASCC, DRU JIIM, combatant command, ARSOA positions, chief warrant officer of the Aviation branch and other nominative positions.



Figure 10-7. MOS 150U developmental model


c. Military occupational specialty 151A. Aviation maintenance technicians (nonrated) (see fig 10-8 ). Aviation maintenance technician officers manage personnel, supplies, equipment, and facility assets to maintain and repair Army rotary, fixed-wing and unmanned aerial systems. Develops and implements responsive maintenance and logistical support to achieve the missions assigned by the Aviation maneuver commander. They organize maintenance elements to inspect service, test, disassemble, repair, reassemble, adjust, replace parts, and retest aircraft or aircraft components. They prepare, implement, and maintain standing operating procedures for management of maintenance activities. They interpret regulations, technical manuals, and orders pertaining to maintenance and logistics of Army aircraft for commanders and subordinates. They supervise Aviation equipment maintenance, direct maintenance, and accountability of organizational test equipment, supplies, and recovery equipment.

(1) Assignment oriented training is an important element in development of a fully capable senior 151A. Examples of assignment oriented training are: the Aviation Safety Officer Course, Army logistics courses, Retail Supply and Management Course, Logistics Management Development Course, Support Operations Course, Contracting Officer Representative Course, Logistics Assistance Representative at Corpus Christi Army Depot and the Army Maintenance Manager's Course. These courses should be scheduled to coincide with professional development courses and or PCS. WO1s are no longer required to attend a Maintenance Managers Course prior to attending the Aviation Maintenance Technicians Course at Fort Eustis Virginia. However, attending an appropriate Maintenance Technicians Course can enhance a 151A warrant officer's technical expertise and effectiveness. Training With Industry may be an option for senior CW3s and CW4s selected for follow-on assignments to a program manager office.

(2) Aviation maintenance WO1 and CW2 are basic level, tactical and technical experts who should expect to serve in platoon, company, or battalion-level positions. Assignment oriented training will be used to prepare Aviation warrant officers for each assignment. They manage aircraft maintenance based on a thorough knowledge of aircraft maintenance requirements for power trains, electrical systems, electronic systems, avionics, armament systems, mechanics and hydraulics. They manage and supervise removal, disassembly, inspection, repair, assembly, installation, maintenance operational checks and adjustments of aircraft structures, components and subsystems. These officers manage technical publication libraries, ensure compliance with regulations governing forms, records and reports pertaining to aircraft maintenance, manage stocks of aircraft repair parts and supply procedures, direct and supervise fault isolation for aircraft systems and subsystems. These officers ensure quality control for Aviation maintenance, and direct and supervise all facets of Aviation maintenance supply management and reporting. Typical assignments include: Aviation support platoon leader, armament officer or production control officer in the Aviation maintenance company or armament officer and component repairer platoon leader in the Aviation support company.

(3) The Aviation maintenance CW3 serves as advanced level technical and tactical experts that should perform their primary duties at Aviation support battalion or higher level. CW3s should attend WOAC conducted at Fort Eustis VA no later than 1 year after promotion to CW3 and must attend prior to promotion to CW4. Assignment oriented training will continue with emphasis on logistical interfaces above the brigade level. They may be scheduled to attend the Logistics Assistance Representative University at Corpus Christi Army Depot after their attendance at the Aviation WOAC. Career managers should assign these officers in support of a different modernized aircraft at each PCS. As a senior CW3, every effort should be made to assign them to an Aviation support battalion. The CW3s provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs, and other officers. The CW3s serve as senior technical advisors to the commander. Typical assignments include: production control officer, quality control officer in the Aviation maintenance company and Aviation support company, safety officer, component repair platoon leader, aircraft repair platoon leader, and instructor/writer at the generating force.

(4) Aviation maintenance CW4 serve as senior-level technical and tactical experts that should perform the primary duties in the sustainment base or generating force (TRADOC, AMC, Defense Logistics Agency). CW4s should attend the WOSC no later than 1 year after promotion to CW4 and must attend prior to promotion to CW5. The CW4s provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs, and other officers. The CW4s serve as senior technical advisors to the commander. As an Aviation support battalion Aviation maintenance logistician, a CW4 monitors and evaluates aircraft maintenance and logistic operations, processes and procedures, and Aviation materiel readiness status. Provides guidance and technical input to subordinate Aviation maintenance elements and other staff elements. They perform duties pertaining to resource management and aircraft procurement. Typical assignments include: production control officer in the Aviation support company, Aviation multifunctional logistician in support operations of an Aviation support battalion, Aviation multifunctional logistician in the sustainment base, Aviation resource management survey inspector, trainer/developer, project officer, Aviation multifunctional logistician at AMC (U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command), project officer 128 th Aviation Brigade, assignment officer at HRC, and detachment commander.

(5) Aviation Maintenance CW5 serve as master-level technical and tactical experts who are expected to perform their primary duties in the sustainment base and above. CW5s will complete the Warrant Officer Senior Course no later than 1 year after promotion to CW5. The CW5s provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs, and other officers. CW5s serve as master technical advisors to the commander. Typical assignments include; Aviation maintenance advisor to the assistant commandant 128 th Aviation Brigade, Aviation multifunctional logistician at PEO Aviation, Aviation multifunctional logistician at AMC, Aviation multifunctional logistician on DA Staff, Aviation multifunctional logistician at Defense Logistics Agency, Aviation multifunctional logistician at Joint Forces Command, and Aviation readiness chiefs assigned to general officer level staff positions.



Figure 10-8. MOS 151A developmental model


d. Military occupational specialty 152-155 Army aviator. Aviation warrant officers (see fig 10-9 ) in these specialties pilot and command all army aircraft in tactical and non-tactical conditions. Aviation warrant officers must be agile, adaptive, and creative, as they operate both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft in all meteorological conditions, both day and night, and are responsible for coordinating, conducting, and directing all types of single service and joint combat, combat support and sustainment operations. These officers function as direct combat participants with organic armament systems, and sustain combat proficiency for their designated aircraft as outlined in the appropriate aircrew training manual. Aviation warrant officers fill a unique role within Army Aviation as the branch's technical and tactical experts providing long-term continuity of service within both conventional and special operations Aviation units. As multi-skilled, lifelong learners, the focus of every officer should be on bringing the Warrior Ethos to every job and every facet of their development.

(1) Assignment oriented training is an important element in development of a fully capable senior 152-155. Examples of assignment oriented training are: The Aviation safety officer instructor pilot, maintenance test pilot, Aviation mission survivability officer (AMSO), instrument flight examiner, and master gunner. After completing WOCS, WO1s attend Initial Entry Rotary Wing training and the Aviation WOBC.

(2) MOSs 152-155 WO1. After completing the WOCS, WO1s attend the Initial Entry Rotary Wing and Aviation WOBC and the Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape Course. WO1 appointments are contingent upon successfully completing MOS certification courses and graduation from Aviation WOBC. These are basic level, technically and tactically focused officers who perform the primary duties of leader and operator. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. WO1s have specific responsibility for accomplishing the missions and tasks assigned to them. WO1s primarily support crew operations from team through battalion, requiring interaction with all Soldier cohorts and primary staff. These are basic level tactical and technical experts who should expect to serve in platoon, or company-level positions. Attaining pilot-in-command status is a goal, and annual completion of all Aircrew Training Program requirements is an expectation of these officers. Assignment oriented training will be used to prepare these officers for each assignment. Select WO1s will be assessed into ARSOA units.

(3) MOSs 152-155 CW2. The CW2s are commissioned officers with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position. The CW2s will complete the TRADOC mandated common core prerequisites for the Aviation WOAC and upon completion, will be eligible to attend resident Aviation WOAC. The CW2s serve as intermediate level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of leader, trainer, operator, manager, sustainer, and advisor. The CW2s provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They primarily support levels of operations from crew and team level through battalion, requiring interaction with all Soldier cohorts and primary staff. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs and other officers. These officers should concentrate on attaining pilot-in-command status, complete career track training courses for Aviation safety officer, instructor pilot, Aviation maintenance officer, or AMSO, or volunteer for assessment into ARSOA training. They are expected to complete all Aircrew Training Program requirements, and work towards attaining the Senior Army Aviator badge. Typical platoon/troop/company assignments include: pilot, Aviation life support equipment officer, aircraft survivability equipment/EW officer, Aviation safety officer, instructor pilot, maintenance test pilot.

(4) MOSs 152-155 CW3. The CW3s are commissioned officers with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position. CW3s should attend Aviation WOAC conducted at Fort Rucker, AL no later than 1 year after promotion to CW3 and must attend prior to promotion to CW4. The CW3s serve as advanced level technical and tactical experts, and perform the primary duties of leader, trainer, operator, manager, sustainer, and advisor. CW3s provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. They primarily support levels of operations from troop/company through battalion, requiring interaction with all Soldier cohorts and primary staff while serving as a senior technical and tactical advisor to the commander. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs and other officers. A CW3 is expected to complete track training as a maintenance test pilot, Aviation safety officer, senior instructor pilot/instrument flight examiner, master gunner, or volunteer for assessment into ARSOA training. Completing a bachelor degree prior to promotion to CW4 is highly encouraged. CW3s should sustain annual completion of all Aircrew Training Program requirements toward the goal of award of the Master Army Aviator Badge. Typical assignments include: flight leader, air mission commander, Aviation safety officer, senior instructor/instrument flight examiner, AMSO, master gunner, maintenance test pilot, special operation aviator, and small group leader.

(5) MOSs 152-155 CW4. The CW4s are senior-level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, manager, maintainer, sustainer, integrator and advisor. The CW4s should attend the WOSC not later than 1 year after promotion to CW4 and must complete the course prior to promotion to CW5. These officers serve at the field grade level as senior aviators and senior staff officers, as well as in some command positions. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. CW4s primarily support battalion, brigade, division, corps, and echelons above corps operations. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to NCOs and other officers. The CW4s will successfully perform as squadron/battalion-level Aviation safety officer, standardization instructor pilot (SP), maintenance test flight examiner, AMSO, master gunner, or in ARSOA positions at any level including company. Completing a graduate-level degree prior to promotion to CW5 should be a self-development goal for these officers. CW4s serve as the senior technical advisors to the battalion/squadron level commander, and as directed CW4s may serve in nonoperational staff officers positions at all levels of the Army as required otherwise, they should sustain annual completion of all Aircrew Training Program requirements. Typical assignments include: standardization instructor pilot/standards officer, AMSO, Aviation safety officer, maintenance test flight evaluator/Aviation material officer, special operations aviator, experimental test pilot, engineering test pilot, commander, division and higher-level assignments officer, and brigade/division/corps/Department of the Army level staff.

(6) MOSs 152-155 CW5. The CW5s are master-level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of leader, manager, integrator, advisor, or any other particular duty prescribed by branch. These senior Aviation officers serve as staff officers, commanders, and within Special Operations Aviation. They provide direction, guidance, resources, assistance, and supervision necessary for subordinates to perform their duties. CW5s primarily support brigade, division, corps, echelons above corps, and major command operations. They provide leader development, mentorship, advice, and counsel to other officers. The CW5s have special warrant officer leadership and representation responsibilities within their respective commands. CW5s will complete the WOSSC not later than 1 year after promotion to CW5. Completion of an advanced degree is highly encouraged. The CW5s will serve as directed in staff officer and nonoperational positions at all levels of the Army. When assigned to operational positions, they should sustain annual completion of all Aircrew Training Program requirements. Typical assignments include: Aviation safety officer brigade and above, standardization instructor pilot/standardization officer brigade and above, AMSO brigade and above, senior special operations aviator, Aviation material officer, brigade/division/corps/DA-level staff, chief engineering test pilot, commander, nominative positions, CCWO, and chief warrant officer of the Aviation Branch.



Figure 10-9. Aviation warrant officer developmental model


e. Aviation warrant officer functional roles.

(1) Aviation safety officer special qualification identifier B. The Aviation safety officers are the primary advisors and assistants to Aviation unit commanders on all matters related to Aviation and ground safety. They monitor unit flight and ground operations to identify and eliminate hazards that may cause accidents, injuries or operational failures. They administer or monitor safety related programs in accordance with DA Pam 385-90 . AC and RC officers desiring to become an Aviation safety officer must complete a 6-week resident course. Upon successful completion of the Aviation Safety Officer Course, these safety officers are employed from the troop/company level to Army level.

(2) Instructor pilot/standardization officer SQIs C/F/H. The Aviation standardization officer is the commander's technical and tactical advisor. They help the commander and the operations officer develop, implement, and manage the Aircrew Training Program. They train, evaluate, and provide technical supervision for the Aviation standardization program as specified by the commander. Training is based on the unit's wartime mission. Standardization officers maintain standards, evaluate proficiency of the unit's aviators, develop and execute training plans that result in proficient individuals, leaders, and units. Instructor pilots and standardization officers assist the command in planning and preparing Aviation training. Individual training is the building block for crew training, which leads to team, platoon and collectively trained units. Instructor pilot courses for all Army aircraft are taught at Fort Rucker or National Guard training sites. Successful completion of instructor pilot courses leads to award of SQI C. The Instrument Flight Examiners Course is conducted at Fort Rucker and leads to award of SQI F. After completion of the WOSC, battalion-level standardization officers are awarded SQI H. Instructor Pilots are assigned to each platoon as CW2s, progressing to company-level positions as CW3s. They work as senior instructor pilots, instrument flight examiners, and battalion-level standardization officers as CW4s. The CW5 standardization officers work at brigade or higher levels. Course information and prerequisites are contained in AR 95-1 .

(3) Maintenance Test Pilot SQIs G/L. Maintenance test pilots perform maintenance test flights in all Army aircraft. They advise the commander on aircraft maintenance management issues, schedule required aircraft maintenance and serve as Aviation logistics managers. These officers complete the Aviation Maintenance Managers Course and appropriate aircraft maintenance test flight phase of training at Fort Rucker, AL. Successful completion of both phases of training results in the awarding of an SQI of G. Maintenance test pilots are assigned to each platoon as CW2s, progressing to Aviation unit maintenance company-level positions as CW3s, battalion level as CW4s and brigade or higher-level maintenance officer positions as CW5s. For award of SQI L these officers must undergo a maintenance test flight evaluator evaluation. Maintenance test flight evaluator s are responsible for conducting evaluations of maintenance test pilots to maintain standardization of maintenance flight procedures. Course information and prerequisites is contained in AR 95-1 .

(4) Aviation mission survivability officer SQI I. The AMSO is the commander's primary advisor and tactical/technical expert on Aviation mission analysis for tactical employment of army aircraft, aircraft combat survivability, and personnel recovery including tactics, techniques and procedures designed to reduce Aviation mission threat risk to the lowest extent possible. The AMSO conducts combat survivability analysis on tactical Aviation operational planning, ensuring enemy threat systems are either avoided, suppressed, defeated or have their capabilities denied during the execution of tactical Aviation operations. The AMSO provides support to the intelligence section, identifying enemy threat capabilities and limitations which affect the commander's ability to conduct Aviation missions in the assigned area of responsibility. The AMSO integrates Aviation operational airspace requirements into theater/joint airspace control systems. The AMSO integrates joint capabilities to Army Aviation operations. At the brigade Aviation element level, AMSOs, in conjunction with their primary tasks, recommend and assist in the integration of tactical Army Aviation warfighting capabilities into the ground commander's scheme of maneuver. AMSOs are responsible for Aviation mission survivability training programs with respect to Aviation survivability, personnel recovery, and the Aviation mission planning system. Additionally, AMSOs support the intelligence section with training concerning the impact various threats have in regard to Aviation operational support. The AMSO Course is a resident course taught at USAACE, Ft. Rucker, AL focused at the company/troop level and providing qualification training for AMSOs. Qualified warrant officers are assigned to company-level AMSO positions as CW3s, battalion level AMSO positions as CW4s and brigade or higher-level AMSO positions as CW5s.

(5) Aeromedical evacuation pilot (medical evacuation) SQI D. The medical evacuation pilot must be an aviator qualified in aircraft used for medical evacuation and successfully complete the Army Medical Service Aviator Course or have 1 year documented experience. Aeromedical evacuation aviators may be assigned to multiple medical evacuation assignments or may revert to a nonmedical evacuation assignment dependent upon the utilization requirements of the Army.

(6) Experimental test pilot (XP) MOS SQI J. This training program is an intense 11-month course at the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, MD. Branch commissioned officers will be transferred to the Army Acquisition Corps for the remainder of their career. Applicants must be AC rated aviators and have an academic background that includes the completion of college math and challenging-science courses with above average grades. Aviation warrant officers interested in Army Aviation Engineering test pilot training must refer to the latest HRC MILPER message regarding the Army Experimental Test Pilot Program selection boards. Upon successful completion of U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, experimental test pilots will serve a minimum of 24 months in an experimental test pilot utilization tour.

(7) Special Operations Aviator ASI K4, K5, K6 (see fig 10-10 ). ARSOA selects its aviators from within the warrant officer population of Aviation branch on a volunteer basis. These volunteer aviators undergo a rigorous and comprehensive assessment, selection and training process to prepare them for service in ARSOA.

(a) ARSOA accessions.The accession target of ARSOA is aviators with the rank of CW2 or CW3, although select officers holding the rank of WO1 and CW4 may also be considered.

(b) ARSOA specific training.After successful selection these aviators receive common core training in ground combat skills required of all Army special operations Soldiers and then conduct intense, realistic training in the special operations aircraft variants employed within ARSOA units.

(c) Mission qualification levels.In addition to the normal functional roles carried out by Aviation warrant officers, special operations aviators are identified by one of three unique qualification levels which indicates their mission status as a pilot-in-command. This graduated system of training and qualification is designed to ensure that ARSOA aircrews provide unparalleled capability and experience in support of the ground force commander.

(1) Basic mission qualified (BMQ) aviators have completed an ARSOA training course qualifying them in a special operations aircraft variant, these aviators may be pilots-in-command, but only in a training or combat service support role.

(2) Fully mission qualified (FMQ) aviators have completed the assignment oriented training and experiential learning required to operate as pilot-in-command during any special operations Aviation mission. Fully mission qualified aviators are the basic building block of an ARSOA aircrew, and as such, all special operations aviators are expected to become fully mission qualified.

(3) ARSOA air mission leader/operational planner qualified (FLQ) aviators, also known as flight leads, have been selected for their tactical expertise and leadership ability to become the ARSOA commander's direct representative to the supported ground force during the planning and execution of the most sensitive ARSOA missions. Only a small percentage of special operations aviators will reach this qualification level, and as a result all ARSOA operational planners are assigned duties at the brigade staff level.

(d) Functional roles.Special operations aviators operate within the same functional roles and perform at the same duty positions as conventional warrant officer aviators, although the specialized training required when entering ARSOA may delay these career goals when compared to their conventional counterparts. In addition to the position opportunities at battalion and brigade staff levels available to conventional aviators, ARSOA aviators may also be assigned to positions within the ARSOA special operations Aviation training battalion (SOATB), research/development and acquisition within the systems integration and maintenance office (SIMO), or the U.S. ARSOA Command.



Figure 10-10. Special Operations Aviation warrant officer


(8) Command chief warrant officer. The CCWO of the CAB is empowered by the CAB commander and a critical component of the daily operations, mission command, and leadership of the organization. The CCWO will serve as the principal warrant officer leader for the CAB, advise and assist the CAB commander, subordinate commanders, staff, and warrant officers on all aspects of CAB operations. The CCWO will oversee warrant officer issues including assignments, PME, promotion readiness, career advancement, accessions, professional development and legal matters. The CCWO is responsible for enforcing the policies of performance, training, appearance, and conduct. The CCWO will communicate and coordinate with the chief warrant officer of the Aviation Branch, the HR command chief of Aviation warrant officer assignments, other CAB and higher headquarters senior warrant officer. CCWOs will also coordinate with battalion/squadron SPs, Aviation safety officer, AMSOs, maintenance test pilots, and senior warrant officers, as required, pertaining to their units.

10-6. Aviation Branch Reserve Component warrant officer

RC Aviation warrant officer development objectives and qualifications basically parallel those planned for their AA counterparts (see para 10-5 ). As with the RC commissioned officer, the RC warrant officer's "part-time" status also poses a unique challenge for professional development. RC warrant officers are expected to follow AC warrant officer development patterns as closely as possible. RC warrant officers also have increased time windows to complete mandatory aircraft progression and educational requirements. In most cases, the RC Aviation warrant officers have the option of resident or DL training

a. Assignment oriented training. Assignment oriented training is an important element in the development of the Aviation warrant officer. The goal of assignment oriented training is for warrant officers to receive the required specific training for the right grade, at the right time, in order to produce warrant officers who are capable, agile, tactical and technical experts. Examples of assignment oriented training are: The Safety Officer Course, Army logistics courses, Aviation Maintenance Technicians Course Government Flight Representative Course. The Contracting Officer Representative Course, the Army Maintenance Manager's Course, Small Unmanned Aircraft System course, Instructor Pilot, Maintenance Test Pilot, AMSO, Instrument Flight Examiner, and Master Gunner course. RC Aviation warrant officers are managed in the same manner as the RC commissioned officer. Aviation warrant officers must attain PME levels commensurate with their grade and assignment, using resident and nonresident instruction options. As Aviation Branch aircraft systems increase in complexity and capability, a corresponding increase occurs in tactical employment capabilities.

b. Professional development. Warrant officers simultaneously advance civilian and military careers. To minimize any adverse effects on their civilian careers, USAACE and the WOCC have developed RC courses specifically tailored to reduce the resident instructional time. Aviation warrant officers are adaptive technical experts, leaders, trainers, and advisors. Through progressive levels of expertise in assignments, training, and education, they plan, administer, manage, maintain, and operate in support of the full range of Army, joint, combined, and coalition operations. Warrant officers are teachers, warfighters, and developers of specialized teams of Soldiers. Throughout their career warrant officers should continue their self-development, to include the pursuit of a specialty-related graduate degree and/or advanced industry certification programs. The following are the professional development goals for warrant officers:

(1) Complete an associate's degree in a MOS related degree program and/or an MOS related certification program to remain competitive for promotion to CW3.

(2) Complete a baccalaureate degree in an MOS related degree program and/or an advanced certification program to remain competitive for promotion to CW4.

(3) Complete a graduate degree in an MOS related degree program and/or a second advanced certification program to remain competitive for promotion to CW5. Aviation RC warrant officer MOS's align with the AA warrant officer MOSs. (See career development models figs 10-6 , 10-7 , 10-8 , and 10-9 .)

Chapter 11

Field Artillery Branch

11-1. Introduction

a. Purpose. The mission of the Field Artillery is to destroy, defeat, or disrupt the enemy with integrated fires to enable maneuver commanders to dominate in unified land operations.

b. The way ahead. The Field Artillery branch develops officers who are uniquely qualified to support Army and joint forces commanders. Field Artillery officers serve in every combined arms formation in the United States Army. They work directly for maneuver commanders in infantry, Stryker, armor, airborne, air assault and Ranger units to coordinate, synchronize, and integrate Army, joint (Air Force, Navy, and Marine), and multinational assets to create effects on targets.

c. Unique functions performed by Field Artillery officers. Field Artillery officers are multifunctional professionals who are the Army's experts in the coordination, synchronization and integration of joint fires and Army fires; they are also leaders of Soldiers committed to providing precision, near precision and area fire effects. To ensure synchronized, integrated, and effective fires that enable the maneuver commander to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative, Field Artillery officers are proficient in the Army's two core competencies as identified in ADP 3-0 (combined arms maneuver and wide area security).

d. Unique features of work in the Field Artillery Branch.

(1) Command Field Artillery battery, battalion, brigade, and Division Artillery (DIVARTY) formations in combined arms, joint, and multinational operations.

(2) Command BCDs in support of Army, Theater, and Joint forces commanders to facilitate the synchronization of air and ground operations.

(3) Command BCTs, divisions and other senior Army and joint headquarters at corps and above.

(4) Serve as fire support officers (FSOs) responsible for planning, coordinating, synchronizing and integrating joint and indirect fires capabilities through the operations and targeting processes.

(5) Create and formulate doctrine, organizations, material solutions, and leader development models to accomplish the fire support mission worldwide.

(6) Instruct Field Artillery and fire support skills at service schools, joint training venues, and CTC's.

(7) Lead in positions requiring advanced joint and operational experience such as staff officers in Army, special operations and joint headquarters and activities requiring joint planning experience.

(8) Instruct at pre-commissioning programs, service and branch schools, and service colleges.

e. Branch eligibility. The Field Artillery branch is open to both male and female officers. As of 14 November 2013, all Field Artillery officer positions, with the exception of SOF, are open to males and females. Throughout FY 2014, the Army will begin integrating female officers into staff and leadership positions in cannon units and into company and battalion fires support officer positions. The Field Artillery proponent office and the Field Artillery branch assignment office is the best source of current information about evolving assignment policies for female officers.

11-2. Officer characteristics required

a. General. The Field Artillery branch requires officers who are, first and foremost, leaders of Soldiers. They must be mentally and physically disciplined and well-versed in Field Artillery, combined arms and joint tactics, techniques and procedures. They are warriors who possess the moral, intellectual and interpersonal characteristics that enable organizational and individual success. They must be grounded in Army Values and the Warrior Ethos. As joint fires experts, they must be able to leverage capabilities beyond those found in the Army.

b. Competencies and actions common to all. Field Artillery officers are valued as leaders, trainers and planners. These competencies are developed and perfected through realistic training, strict adherence to standards, PME, and service in the most demanding positions in the Field Artillery and across the Army and joint communities. The Field Artillery branch, and our Army, values a broadened leader with experience serving in both operating and generating force assignments, and in a variety of Army and joint assignments.

c. Skills unique to Field Artillery officers. Field Artillery officers lead cannon and rocket/missile Artillery organizations in the delivery of fires. Maneuver and special operations commanders look to their Field Artillery officers to plan, coordinate, integrate and synchronize fires. To effectively complete their mission, Field Artillery officers require the development of unique skills. They must be:

(1) The experts in the employment of all indirect fire systems and the coordination, synchronization and integration of Army and joint fires.

(2) Trained and proficient in the employment of surface to surface and air to surface precision fires capabilities.

(3) Proficient in the art and science of combined arms, special operations, and joint warfare.

(4) Proficient in the Army's two core competencies — combined arms maneuver and wide area security.

(5) Team builders who are equally skilled in leading Soldiers and collaborating with leaders from other branches, services and nations to enable mission success.

(6) Imaginative, agile and adaptive. Field Artillery officers are required to solve complex problems.

11-3. Officer development

a. Lieutenants. The professional objective for this phase of an officer's career is to develop requisite Field Artillery branch skills. Specifically, lieutenants will focus on developing platoon level leadership skills, mastering basic Field Artillery technical and tactical competencies, and developing combined arms fire support integration skills and competencies. Lieutenants will certify in cannon and rocket platoon tactics and procedures and in the Army profession. Those lieutenants serving in BCTs will also certify on company fire support tactics and procedures. All lieutenants will serve in challenging leadership assignments to grow their confidence and capability to lead Soldiers.

(1) Education.

(a) Basic Officer Leaders Course B.Field Artillery BOLC B is an 18 week, 4 day course. The course will produce an adaptive officer who is technically and tactically competent in Fire Support and Field Artillery tactics, techniques and procedures. Instruction in BOLC B occurs over three phases. Phase one focuses on common Soldier skills and lasts 3 weeks. Phase II is 14 weeks long and teaches fire support and Field Artillery technical skills. Phase III is a capstone field training exercise designed to validate learning and allow the officer to experience the employment of Field Artillery assets in a combat environment.

(b) Joint fires observer.Beginning in July 2014, all officers will receive Joint fires observer certification training in Phase II of BOLC. Joint fires observer certification is a graduation requirement from FA BOLC regardless of the lieutenant's first unit of assignment. Lieutenants will maintain their Joint fires observer currency through their assigned unit's Joint fires observer program, as required. A Joint fires observer is a certified/qualified Servicemember trained to request, control and adjust surface to surface fires, provide timely and accurate targeting information in support of close air support to a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC), Forward Air Controller - Airborne (FAC-A), or directly to an aircraft when authorized by the controlling JTAC/FAC-A, and perform autonomous terminal guidance operations. Field Artillery lieutenants are expected to be subject matter experts on the planning, coordination and integration of all fires, especially when assigned as FSOs.

(c) Rangers.Field Artillery lieutenants may volunteer for Ranger training. Lieutenants desiring to attend Ranger training are afforded an opportunity to participate in the Pre-Ranger Training Program as part of BOLC B. Officers who successfully complete this program will normally attend Ranger and Airborne School immediately after BOLC B.

(2) Assignment. The professional development of Field Artillery lieutenants is dependent upon assignment based experiences to enable exposure to the breadth of skills required of Field Artillery officers. Brigade and battalion commanders will actively manage their lieutenants to grow talented Field Artillery officers who possess a breadth of fire support and Field Artillery technical skills.

(a) The typical Field Artillery lieutenant will be assigned to a maneuver BCT or a Field Artillery brigade. Lieutenants in BCTs can expect to be assigned as battery XOs, platoon leaders, fire direction officers, company FSOs and staff officers within their respective battalions. Every lieutenant assigned to a BCT will perform duties as an FSO and serve in at least one assignment in a firing battery. Geographical dispersion and other extreme circumstances may, from time to time, prevent every lieutenant from serving in both fire support and firing battery assignments.

(b) Lieutenants in Field Artillery brigades can expect to be assigned as battery XOs, platoon leaders, fire direction officers, and staff officers within their respective battalions. Some lieutenants will be assigned as an XO in the target acquisition battery. Every lieutenant assigned to a Field Artillery brigade will perform duties in at least two of these positions to develop their knowledge and skills.

(c) Lieutenants initially assigned to generating force training brigades can expect rewarding developmental assignments that enable their professional growth and the development of leadership skills. These officers must be intensively managed and provided an opportunity to serve in an operational force unit to ensure the development of their technical and tactical skills during their formative years.

(3) Self-development. As aspiring professionals, lieutenants must focus their self-development on the three broad criteria which identify Army professionals: competence, character and commitment.

(a) Competence. Lieutenants should focus on developing Field Artillery and fire support technical and tactical skills, refining their troop-leading skills, and gaining an in-depth knowledge of training management, organizational maintenance, supply operations, and administrative operations.

(b) Character. Field Artillery officers must maintain a moral character that is beyond reproach. Mission success in the Field Artillery is dependent upon precision and accuracy. Our maneuver counterparts trust that we will deliver timely and accurate fires. Their trust is gained through the repeated demonstration of our character.

(c) Commitment. Field Artillery lieutenants must take the initiative to gain knowledge and experience to prepare for assignment as a captain. Structured and continuous self-development will contribute to lifelong success and honorable service in the branch.

(4) Desired experience. Field Artillery officers should complete their time as lieutenants with a strong capability portfolio of technical, tactical, and procedural artillery skills, fire support employment skills, and troop-leading skills. Lieutenants must certify on the weapon system to which they are assigned and demonstrate strong knowledge of company-level fire support planning, coordination and integration.

b. Captains. The professional objective for this phase of an officer's career is to lead Soldiers and accomplish organizational missions. Field Artillery captains will demonstrate technical proficiency in all aspects of Field Artillery gunnery, specific to the system which they are assigned. They will have an in-depth knowledge of synchronizing and integrating fires at the maneuver battalion level. After completion of command, captains will become exposed to numerous opportunities to grow knowledge and experiences beyond those required in tactical formations.

(1) Education.

(a) Field Artillery officers will attend a CCC as soon as practicable after promotion to captain. Field commanders, in coordination with HRC, will determine the best time for an individual to attend school based on Army requirements, the needs of the unit, the continued professional development requirements of the officer, and the officer's individual preferences.

(b) The Field Artillery CCC consists of 8 weeks of common core plus 16 weeks of branch-specific instruction. This training prepares officers to command at battery level, perform fire support coordination as a battalion FSO, and work as a key staff officer in a battalion or brigade.

(c) A small number of captains will have the opportunity to attend the MC3 or the Marine Expeditionary Warfare School. These broadening opportunities benefit officers of all branches and services. Selection is competitive and reserved for officers with strong performance in previous assignments.

(2) Assignments. Field Artillery company grade officers must grow experience and develop skills across the breadth of formations and weapon systems in the Field Artillery and the Army. HRC will assign captains, who served in BCTs as lieutenants, to Field Artillery brigades or to maneuver brigades with a different weapon system than what the officer previously experienced. Conversely, officers who served in Field Artillery brigades as lieutenants will be assigned to BCTs. This is specifically designed to grow the capability portfolio of each officer.

(a) Battery command. Battery command is the KD assignment for Field Artillery captains. Command is a privilege, not a right. DIVARTY, brigade, and battalion commanders will assess the knowledge, skills, attributes and readiness of their Field Artillery officers and will afford command to those officers who are ready. Command tour lengths should not exceed 18 months. A minimum of 12 months is required to be considered qualified. Some captains may be afforded a second command opportunity. Second command opportunities are usually reserved for commands that present a unique and more diverse challenge (where the unit and Soldiers would benefit significantly by having a commander with previous command experience). Officers who command more than once should complete their total command time in 24 months.

(b) Battalion fire support officer. Field Artillery officers should aggressively seek to serve as a battalion FSO in a maneuver battalion. This experience provides the greatest insights to planning, coordinating, synchronizing, and employing Army and joint fires and reinforces skills for the integration of fires at the tactical level. Assignment as a battalion FSO is not considered a KD assignment for branch qualification but is complementary to battery command; together, these two assignments provide the greatest breadth of experience a Field Artillery officer can achieve at the company grade level.

(c) Developmental assignments. A wide variety of interesting and challenging assignments are available to Field Artillery captains. Upon completion of a CCC, the majority of captains will be assigned to Field Artillery cannon or rocket battalions or to fire support positions with maneuver battalions. Success in the assignments listed below will prepare captains for command opportunities and further success within the Field Artillery:

(1) Fires battalion assistant S3.

(2) Fires battalion fire direction officer.

(3) Primary staff officer within a battalion.

(d) Post-battery command broadening assignments. After completion of battery command, Field Artillery officers become available for assignments across the Army and joint forces. Where possible, individual officers, in coordination with their respective HRC assignment officer, should seek assignments that coincide with their career objectives and goals. The assignment of post-battery command officers is an important process that integrates the desires of the officer, input from the officer's DIVARTY, brigade and battalion commanders, and the needs of the Field Artillery, the Army and joint forces. Two of the most important post-battery command assignments are service as small group instructors and CTC observer/coach/trainers. These assignments will remain nominative to ensure the best officers are selected to grow the next generation of Field Artillery leaders. Select officers will be afforded the opportunity to serve with SOF. Some of the more important post-battery command opportunities follow:

(1) Small group instructor.

(2) CTC observer/controller/trainer.

(3) Mission command training program (MCTP) operations officers.

(4) Ground liaison officers.

(5) SOF FSOs (includes Ranger and SF).

(6) BCT, Field Artillery brigade, and DIVARTY staff officers.

(7) Instructor positions (USMA faculty, ROTC, and other branch and service schools).

(8) AC/RC trainers or other RC duty.

(9) Branch immaterial positions (for example, USAREC staff, aide-de-camp, internships).

(10) Foreign exchange officer.

(3) Self-development. Field Artillery captains are highly regarded as professionals. As such, captains should strive to develop a complete understanding of combined arms operations and the related fire support tasks. This knowledge provides the foundation of continued service in the branch. Captains must possess a working knowledge of command principles, battalion-level staff operations, and combined arms and fire support operations. After command, they should seek to broaden their perspectives in joint assignments due to the likelihood of future coalition warfare. All captains should dedicate time to professional reading to gain a historical perspective on tactical and leadership challenges. Field Artillery captains should consider beginning work on an advanced degree. Officers interested in the types of advanced civil schooling programs and eligibility requirements are encouraged to begin an early dialogue with their branch representative. Field Artillery captains are also encouraged to consider applying for any of several formal internships, scholarships, and fellowships sponsored by the Army. A few of the more prominent opportunities include: the Arroyo Fellowship, congressional fellowships, U.S. Army Cyber Command Scholarship Program, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and Service Chiefs' Fellow Program, General Wayne A. Downing Scholarship, Joint Chief of Staff, OSD, and the Department of Army Staff Intern Program, Olmsted Scholarship Program, Strategic Education and Development Program, and the White House Fellowship.

(4) Desired experience. The KD assignment for a Field Artillery captain is service as a battery commander. There is no substitute for battery command. It develops the Field Artillery officer's leadership skills and prepares him or her for future leadership assignments at successively higher levels of responsibility. Where possible, every Field Artillery captain should serve as a FSO to reinforce the knowledge and skills required for the integration of fires at the tactical level.

c. Majors. There are two primary objectives for this phase of an officer's career: contribute experience and expertise to the organizations to which the officer is assigned, and broaden their knowledge and skills pertaining to Army and joint operations. Field Artillery majors are expected to be technically, tactically, and procedurally proficient in all aspects of Field Artillery gunnery and fire support coordination and integration. Most will be afforded a KD opportunity to serve as a brigade FSO, an S3 or XO, or a combination of these assignments. After completion of their KD time, Field Artillery majors will be afforded opportunities to continue building on the experience they gained as lieutenants and captains in joint assignments and operations.

(1) Education. Majors are required to complete ILE. ILE is designed to develop leaders who will train and fight at the tactical and operational levels of war. It prepares officers for duty as field grade commanders and staff officers, principally at division and corps levels. The specific window when an officer attends ILE is a careful process which takes into consideration input from the individual officer, the officer's DIVARTY, brigade and battalion commanders, and the current needs of the Army. Ideally, an officer will attend ILE as soon as possible after promotion to major and prior to service in a KD assignment. While at ILE, officers may also compete for selection to attend the AMSP within the SAMS. Those selected to attend AMSP must serve a utilization tour as a corps or division plans or operations/assistant DCS, G-3/5/7 staff officer. Majors serving in special operations units may attend the Special Operations Terminal Attack Controller Course resourced through the USASOC in order to conduct terminal attack control as special operations JTACs.

(2) Assignments. The goal of the Field Artillery branch is to provide majors the opportunity to serve 24 months in KD positions. The KD assignments are brigade FSO, DIVARTY, BCT or Field Artillery brigade S3 or XO, and battalion S3 or XO. While 12 months is the minimum standard, a Field Artillery major will normally serve 24 months in KD assignments. Commanders should assign their best majors as brigade FSOs for the development of the officer and to provide the best support to our maneuver commanders. While a 12-month assignment as a brigade FSO meets the KD assignment requirement, officers should also serve at least 12 months in one or more battalion, brigade, or DIVARTY KD assignments. The cumulative experience gained on battalion, brigade, and DIVARTY staffs provides the greatest development for a Field Artillery major. Strong performance in these KD positions is a clear indicator of future potential for service as a battalion commander.

(a) Developmental assignments. Upon completion of ILE, field artillery majors may be assigned to a variety of duties including division and corps fire support elements, BCT and Field Artillery brigade and DIVARTY staffs, or directly to Field Artillery cannon or rocket battalions. Developmental assignments enable a major to further develop knowledge and skills to succeed in a branch qualifying assignment. Example developmental assignments follow:

(1) Small group instructor.

(2) Division/corps/echelons above corps assistant FSO.

(3) BCT, Field Artillery brigade or DIVARTY assistant S3.

(4) AC/ RC S3/XO.

(5) Instructor (USMA faculty and staff, ROTC Assistant Professor of Military Science, service school instructor).

(6) Multinational and coalition trainer and staff officer.

(b) Post-key developmental broadening assignments. After completion of KD assignment(s), Field Artillery officers become available for employment in assignments across the Army and joint forces. Where possible, individual officers, in coordination with their respective HRC assignment officer, should seek assignments that coincide with their career objectives and goals. A few of the more important post-KD assignments are service on the joint or Army Staff, as a CTC observer/coach/trainer, or in the special operations command. These assignments will remain nominative to ensure the best officers are selected to grow the next generation of Field Artillery leaders. Some of the more important post-KD opportunities follow:

(1) Joint or Army staff positions.

(2) Operations officer of a BCD.

(3) CTC observer/controller/trainer.

(4) Ranger or SF FSO.

(5) MCTP observer/trainer.

(6) Doctrine/training developer.

(3) Self-development. Field Artillery majors are expected to develop their organizational leadership skills, broaden their strategic perspectives, and hone operational skills. They will be required to develop and use a diverse set of skills as they move between combined arms leadership positions in operating and generating force organizations and joint assignments. Majors should continue self-development and lifelong learning efforts to become an expert in all aspects of fire support coordination to include joint and multinational operations. Self-development should include correspondence courses, civilian education, and institutional training. Officers should also devote time to a professional reading program to broaden their warfighting perspective.

(4) Desired experience. The Field Artillery major should be able to demonstrate proficiency in planning and executing fires for combined arms maneuver and wide area security operations in the joint environment. Beyond qualification as a major, the need for expeditionary experiences, to include joint assignments, is essential to the development of all field grade officers. To the greatest extent possible, Field Artillery majors should seek assignments and schooling providing unique joint perspectives and experiences.

d. Lieutenant colonels. The professional objective for this phase of an officer's career is demonstrated excellence in tactical skills, technical proficiency and the ability to lead, train, motivate and care for Soldiers in both command and staff environments. Field Artillery lieutenant colonels are leaders in the branch and in the Fires, Army and Joint communities. They plan, coordinate, integrate, and synchronize all fires in support of unified land operations and they are strategic leaders who serve in joint and multinational commands.

(1) Education. Lieutenant colonels selected for command will complete one or more PCCs and may be selected to attend a SSC. After command, officers selected for joint assignments must complete JPME training.

(2) Assignments. The KD assignment for Field Artillery lieutenant colonels is centrally selected battalion command in the operating or generating force. Field Artillery lieutenant colonels may compete for CSL commands in the following categories: field artillery operations, field artillery training, combat arms installation, branch immaterial installation, branch immaterial strategic support, branch immaterial recruiting and training, branch immaterial operations, combat arms training, and asymmetrical strategic support. While only a small percentage of Field Artillery lieutenant colonels will command a battalion, all lieutenant colonels have a remarkable opportunity to make significant contributions to the branch and the Army. All Field Artillery lieutenant colonels can expect to serve in a wide variety of professionally challenging and personally rewarding assignments in the operating and generating forces. Some of the more significant assignments include:

(a) Joint or Army staff positions.*

(b) NATO staff, combatant commands staff.*

(c) Senior fire support observer/controller at one of the CTCs (MCTP, JMRC, JRTC, NTC).*

(d) Corps/division staff officer.

(e) Special Operations FSO.

(f) BCD plans officer.

(g) Fires assignments in TRADOC, Army Air and Missile Defense Commands (AAMDCs), and ADA brigades.

(h) AC/RC training support team chief/commander.

(i) Service branch school staff and instructors.

(j) ROTC Professor of Military Science. Note. *Denotes typical former battalion commander billets. Former battalion commanders will be assigned to specific billets coded for former battalion commanders. All former battalion commander assignments are individually approved by the CG, Fires Center of Excellence.

(3) Self-development. Self-development should be focused on mastering mentoring and managerial skills, continuing development of warfighting and fire support skills, and growing capabilities to serve as operational, strategic and fires leaders for the Army and joint forces. Lieutenant colonels not selected for resident SSC should enroll in nonresident SSC courses.

(4) Desired experience. Not every officer will command. However, Field Artillery lieutenant colonels are highly valued across the Army and joint communities. Their technical and tactical skills and knowledge of combined arms and joint operations enable tremendous opportunity for assignment and contribution throughout the Army and joint communities.

e. Colonels. The professional objective for this phase of an officer's career is the employment of the leadership, managerial and executive talents developed throughout the officer's career. Colonels are expected to be multi-skilled leaders, strategic and creative thinkers, builders of leaders and teams, and competent warfighters. Field Artillery colonels contribute to the Army by serving in crucial assignments in command and senior staff positions. The critical task during this phase is to fully develop the broad skills and competencies required of an agile and adaptive leader, while maintaining branch competency (warfighting skills).

(1) Education. Selection for resident SSC attendance is a highly competitive process and not all officers selected for promotion to colonel will attend a resident course. Those not CSL-selected should enroll in a nonresident SSC course. Those selected to command will also attend one or more PCCs. Officers serving as TRADOC capability managers may attend the Combat Developers Course.

(2) Assignments. The KD assignment for a Field Artillery colonel is selection for brigade, DIVARTY or O6 CSL equivalent command. Field Artillery colonels may compete for CSL commands in the following categories: Field Artillery operations, Field Artillery/ADA (Fires) key billet, Field Artillery training, Field Artillery installation, combat arms (maneuver) operations, combat arms installation, combat arms strategic support, branch immaterial recruiting and training, and branch immaterial installation. Some of the more significant assignments for Field Artillery colonels include:

(a) Division/corps/echelons above corps chief of fires.

(b) Division or corps chief of staff.

(c) Division, corps, or field army assistant chief of staff, DCS, G-3/5/7.

(d) CTC operations group commander/chief of staff.

(e) MCTP commander or chief of operations groups

(f) TRADOC capabilities manager.

(g) XO to a general officer.

(h) Department director, U.S. Army Fires Center of Excellence.

(i) HQDA or joint staff.

(3) Self-development. Field Artillery colonels must maintain their branch skills and keep current on all changes that affect the Soldiers they command and/or lead.

(4) Desired experience. The primary goal at this stage is to fully use the experience and knowledge gained to provide significant contributions to the operating and generating force. Field Artillery colonels are expected to be strategic and creative thinkers; builders of leaders and teams; competent warfighters and fire supporters; and skilled in governance, statesmanship, and diplomacy. They influence policy within the Army and the DOD. Field Artillery colonels will encounter a variety of assignments where their fire support, operational and strategic experience will enable success.

11-4. Assignment preferences

The goal of the Field Artillery branch is to grow a Field Artillery expert who is technically and tactically prepared to lead Soldiers and command units in combat. Assignments in joint and combined arms organizations will develop the officer's overall ability to achieve that goal. Assignments are based on Army requirements, the officer's professional development needs and the officer's preferences. While Field Artillery Branch will consider the individual officer's preferences, the needs of the Army and the officer's professional development needs will take priority. Because of the quantity and variety of joint and combined environments that Field Artillery officers serve in, a recognized benefit of service in the Field Artillery is that senior Field Artillery officers are prepared to assume roles as operational and strategic leaders in our Army and joint forces.

11-5. Duration of critical officer life-cycle assignments

a. The Field Artillery officer will serve in several key and developmental positions as they progress through their career in order to develop a joint and expeditionary mindset, tactical and technical expertise in combined arms warfare, and a firm grounding in Field Artillery operations. There is no substitute for service in key leadership positions. The Field Artillery officer development model exists to enable the best possible decisions for the development of each officer. The goal of the Field Artillery officer PDM is to provide the Field Artillery officer a series of leadership and operational staff positions, supplemented by opportunities to round out their knowledge in key generating force assignments in order to achieve success in positions of leadership at successively higher levels. The model is designed to prepare the greatest population of officers to excel across the spectrum of Field Artillery systems in platoon leadership, battery command, S3/XO assignments, battalion, brigade and DIVARTY level command, and in planning, coordinating and integrating fire support for our maneuver counterparts at every level from platoon through joint headquarters.

b. Figure 11-1 shows how PME, key and developmental assignments and self-development fit together to support the Field Artillery branch goal of growing agile and adaptive leaders.



Figure 11-1. AA Field Artillery officer development model


11-6. Key officer life-cycle initiatives

a. Structure. The majority of assignment opportunities in the operating force will reside within the infantry, Stryker or armored BCT's or Field Artillery brigades. As an officer progresses in rank, there are greater opportunities to serve in the generating force.

b. Acquire. The Field Artillery branch will identify and actively recruit the most talented cadets to become Field Artillery officers. Officers will continue to be accessed through USMA, ROTC, OCS, and WOCS. Accessions are based on officer preference and the needs of the Army. The branch will also remain a recipient of branch detail officers from other branches. Branch detailed officers return to their commissioning branch upon their selection to captain and assignment to their branch transition course.

c. Distribute. The assignment process supports the Field Artillery officer development model. Specifically, the model is designed to ensure an officer achieves the broadest exposure to the variety of systems, tactics, techniques and procedures that exist within the branch. This broadened exposure enables the greatest opportunity to develop a branch of highly skilled joint Fires experts. Field Artillery officer assignment patterns will vary according to Army requirements, unit Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN) timelines, individual officer development requirements, and individual officer preferences.

d. Deploy. The purpose of the U.S. Army is to fight and win our Nation's wars. All Field Artillery officers must remain fully deployable to accomplish missions across the full spectrum of operations.

e. Sustain. Field Artillery technical and tactical skills are maintained through institutional training, assignments in warfighting units, and self-development.

(1) Promotion. Field Artillery officers compete for promotion within the operations functional category and are selected for promotion based on recognized performance and identified potential.

(2) Command. Lieutenant colonel and colonel-level commanders will be selected through a centralized selection board process. Field Artillery officers are competitive in all command categories.

(3) Officer evaluation report. The OER will reinforce the linkage between officer development and OPMS.

f. Develop. Field Artillery officers are expected to be experts in the employment of all joint Fires. To achieve this, officer development will occur across the spectrum of progressive assignments in operational and generating forces, specific PME, integrated leader and peer development (including the MSAF tool), and self-development. In order to lead in a rapidly changing global environment, Field Artillery officers must engage in a continuum of cultural and foreign-language training that spans the duration of their careers.

11-7. Warrant officer development

a. Unique knowledge and skills of a Field Artillery warrant officer. The Field Artillery warrant officer provides assistance and advice to the commander and staff on all matters relative to targeting including the employment of Field Artillery target acquisition assets, fire support assets, precision targeting, and collateral damage estimation. They serve as target acquisition platoon leaders, counterfire officers, Field Artillery intelligence officers, targeting analysts, and targeting officers. Their responsibilities include integrating lethal and nonlethal fire support from battalion through joint Force headquarters levels.

b. Unique attributes of Field Artillery warrant officers. Field Artillery warrant officers must possess the same attributes of an FA Officer as well as a high degree of technical and tactical knowledge of the targeting process, sensors, delivery assets and their employment. They are accessed from Field Artillery enlisted MOSs (CMF13) as well as infantry mortar crewmembers (11C) who carry forward the competencies learned while serving in their respective fields. Continuous education, training, experience, and self-development enhance the Field Artillery warrant officer's technical expertise.

c. Roles and functions. Field Artillery warrant officers provide many of the same functions as the Field Artillery officers except command of tactical units. Field Artillery warrant officers perform the following functions/tasks:

(1) Lead Field Artillery target acquisition platoons.

(2) Assist in managing Field Artillery target acquisition and all collection assets employment at the Field Artillery battalion, brigade, division, and corps level.

(3) Provide technical and tactical expertise in the coordination of the targeting process in combined arms or joint operations at all levels.

(4) Manage unit precision targeting program.

(5) Provide technical and tactical expertise in target coordinate mensuration, weaponeering, and collateral damage estimation methodologies.

(6) Teach targeting and target acquisition asset employment at service schools and CTCs.

d. Warrant officer one development.

(1) Education.

(a) Upon selection to become a warrant officer, all NCO will complete WOCS. Phase I of WOCS is a distant learning course. There is one Phase I distance learning class scheduled, covering the entire training year. Once enrolled in ATRRS for Course 911-09W (distance learning), warrant officers may access the training at https://blackboard3.leavenworth.army.mil by logging in with their Army Knowledge Online (AKO) username and password. Phase II is a four-week resident course at Fort Rucker, AL. Upon graduation from WOCS and appointment to WO1, each officer will attend 30 weeks of WOBC at Fort Sill, OK. National Guard and Reserve warrant officers have the option to attend a two-phased WOBC. The first phase is 12 weeks of target acquisition training followed by 19 weeks of targeting training. These two phases must be completed within 3 years of warrant officer service.

(b) Selectees are advised to complete the WOBC Advantage Program prior to reporting for WOBC. WOBC Advantage Program is designed to mentally prepare warrant officer for the academic rigor and workload associated with FA WOBC.

(c) The purpose of the FA WOBC is to certify warrant officers as technically and tactically competent officers able to serve in the Field Artillery. WOBC is the first major test a newly appointed FA warrant officer must pass to continue serving in the Army as a FA warrant officer. Warrant officers in WOBC will certify in target mensuration only and collateral damage estimation procedures as a graduation requirement. They will also receive instruction in weaponeering procedures.

(2) Assignments. After WOBC, WO1s are assigned as target acquisition platoon leaders and battalion targeting officers.

(3) Self-development. Self-development during this phase should focus on the integration of target acquisition assets, sensor management, organizational maintenance, and leadership skills.

(4) Desired experience. A high degree of comprehension and technical competence in Field Artillery systems, intelligence collection assets, and targeting-related computer enhanced technology is desired .

e. Chief warrant officer two development.

(1) Education. CW2s will attend assignment oriented training to increase their knowledge in joint targeting or a special skill area such as precision targeting and collateral damage estimation. It is highly recommended that CW2s attend WOAC as early as possible once they are eligible to attend. This 12 week technical/institutional course will greatly enhance their skills and effectiveness as targeting officers and Field Artillery intelligence officers in the BCT/division/corps positions. Completion of an associate's degree is a recommended goal prior to becoming eligible for promotion to CW3.

(2) Assignments. CW2s are normally assigned as a battalion/BCT target analyst, battalion/BCT targeting officer, or counterfire officers. As such, they are required to have a top secret security clearance. Senior and mid- grade CW2s will also have an opportunity to serve as corps/division Field Artillery Intelligence officers. This experience will allow many CW2s to utilize and stay current on their joint, interagency, intergovernmental and multinational competencies. CW2s will serve in Field Artillery brigades DIVARTYs as counterfire officers liason officers and lethal targeting officers. CW2s will also serve in CABs.

(3) Self-development. CW2s will need to gain knowledge and experience managing unit level precision targeting education and collateral damage estimation. (Note: Paragraph (i) of this section shows a list of recommended assignment oriented training).

(4) Desired experience. As a CW2, the focus is acquiring and refining the technical knowledge and tactical experience to effectively conduct targeting operations, integration of target analyst sensors, and counterfire operations within the BCT's area of operations. CW2's should acquire the knowledge and skills to perform precision targeting, target cooordinate mensuration, and collateral damage estimation.

f. Chief warrant officer three development.

(1) Education. The WOAC is a 12 week course focused on advanced technical training and common leader development subjects designed to prepare officers for assignment in senior targeting positions. The resident course consists of advanced technical and tactical training in the targeting process at the division, corps, Joint Task Force, or ASCC. Warrant officers in WOAC will recertify in target mensuration only and collateral damage estimation procedures as a graduation requirement. They will also receive instruction in weaponeering procedures. WOAC should be completed prior to reaching 1 year time in grade as a CW3. Completion of the DL Action Officer Development Course (ST7000) is a prerequisite for WOAC attendance. Completion of a baccalaureate degree is a recommended goal prior to becoming eligible for promotion to CW4.

(2) Assignments. CW3s will be assigned as BCT, Field Artillery brigade and DIVARTY targeting officers, Field Artillery brigade counterfire officers s, and as division/corps Field Artillery intelligence officers and Fires cell targeting officers. Select warrant officers in the grade of CW3 can also expect to receive assignments that broaden their experience as targeting officers and may serve in a generating force capacity such as the following:

(a) CTC observer/controller/trainer.

(b) MCTP O/T.

(c) Service school instructors.

(d) Combat developers.

(e) Training/doctrine developers.

(f) Assignments within Special Operations Command (SOCOM).

(3) Self-development. Assignment oriented training will be focused towards future positions that enhance the officer's duty performance.

(4) Desired experience. CW3s will have served as a BCT level targeting officer prior to serving as a division, or corps targeting officer/Field Artillery intelligence officer.

g. Chief warrant officer four development.

(1) Education. The WOSC is a 5-week professional development course taught at the WOCC, Fort Rucker, AL. The course is executed in two phases which include: Phase I: distributed learning (DL) and Phase II: resident.

(2) Assignments. CW4s will serve as Field Artillery intelligence officers and targeting officers in positions at division, corps, and higher echelons or in generating force organizations. Select CW4s can also expect to receive assignments consistent with the needs of the Army, such as the following:

(a) Targeting officer in the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

(b) BCD targeting officer.

(c) Service school instructor.

(d) Combat developer.

(e) Training/doctrine developer.

(f) Test officer (Army Evaluation Test Force).

(g) Program manager.

(h) Branch manager.

(i) Proponent warrant officer.

(3) Self-development. CW4s should continue self-development efforts to enhance expertise in all aspects of target acquisition asset employment and targeting to include joint and combined operations utilizing assignment oriented training. CW4s should devote time to obtaining a graduate-level degree. CW4s should attend WOSC by the 1 year time in grade point as a CW4.

(4) Desired experience. CW4s should have targeting experience at the BCT and division prior to being assigned to the BCD.

h. Chief warrant officer five development.

(1) Education. The WOSSC is a 4-week professional development course attended by the Army's most senior warrant officers taught by the WOCC at Fort Rucker, AL. The course is executed in two phases which include: Phase I - DL, and Phase II - a resident course. WOSSC can be attended after 1 year time in grade to CW4 and should be completed by 1 year time in grade as a CW5.

(2) Assignments. CW5s will serve as targeting officers in positions at corps and higher echelons or in force generating organizations. Select CW5s can also expect to receive assignments consistent with the needs of the Army, such as, the following:

(a) Senior service school instructor.

(b) U.S. Army Nuclear and Chemical Command instructor and doctrine developer.

(c) Chief warrant officer of the Field Artillery Branch.

(d) HQDA systems integrator.

(e) Targeting officer in the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

(3) Self-development. CW5s should continue self-development efforts to enhance expertise in all aspects of targeting to include joint and combined operations.

(4) Desired experience. CW5s should have targeting experience at all levels and have maintained master proficiency throughout their careers.

i. Assignment oriented training. All FA warrant officers need to continue to seek assignment oriented training to maintain expertise in all aspects of joint targeting and special skill areas. Assignment oriented training includes the following courses:

(1) Joint Targeting School National Airspace System: Oceana, VA.

(2) Joint Air Operations Command & Control Course: Hurlburt, FL.

(3) Joint Information Operations Planning Course: Norfolk, VA.

(4) Joint Firepower Course: Nellis Air Force Base, NV.

(5) Target Coordinate Mensuration Training: Fort Sill, OK.

(6) Collateral Damage Estimation: Fort Sill, OK (WOIB).

(7) Personality Network Analysis Course: Tampa, FL.

(8) Information Operations Qualification Course: Fort Leavenworth, KS.

(9) Army Operational EW: Fort Sill, OK.



Figure 11-2. AA Field Artillery warrant officer development model


11-8. Field Artillery Reserve Component officers

a. General career development. The RC career development model for Field Artillery officers/warrant officers should essentially mirror that of the AC FA officers/warrant officers; therefore information, guidance and requirements stated in paragraphs 11-1 to 11-7 also apply to RC Field Artillery officers. The following guidance and requirements reflect the uniqueness of serving in RC units due to limited amount of FA units within some states and the geographical locations of each unit.

b. Branch developmental opportunities. RC officers should build a solid foundation in leadership, fire support skills, and Field Artillery unit operations to successfully serve in the branch. Ideally this occurs through a variety of assignments as FSOs at all levels, and in Artillery units, on staffs, and in support units where Field Artillery expertise is needed. Because of geographic location or other considerations, RC Field Artillery officers may not have the opportunity to serve in as many Field Artillery and fire support positions as active duty officers. However, this is offset by longevity in tactical units in their geographic area. To meet career development requirements, a RC Field Artillery officer must have the following:

(1) Reserve Component battery/company grade officer standards.

(a) Complete at least 90 hours of college credit to receive a commission.

(b) Complete the Field Artillery BOLC B courses within 2 years of commissioning for an officer to be eligible for promotion, a mobilization asset, and remain in the Army Reserve and ARNG.

(c) Complete Field Artillery Captains Career Course (FACCC), either the resident FACCC-AC or RC course FACCC-RC. Officers of other branches transferring to the Field Artillery are encouraged to attend a pre-course or take advantage of home station training prior to enrolling in the FACCC.

(d) Command a battery/company for 24 months (plus or minus 12 months) or served as one or more of the following for 24 months (plus or minus 12 months). Other developmental assignments include: battalion FSO, battalion FDO, or assistant operations officer at battalion or brigade level. Ideally, an officer will serve in a position through at least two annual training periods.

(2) Reserve Component field grade officer standards.

(a) Reserve Component major. Majors must have completed 50 percent of their ILE to be eligible for promotion to lieutenant colonel. To be best qualified, majors should seek (KD) positions as brigade or battalion XO/S3, or brigade FSO. Optimally majors should spend 24 to 36 months in one or more of these positions.

(b) Reserve Component lieutenant colonel. Lieutenant colonels must have completed ILE to be eligible for promotion to colonel. To be best qualified, lieutenant colonels should seek KD positions as battalion commanders. Other developmental assignments include FSO or DCO assignments. Optimally, lieutenant colonels should spend 24 to 36 months in one or more of these positions.

(c) Reserve Component colonel. Colonels serve as brigade-level commanders (Field Artillery brigade and BCT), and in a variety of critical staff positions to include the senior guard advisor at the Fires Center of Excellence at Fort Sill, division chief of fires, regional training institute commanders, and in a variety of branch immaterial positions at division level and above.

(3) Reserve Component selection boards. Lieutenant colonels and colonels are selected for SSC by a RC selection board. For ARNG officers, the board is held at the NGB.

(4) Battalion or brigade command. To be ready for Field Artillery battalion or brigade command, RC officers must meet the appropriate educational requirements for the grade and position. Attendance at the Field Artillery PCC is also recommended prior to assumption of command.

(5) Continuing development. Officers desiring consideration for KD positions in RC Artillery units should aggressively pursue positions that develop essential warfighting leader skills. Officers should continue self-development efforts to become an expert in all aspects of fire support coordination to include joint and multinational operations. Self-development should include correspondence courses, civilian education, and institutional training. Officers should devote time to a professional reading program to broaden their warfighting perspective. To be best qualified for the lieutenant colonel promotion board and higher, officers should seek a master's degree from an accredited institution of higher learning.

(6) Branch transfers. RC Field Artillery officers may have to branch transfer during the course of their careers due to the lack of higher ranking positions in their geographic area. When an officer transfers into the Field Artillery, completion of either the Field Artillery BOLC B or the FACCC is required before branch qualification is complete. Commanders will consider the officer's rank and experience in recommending which qualification course is required. Commanders should closely manage branch transfer officers and assign them to a qualifying position concurrent with enrollment in the Field Artillery BOLC B or FACCC.

(7) Reserve Component guidance. For further guidance on RC officer development, see chapter 7 in this pamphlet.

(8) Field Artillery Reserve Component officer career life-cycle developmental and utilization model. Figure 11-3 displays the RC Field Artillery officer career developmental model.



Figure 11-3. RC Field Artillery officer development model


Chapter 12

Air Defense Artillery Branch

12-1. Introduction

a. Purpose. Army ADA organizations provide the Army and Joint forces with a capability to defend against a wide array of hostile aerial and missile threats while ensuring a modular and expeditionary force able to meet future joint force requirements. Combat-proven ADA weapons platforms (shooters) and early warning systems (sensors) provide the Army and Joint forces with technologically advanced, fully digitized capabilities enabling detection and engagement of air and missile threats much earlier, at greater distances, and with increased lethality while simultaneously reducing risk to friendly forces. ADA organizations are ideally suited for frequent support to JIIM operations, and their employment can achieve strategic, operational, and/or tactical advantage on the battlefield. ADA organizations are constituted to remain operationally adaptable. ADAM cells at the divisions, BCTs, functional brigades (fires and CAB), multifunctional brigades, and the ground- based mid-course defense (GMD) brigade add challenging assignment opportunities. Future relevant positions include assignments to Patriot and terminal high altitude area defense (THAAD) batteries, indirect fire protection capability/Avenger battalions, the Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor (JLENS), and the AN/TPY-2 forward based mode radar batteries.

b. Proponent information. Chief of Air Defense Artillery, 730 Schimmelpfennig Road, Fort Sill, Oklahoma 73503. Telephone number is DSN 495-0617 or commercial (580) 442-0617.

c. Functions.

(1) Air Defense Artillery unit missions vary based on system capabilities.

(a) Avengers provide a gun/missile capability to supported maneuver elements. Integration with infantry, armor, artillery, Aviation, and logistics elements are critical to the success of these systems on the battlefield.

(b) Sentinel radars and the forward area air defense command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) digital communications architecture provide early warning, detection, and identification of enemy aircraft, helicopters, UASs, remotely piloted vehicles, and cruise missiles.

(c) Patriot missile systems neutralize a wide variety of air and missile threats. Routinely in support of joint and multinational operational echelons, Patriot primarily functions as a tactical ballistic missile killer in the lower tier of the terminal phase of flight.

(d) THAAD missile systems defeat ballistic missile threats in the terminal phase of flight. Combatant commanders deploy THAAD systems and radar variants as tactical and/or strategic assets.

(e) Indirect fire protection capability systems provide advanced warning and intercept capability to Soldiers and critical assets from indirect fire threats.

(f) JLENS batteries provide persistent elevated coverage with a surveillance radar and fire control radar (FCR). Combatant commands can utilize JLENS to mitigate masked terrain and provide queuing capabilities for other Air Defense weapon systems.

(2) The Way Ahead. As the Army experiences an era of increasing requirements in the face of diminishing resources, ADA expects to see some growth as new units are activated. Total Army Analysis 16-20 has added an additional THAAD battery for a total of 8 batteries. There is potential for the 16 th and 17 th Patriot battalions. The two AC Avenger battalions will convert to indirect fire protection capability/Avenger battalions in FY 14 and 15. As of November 2013, 53 percent of the Air and Missile Defense (AMD) force is forward stationed or deployed throughout the world.

(3) Unique features of work in Air Defense Artillery. The descriptions below provide a general overview of the nature of work specific to ADA officers and warrant officers based on organizational design. The term ADA officer(s) refers to both commissioned and warrant officers assigned to CMF 14. Specific career-path information is provided throughout this document.

(a) Assignments to MTOE units provide opportunities to command, control, and direct ADA organizations at detachment, platoon, battery, battalion, and brigade levels. Staff assignments are also characteristic of MTOE assignments. These skills are essential to professional development and expansion of experience in matters of personnel (S1), intelligence (S2), training and operations (S3), and supply and logistics (S4).

(b) Assignments in TDA organizations provide opportunities similar to those stated above, but lend themselves more to broadening experiences such as capabilities, materiel, training development, and platform instruction for officers.

(4) Air Defense Artillery officer tasks. The information below provides a broad outline of an ADA officer's mission essential task list:

(a) Serve as Soldiers first and maintain the Warrior Ethos.

(b) Integrate (plan and employ) ADA forces into Army or JIIM organizations to defeat third-dimension threats.

(c) Plan Army airspace command and control and targeting as part of an Army or JIIM team.

(d) Provide early warning of air and missile threats to Army and/or JIIM forces.

(e) Serve as ADA advisors to U.S., allied, and coalition forces.

(5) Air Defense Artillery assignment opportunities other than modified table of organization and equipment.

(a) Develop, review, and evaluate doctrine and training for all ADA organizations.

(b) Train, develop, and evaluate ADA skills at CTC.

(c) Serve in positions requiring specific as well as general technical and tactical skills, such as staff officers in organizations and activities requiring ADA expertise (includes JIIM and Army staffs).

(d) Serve as instructors at pre-commissioning programs and service schools.

(e) Serve as ADA advisors to ARNG and USAR component organizations.

12-2. Officer characteristics required

a. General. For Army officers everything begins with the Warrior Ethos (see para 1-5 ). They must be warriors grounded in refusal to accept failure. The Warrior Ethos is developed and sustained through discipline, commitment to Army Values, and pride in the Army's heritage.

b. Knowledge and skills of an Air Defense Artillery officer. ADA officers are expected to be:

(1) Joint and expeditionary minded.

(2) Worldwide deployable, motivated, disciplined, and physically fit.

(3) Grounded in core Army Values.

(4) Capable of employing systems in tactical, operational, and/or strategic environments, training Soldiers and units to perform their wartime missions, and developing plans as part of an Army or JIIM team.

(5) Mentors, counselors, and coaches (see para 1-7 ).

12-3. Officer leader development

a. Army Leader Development Strategy (see para 2-1). The Army Leader Development Strategy articulates characteristics desired in Army leaders, providing guidance for career-long development through education, training, and experience.

b. Air Defense Artillery officer development. The ADA branch provides diverse assignment opportunities allowing for numerous career developmental paths. The branch strives to produce and sustain highly-qualified tactically and operationally oriented officers through experience gained during a variety of assignments in either operational or generating force units, or during broadening assignments and self-development activities.

c. Goal. The goal is to maintain a vigorous, viable career path for ADA branch officers, through the leader development domains of institutional training and education, operational assignments, and self-development.

d. Branch life-cycle functions.

(1) Structure. The preponderance of the ADA force serves in Patriot structures. There will be 13 Patriot battalions, two composite Patriot/Avenger battalions, and two indirect fire protection capability/Avenger battalions under the construct of five ADA brigades and three AAMDCs within the AC in accordance with the Total Army Analysis 2014-2018. The AAMDC, two ADA brigades, seven Avenger battalions, the GMD brigade and battalion in the ARNG will remain vital to global force missions and the National Defense Strategy. Critical assignments remain in multifunctional and functional BCTs, divisions, and corps and are integral to the ADAM/brigade Aviation element functional concept as well as the Counter-UAS concept of operations.

(2) Acquisition. Officers will continue to be accessed through USMA, ROTC, and OCS. Warrants will continue to be recruited from the NCO Corps. Both officer and warrant officer accessions are based on preference, qualifications, and needs of the Army. The branch will also remain a donor branch for detailed officers from other combat support/combat service support branches.

(3) Individual training and education. Job analysis identifying the required knowledge, skills, and abilities originally led to the suggested training and education for CMF 14 officers listed within this publication. The training and education has been periodically updated to conform to changing requirements and to maintain a clear path to professional development.

(4) Distribution. Officers will be provided assignment opportunities to develop the skills and experience base necessary for service at the next higher grade. The sequencing and timing of assignments is driven by Army priorities. As the Army draws down from overseas contingency operations, some legacy force structures will be eliminated or changed, and new force structures will be added, which will ultimately drive assignments.

(5) Deployment. ADA officers are warfighters who must remain personally and professionally prepared to deploy worldwide at all times. Whether assigned to warfighter-centric units or training organizations, readiness is imperative to the success of the mission. ADA officers must prepare themselves and their families for planned and no-notice deployments.

(6) Sustainment. OPMS.

(a) Promotion. Skills, experience, duty performance, and adherence to branch requirements are all factors influencing promotion; promotion rates will be determined by Army needs and the DOPMA goals.

(b) Command. Commands at battalion and brigade level are organized into four functional categories: operations, strategic support, recruiting and training, and installation. Officers have the option to compete for selection within a desired command category and can decline other categories without prejudice. Officers selected for command may submit operational and personal deferment requests. Since the CSL process may change, officers should contact ADA assignments officers at HRC to receive the latest information. The results of the command selection process are announced in the CSL. (Note. This subparagraph is not applicable to warrant officers.)

(c) Officer evaluation report. The OER will reinforce the link between officer development and the OPMS.

(7) Professional development. Officer development should occur through a methodological sequence of institutional training and education, progressive operational and broadening assignments in tactical, training, and staff assignments, and self-development. The goal is to professionally develop officers to expertly perform ADA mission essential task list-related functions during joint and combined arms operations. A detailed discussion of officer development can be found in this publication at paragraph 3-4 .

(8) Transition. The officer separation process remains unchanged; however ADA officers need to be mindful of the coming fluctuations of the Army force structure and leverage opportunities to transition to a shortage career field should ADA become overstrength.

e. Lieutenant development. See paragraph 3-5 .

(1) Education . The lieutenant attends the ADA BOLC B (proponent institutional training) after completing pre-commissioning training in BOLC A.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Lieutenants are assigned to battery platoon leader positions in pure Patriot, Patriot/Avenger composite, or Avenger battalions, or THAAD batteries. As platoon leaders, lieutenants will gain valuable experience and training that becomes the "cornerstone" of their career development. Platoon leaders in Patriot and THAAD batteries are expected to train and perform as tactical control officers.

(3) Developmental and broadening assignments. See figure 12-1 .

(4) Self-development. By law, officers must obtain a baccalaureate degree before promotion to captain. A self-development program enhancing professional development through lifelong learning must also begin at the grade of lieutenant.

(5) Desired experience. The focus of effort during the lieutenant years is to master the basic skills of the ADA Branch and acquire, reinforce, and hone troop-leading skills. Lieutenants must seek leadership positions in troop units whenever possible as this is the best means to become educated in Army operations, building a strong foundation for future service as an Army officer. Accompanying development of technical, tactical, logistics, and administrative skills are important in these assignments, but leading Soldiers embodies the essence of leadership development for lieutenants and captains. Inculcation of the Warrior Ethos and Army Values are essential to the character development of young officers. Prior to promotion to captain, officers must possess an in-depth knowledge of ADA and combined arms operations gained through experience in MTOE warfighting units.

f. Captain development. See paragraph 3-5 .

(1) Education. Officers generally attend the CCC following selection for promotion to captain. Select ADA officers may have an opportunity to attend the resident phase of another combat arms branch CCC or the U.S. Marine Corps Expeditionary Warfare School. These schools are extremely competitive and provide increased benefits to the officer and both branches.

(2) Key developmental assignments. Captains must aggressively prepare for and seek the skills and experience to prepare them for duties at the grade of major. The following are considered KD assignments for ADA captains:

(a) ADA battery command (exceptions may include command of another combat arms battery or company).

(b) Headquarters and headquarters battery or maintenance company/service battery commander of an AC ADA organization.

(c) Headquarters and headquarters company (HHC) commander of an AC non-ADA organization (such as company command of divisional HHC units, company commander of basic training company, or initial entry training company).

(d) Battery command of Joint Tactical Ground Station or AN/TPY-2 forward based mode radar battery.

(e) Officers in cohort YG 2004 or earlier receive KD credit for ADAM Cell officer in charge (OIC) assignments within a divisional BCT, multifunctional brigade, or functional brigade to include Aviation, Fires, and battlefield surveillance brigades (in accordance with HRC assignment policy during that timeframe).

(f) Officers in cohort YG 2010 or earlier receive KD credit for ADA fire control officer positions.

(3) Developmental and broadening assignments. See figure 12-1 .

(4) Self-development. All captains must exercise continuous self-development to fully master all aspects of ADA operations including JIIM operations. Self-development initiatives may include (among others) online/correspondence courses, civilian education, professional reading programs, and other institutional training to broaden their warfighting perspective. Officers are eligible for functional designation at both their 4th and 7th years of service. The formal designation of FAs is based on the needs of the Army, officer preference, military experience, and civilian schooling. Several FAs provide advanced civil schooling, which may be granted upon selection to the FA (subject to change).

(5) Desired experience. Developmental assignments, both branch specific and generalist, will provide ADA captains with exposure to the Army and in some cases JIIM organizations. The captains must have mastered their troop-leading skills and fully understand operations at battery, battalion, and brigade levels. At this stage in their career development, ADA captains must recognize how the Army functions and fights.

g. Major development. See paragraph 3-6 .

(1) Education. At the 7th year, an HQDA-level board considers Army requirements and each officer's skills, experience, and preferences before assigning each officer to a branch or FA in one of three functional categories. Officers selected to remain in the ADA basic branch (functionally designated) must successfully complete ILE/JPME I and their KD assignment(s) to become competitive for promotion to lieutenant colonel (lieutenant colonel). ILE/JPME I is critical at this point in an ADA officer's career and must be completed prior to the 15th year of commissioned service. (See para 4-7e for further discussion of ILE.) This prepares them for success in their next 10 years of service and is a prerequisite for SSC attendance. Upon completion of ILE/JPME I, ADA majors must continue to aggressively prepare for and seek the skills and experience that will prepare them for promotion to lieutenant colonel.

(2) Key developmental assignments. The following are considered KD assignments for AC ADA majors:

(a) Battalion/brigade S3 or XO of an AC ADA organization.

(b) Battalion/brigade S3 or XO of a special troops battalion or another AC combat arms unit.

(c) 10 th AAMDC deputy G-3.

(d) AAMDC chief of war plans (future).

(e) AAMDC chief of war plans (current).

(f) AAMDC plans officer.

(g) AAMDC or ADA brigade, ADA fire control officer element section, active duty coordination management officer.

(h) Multinational transition team trainer/advisor.

(3) Developmental and broadening assignments. See figure 12-1 .

(4) Self-development. All majors must exercise continuous self-development to fully master all aspects of ADA operations, including JIIM operations. Majors should also begin the process of mastering the Fires functional concept. Self-development initiatives may include (among others) online/correspondence courses, civilian education, professional reading programs, and other institutional training to broaden their warfighting perspective. Skills and experience continue to drive an officer's career path and future assignments. See figure 12-1 .

(5) Desired experience. At this stage, an ADA major must hone skills in the planning and execution of ADA TTPs and develop expertise in the JIIM operational environment.

h. Lieutenant colonel development. See paragraph 3-7 .

(1) Education . Officers selected for lieutenant colonel must seek assignments of greater responsibility in branch positions. ADA lieutenant colonels' records will be screened by the SSC selection board after their 16 th year of service. Completion of ILE/JPME I is required for attendance consideration. SSC is the final major military educational program available to prepare officers for position of greatest responsibility in the DOD. Approximately 30-35 percent of a cohort year group is selected to attend during their years of eligibility that run between the 16 th and 23 rd years of service. Officers selected for command will attend the PCC.

(2) Key developmental assignments. ADA lieutenant colonels must continue to aggressively prepare for and seek the skills and experience that will prepare them for promotion to colonel. The objective in lieutenant colonel assignments is to give ADA officers the opportunity to make a greater contribution to the branch and the Army. KD assignments for lieutenant colonels include the following:

(a) CSL battalion-level command.

(b) Transition team commander.

(c) Brigade deputy commander.

(d) 10 th AAMDC chief of staff.

(e) 10 th AAMDC ACofS G-3.

(f) 32 nd /94 th AAMDC deputy chief of staff.

(g) 32 nd /94 th AAMDC deputy G-3.

(h) Corps chief of AMD operations.

(i) Division chief of AMD operations.

(3) Developmental and broadening assignments. See figure 12-1 .

(4) Self-development. Completion of SSC and a minimum of 12 months in a KD assignment will fully qualify lieutenant colonels for promotion to colonel. Lieutenant colonels should also continue to develop Fires skills.

(5) Desired experience. ADA lieutenant colonels must have mastery level understanding of ADA operations, logistics, and the command and control required for combatant command level operations. Officers are expected to complete a minimum of 12 months of assignment at a theater-level command; (AAMDC, ASCC, Combatant Command); at a major subordinate command, (TRADOC, U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)); or Army/Joint staff. Officers selected as battalion commanders should have this experience prior to or immediately following command.

i. Colonel development. See paragraph 3-8 .

(1) Education. The annual SSC selection board reviews the files of colonels until their 23 rd year of service. The majority of colonels will attend the resident training or be awarded MEL SSC certification from the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course during the latter 3 years of their eligibility window. (See para 3-7b(6) for more information on the available SSC-level courses. Officers selected for command will also attend the PCC. Colonels and lieutenant colonels (P) selected to serve as TRADOC capabilities manager should attend the Combat Developers Course.

(2) Key developmental assignments. ADA colonels contribute to the branch by serving in key and developmental assignments to include the following:

(a) CSL brigade-level command (for example, 10 th AAMDC, ADA brigade, garrison command, recruiting, and GMD brigade).

(b) AAMDC deputy commander/chief of staff.

(c) DOD/Army staff.

(d) Joint staff.

(e) TRADOC capabilities managers at Fires Center of Excellence.

(f) Fires Center of Excellence chief of staff.

(g) Multinational transition team trainer/advisor.

(3) Developmental and broadening assignments. See figure 12-1 .

(4) Self-development. ADA colonels must maintain their branch skills and keep current on all changes that affect the Soldiers they command and/or manage. Mastery of all aspects of offensive and defensive Fires is critical to service as a Fires general officer. JIIM assignments are important during this phase.

(5) Desired experience. ADA colonels must have mastery level understanding of strategic, political, and national security implications of ADA operations. Officers are expected to complete 12 months assignment as a G3, chief of staff, senior staff officer, or division chief at a theater-level command; (AAMDC, ASCC, combatant command); an ACOM, (TRADOC, FORSCOM); or Army/Joint staff. Officers selected as brigade commanders should have this experience prior to or immediately following command.



Figure 12-1. AA/RC Air Defense Artillery officer development model


12-4. Warrant officer development

a. Unique knowledge and skills of Air Defense warrant officers. Air Defense warrant officers are adaptive and experienced combat leaders who administer, manage, maintain, train, operate, and innovatively integrate a wide variety of emerging technologically advanced Air Defense specific computer application software used to develop command and control communication/data-link architecture and AMD designs to employ various air defense missile and JIIM systems. Air Defense warrant officers must be dynamic trainers, confident warfighters and advisors, developers of specialized teams, and technical experts.

(1) 140A. Command and control integrators supervise, plan, maintain, manage, and coordinate all joint data-link operations and C4I systems training associated with forward area air defense; Patriot battery command post; Patriot tactical control system; Air Missile Defense Planning Control System; corps, division, and brigade-level ADAM cells; and the Joint Tactical Ground Station, with ancillary equipment. Responsible for coordinating the activities of enhanced operators for the maintenance of computers, commercial off the shelf and common hardware and software including ancillary equipment. Estimates repair priorities based on fix or fight criteria and availability of required assets. Advises the commander on system employment options, capabilities, and configuration management for all Army AMD command and control systems. Responsible for materiel reporting and readiness, system employment, and crew certifications. Acts as instructors for Soldiers and officers, teaching the necessary tasks of employing assets and adapting the software that best supports Army and AMD command and control doctrine. Analyzes and interprets data employed in the communications architecture for a joint theater to support immature or sustained operations with the command and control assets on hand, and when necessary, serves as the detachment commander. Serves as the Army track data coordinator for the regional area AMD coordinator; and the regional interface control officer. Daily duties include configuration management for the Air Missile Defense Planning Control System, including ancillary equipment. Serves as data-link managers providing prioritization and standard operating procedures for joint interoperability. Can serve in other nominative positions Armywide, with duties as instructors, career managers, or in staff positions.

(2) 140E AMD System tactician/technician serves as a subject matter expert on the employment and operations of AMD systems as a tactical control officer at the battery level, tactical director at the battalion level, battalion/brigade AMD system standardization officer, and ADA fire control officer at the ADA brigade and AAMDC levels. Monitors/identifies aircraft according to established procedures, initiates and monitors engagements of threat aircraft and missiles, and plans/develops AMD designs in support of assigned/contingency missions. Advises the commander on capabilities and limitations of the AMD system. Supervises maintenance of equipment in an AMD unit. Monitors the AMD system and related support equipment to detect, diagnose, and repair operator error and/or system malfunctions. Coaches, teaches, mentors, and evaluates Soldiers in AMD system operating tactics, techniques, and procedures. Performs joint kill chain functions, maintenance procedures, uses and cares for special tools and support equipment within the auspices of The Army maintenance management system. Evaluates the effectiveness of maintenance programs and tactical crew training. Monitors and coordinates installation of modifications of the AMD system. Implements proper safety and security procedures applicable to the operation and maintenance support to the AMD system. Advises the commander on all tactical and technical considerations at all levels.

b. Warrant officer one development.

(1) Education. After graduation from WOCS and appointment to grade WO1, all warrant officers will attend the WOBC. WOBC provides functional training in the MOS while reinforcing the leadership training provided in WOCS.

(a) MOS 140A attends the Command and Control Systems Integrator WOBC (Course Number: 4F-140A). 140A WOBC trains 140A WO1s to supervise and coordinate data-link management, maintenance, and training associated with forward area air defense C4I systems; Patriot and THAAD tactical control station with the automated battery command post; AMD planning and control system and ADAM cells. The following are courses taught in the 140A WOBC or are mandatory courses that 140A W01s are required to complete prior to promotion to CW2:

(1) Fundamental Basic Electronic Course (received during 4F-140A WOBC).

(2) JT102 Multi-tactical Data Link Advanced Interoperability Course (received during 4F-140A WOBC).

(3) Action Officer Development Course: Course Number: 131-P00.

(b) MOS 140E attends the Patriot System Technician WOBC (Course Number: 4F-140E). 140E WOBC provides the principles and functional theory of operations and integration, both vertically and horizontally, of Army ADA systems, Joint Services, and allied nations. The following are courses taught in the 140E WOBC or are mandatory courses that 140E W01s are required to complete prior to promotion to CW2:

(1) Fort Bliss SAMS1-E Clerk: Course Number: FB SAMS1-E Clerk (received during 4F-140E WOBC).

(2) Action Officer Development Course: Course Number: 131-P00.

(3) Fundamental Basic Electronic Course (received during 4F-140E WOBC).

(2) Assignment.

(a) 140A: After WOBC, WO1s should be assigned as command and control systems integrators as depicted in figure 12-2 . WO1s for their first assignment must not be assigned to space and missile defense commands until promotion to CW2.

(b) 140E: After WOBC, it is strongly recommended that WO1s are initially assigned as Patriot fire unit AMD tactian/ technician - Patriot system support section OIC/Patriot fire unit and field level maintenance manager.

(3) Self-development.

(a) 140A: Recommend completion of the following college level courses: 6 credit hours English and 6 credit hours Math, A+ Software and Hardware Certification, Cisco Networking Fundamentals, and an Introduction to Computer Operating Systems. These courses will facilitate development as a 140A and it is recommended the course be completed prior to promotion to CW2.

(b) 140E: Recommend completion of the following college level courses: 6 credit hours English and 6 credit hours Math.

(c) The following courses will facilitate your development as a 140E and it is recommended the courses be completed prior to promotion to CW2:

(1) FB SAMS1-E Manager Course: Course Number: SAMS1-E MGR.

(2) Test Measuring and Diagnostic Equipment Coordinator Course.

(3) Army Maintenance Management Course: Course Number: 8A-F3.

(4) Support Operations Course Phase I (DL): Course Number: 907 F30 (ALMC-SO).

(5) Support Operations (Phase II): Course Number: ALMC-SO.

(4) Desired experience.

(a) 140A: Command and control systems integrator capable of configuring and integrating command and control systems into an Army and joint data-link network architecture to provide situational awareness, early warning, ADA planning, and ADA interoperability.

(b) 140E: AMD System tactician/technician Patriot system support section OIC capable of managing Patriot Fire unit field level maintenance operations to include SAMS-E/prescribed load list/diagnostic mandatory parts list and test measuring and diagnostic equipment and Patriot fire unit operational readiness reporting.

c. Chief warrant officer two development.

(1) Education.

(a) 140A. Attend the ADA WOAC Phase I: Course Number: 2-44-C32-140A and Multi-tactical Data Link Planners Course: Course Number: JT-201 (JT-201 is prerequisite for attendance of WOAC Phase I). Completion of an associate's degree or equivalent in a discipline related to MOS 140A prior to eligibility for selection to CW3.

(b) 140E. Attend the ADA WOAC Phase I: Course Number: 2-44-C32-140E and Link 16 Joint Interoperability Course: Course number: JT-101 the prerequisite for attendance of WOAC Phase I. CW2s are strongly encouraged to complete an associate's degree or equivalent in a discipline related to MOS 140E to be competitive for selection to CW3.

(2) Assignments.

(a) 140A. CW2s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-2 . CW2s may be assigned to nominative position as a tactical advisor and counselor (TAC) officer at the WOCC, but only after completing at least 3 years in an ADAM cell or ADA battalion.

(b) 140E. CW2s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-3 . CW2s may be assigned to such nominative positions as TAC officer at the WOCC, but only after 3 years serving at a battery level or higher.

(3) Self-development.

(a) 140A. Completion of an associate degree or equivalent in a discipline related to MOS 140A prior to eligibility for selection to CW3 is the civilian education goal at this stage of development. Additional recommended courses to be completed prior to promotion to CW3 include:

(1) Joint Firepower Course.

(2) Joint Air Tasking Order Processes Course, Army Joint Support Team, Hurlburt Field, Florida.

(b) 140E. Completion of an associate degree or equivalent in a discipline related to MOS 140E prior to eligibility for selection to CW3 is the civilian education goal at this stage of development. Additional recommended courses to be completed prior to promotion to CW3 include:

(1) Multi-tactical Data Link Advanced Interoperability Course: Course Number: JT-102.

(2) Patriot Top Gun Course: Course Number: 2F-SIT5/4F-ASIT5.

(3) Introduction to Joint AMD Operations Course: Course Number: J3OP-US020.

(4) Unit Movement Officer Course: Course Number: UMO.

(5) SAMS 1-E MANAGER Course-F2: Course Number: SAMS1-EMGR.

(4) Desired experience.

(a) 140A. Command and control systems integrator capable of configuring and integrating BCT and ADA battalion command and control systems into an Army and joint data-link network architecture to provide situational awareness, early warning, ADA planning, and ADA interoperability.

(b) 140E. AMD System Tactician/Technician that successfully served as the Patriot system support section OIC for minimum of 1 year/maximum of 2 years. Successfully served as a tactical control officer, battery trainer, and/or tactical director for a minimum of 2 years.

d. Chief warrant officer three development.

(1) Education.

(a) 140A. ADA WOAC Phase II, course number 2-44-C32 Ph 2. The officer should complete JT-301 Joint Interoperability Control Officer (JICO) Course for career development prior to promotion to CW4.

(b) 140E. ADA WOAC Phase II, Course number 2-44-C32 Ph 2. The officer should complete the following courses for career development prior to promotion to CW4:

(1) Patriot Top Gun Course: Course Number: 2F-SIT5/4F-ASIT5.

(2) ADA Fire Control Officer Course Number: 2G-F98

(3) Multi-tactical Data Link Advanced Joint Interoperability: Course Number: JT-102.

(4) SARSS-1 Manager/Supervisor Course: Course Number: SARSS-1 Manager.

(2) Assignments.

(a) 140A. CW3s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-2 .

(b) 140E. CW3s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-3 .

(3) Self-development.

(a) 140A. Completion of a baccalaureate degree in a discipline related to MOS 140A is recommended prior to eligibility for selection to CW4.

(b) 140E. Completion of a baccalaureate degree in a discipline related to MOS 140E is recommended prior to eligibility for selection to CW4. Recommend completion of the following courses for career development prior to promotion to CW4:

(4) Desired experience.

(a) 140A. Command and control systems integrator capable of configuring and integrating command and control systems into an Army and joint data-link network architecture to provide situational awareness, early warning, ADA planning, and ADA interoperability. Have successfully served as the Army interface control officer for assigned units at the division and ADA brigade.

(b) 140E. Successfully served as a Patriot Fire unit organizational maintenance manager, tactical control officer, or tactical director, battalion S3 AMD tactician/technician, Battalion Readiness Center OIC.

e. Chief warrant officer four development.

(1) Education. 140A and 140E: Must complete WOSC no later than 1 year after promotion to CW4 and prior to promotion to CW5 (DL Phase of WOSC is a mandatory prerequisite prior to WOSC attendance).

(2) Assignments.

(a) 140A. CW4s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-2 .

(b) 140E. CW4s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-3 .

(3) Self-development. 140A and 140E. Completion of a master's degree is recommended prior to promotion board eligibility. Complete the following courses for career development and prior to promotion to CW5:

(a) Combat Development Course: Course Number: ALMC-CD.

(b) Army Acquisition Basic Course: Course Number: ALMC-QA.

(c) MANPRINT Applications: Course Number: ALMC-MZ.

(d) Manpower and Force Management Course: Course Number: 7C-F49/500-ASIA3.

(4) Desired experience.

(a) 140A. Command and control systems integrator capable of configuring and integrating command and control systems into an Army and joint data-link network architecture to provide situational awareness, early warning, ADA planning, and ADA interoperability. Can serve in joint positions as a track data coordinator, tactical data-link manager, regional/sector interface control officer, and when needed as a joint interface control officer. Additionally can serve within the U.S. Army ADA School (USAADASCH) as a writer/instructor/directorate action officer, proponent warrant officer, or as a career manager at HRC. These warrant officers provide leadership, guidance, technical input, and direction to subordinate elements, staff agencies, and field commanders up to and including theater level.

(b) 140E. CW4s should have experience at the AAMDC and/or ADA brigade FDC ADA fire control officer, brigade AMD Planner T5 or ADA fire control officer, as well as within USAADASCH as a writer/instructor/directorate action officer, proponent warrant officer, or as a career manager at HRC. These warrant officers provide leadership, guidance, technical input, and direction to subordinate elements, staff agencies, and field commanders up to and including theater level.

f. Chief warrant officer five development.

(1) Education 140A and 140E. No later than 1 year after promotion to CW5, must complete the WOSSC (the DL Phase of the WOSSC is a mandatory prerequisite prior to WOSSC attendance). Technical certifications and continuous lifelong learning to enhance their mastery of ADA systems are required. Recommend completion of a graduate degree.

(2) Nominative assignments. Nominative warrant officer positions throughout the Army

(3) Assignments.

(a) 140A. CW5s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-2 or other specialty assignments.

(b) 140E. CW5s are assigned as depicted in figure 12-3 or other specialty assignments.

(4) Self-development. Technical certifications and continuous lifelong learning.

(5) Desired experience.

(a) 140A CW5 should have ADA command and control systems experience at all levels and maintain proficiency throughout their career.

(b) 140E CW5 at the master level should have tactical/technical experience with AMD systems and maintain proficiency throughout their career.



Figure 12-2. AA/RC MOS 140A development model





Figure 12-3. AA/RC MOS 140E development model


12-5. Reserve Component officers

a. General career development. The RC career development model for ADA will essentially mirror that of AC officers/warrant officers, except that assignments will not be limited to one component or control group within a component. Figures 12-1 (officers) and 12-2 (warrant officers) delineate the mandatory timeline for promotion to the next higher grade. In certain cases, an RC officer can be promoted to the next higher grade after meeting minimum time in grade requirements. The ADA officer should count on being dual branched to facilitate career progression. In addition, an ADA officer will most likely be required to branch transfer to another basic branch due to limited geographical and upward mobility positions; however, these officers should remain proficient.

b. Role. ADA RC officers/warrant officers serve in most of the same roles and missions as their AC counterparts. The unique nature of the RC Soldier's role as a citizen Soldier poses a challenge for professional development; however, RC officers/warrant officers are expected to follow AC development patterns as closely as possible. RC officers/warrant officers have increased windows to complete mandatory educational requirements. To meet professional development objectives, RC officers/warrant officers must be willing to rotate between ARNG and USAR TPUs, IRR, the IMA program, and other AC and RC programs. Geographical considerations necessitate these transfers, as well as the need to provide as many officers/warrant officers as possible the opportunity to serve with troops in leadership and staff positions. Additionally, there may be occasions when RC officers/warrant officers will be transferred to the IRR while they complete mandatory education requirements. Such transfers will be temporary and should not be seen as impacting negatively on the officer's/warrant officer's career. The success of an RC officer/warrant officer is not measured by the length of service in any one component or control group, but by the officer's/warrant officer's breadth of experience, duty performance, and adherence to branch requirements. (Note. Figures 12-1 , 12-2 , and 12-3 illustrate the typical AC and RC officer and warrant officer careers from accession to separation.)

c. Warrant officer assignments. Warrant officers, as the branch's technical experts, are considered certified upon successful completion of the WOBC and remain so throughout their warrant officer career (140X specialty code denotes a position that can be filled by either a 140A or 140E, currently only approved for GMD positions).

d. Reserve Component officer qualification and development. Career development model is at figure 12-1 .

(1) Lieutenant (years 1 through 6). RC officers must complete a minimum of 90 hours of college/university credits to receive a commission. ADA BOLC B is the starting point for newly accessed RC ADA officers. RC ADA officers should complete the resident initial leadership instruction by the eighteenth month for ARNG officers (the second year for USAR officers), or prior to the end of the third year for OCS graduates and direct appointees. Officers should seek to serve in more than one unit position during this phase, allowing for maximum exposure to the diversified functions within an ADA unit. Typical ADA lieutenant assignments include tactical control officer, platoon leader, battery XO, battery maintenance officer, and battalion staff officer. Officers are encouraged to actively participate in professional reading programs and continue correspondence studies. Officers must earn a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college/university to qualify for promotion to captain.

(2) Captain (years 7 through 13). ADA officers must complete the resident CCC in the AC or RC curriculum. The RC CCC program is divided into three phases of instruction that is to be completed within a 13 month timeframe. The course includes two phases of DL includes nonresident instruction and two phases of 2 weeks of active duty in residence at USAADASCH. During this phase, all officers are highly encouraged to pursue a specialty-related undergraduate or graduate degree. RC ADA officers should aggressively seek opportunities to command an ADA battery for a minimum tour of 2 years (optimally 3 years). RC ADA command opportunities are only available in ARNG units. Typical assignments for captains include battery command; TASS/regional training institute tactical officer; battalion, brigade, division, joint force headquarters, or USAR RSC staff officer; battalion liaison officer; CTC observer/controller; and multifunctional billets. Officers may select a FA designation between the seventh and tenth years of service. The designation of FAs should be based upon the needs of the Army, geographical considerations, and officer preference. FA assignments are useful for bypassing temporary roadblocks to career progression in the ADA branch due to geographical constraints or position availability; however, RC ADA officers should endeavor to return to an ADA assignment as soon as practicable. A limited number of qualified officers will be accessed into the Army Acquisition Corps.

(3) Major (years 14 through 21). During this phase, officers should enroll in and complete common core ILE and pursue a specialty-related graduate degree. ADA officers should seek further development in ADA assignments during this phase. Branch standard assignments include (but are not limited to) battalion/brigade/division staff officer, battalion/brigade XO/S3, ADAM Cell OIC, CTC observer/controller, TASS/regional training institute battalion tactical officers, and ROTC instructor duty.

(4) Lieutenant colonel (years 21 through 26). During this phase, officers should seek PME at the SSC level. Officers may seek assignments to senior command and staff positions. Additionally, many assignments in both HQDA and joint staffs are available in the IMA Program for RC officers. Lieutenant colonels with 3 years time in grade must complete JMPE Phase I to qualify for assignment to any principal staff position at brigade or higher levels of command. If transferring from another branch and designated to command at the battalion level, RC officers must have attended a transition course and PCC under the auspices of USAADASCH. (Note: Exceptional officers selected to command an ADA battalion (minimum 2-year, optimum 3-year tour) may also be selected for resident SSC or the Army War College Distance/Distributive Education Course.) Branch standard assignments include (but are not limited to) battalion commander, TASS/regional training institute commanders, brigade XO, brigade XO/S3/operations officer, division staff officer; and CONUSA/JIIM/HQDA-level staff assignment. RC ADA command opportunities are only available in ARNG units.

(5) Colonel (years 26 through 30). Assignments during this phase should provide for maximum utilization skills in ADA or FA. Assignment standards include regional training institute/garrison commander, brigade deputy commander, division/corps staff officer, and training support/combat division chiefs of staff. Senior staff assignments include (but are not limited to) positions at NGB Headquarters, USARC, and on CONUSA/JIIM/HQDA staffs. If transferring from another branch and designated to a colonel-level command, officers must have attended a transition course and PCC under the auspices of USAADASCH. (Note. Exceptional officers selected to command an ADA brigade [minimum 2 years, optimum 3 years] may also be selected for resident SSC or the Army War College Distance/Distributive Education Course.)

e. Reserve Component warrant officer qualification and development.

(1) MOS 140A, Command and control systems integrator. The ADA warrant officer development and utilization model (RC) is at figure 12-2 . The 140X specialty code allows GMD positions to be filled by 140A or 140E.

(a) WO1 and CW2. Same as AC MOS 140A description at paragraph 12-3b(1)(a) . (References to THAAD do not apply and reference to Theater Missile Warning Detachment is replaced by GMD.) ARNG CW2s are required to successfully complete WOAC to meet eligibility requirements for promotion to CW3.

(b) CW3. Same as AC MOS 140A description at paragraph 12-3b(1)(b) . (References to USAADASCH do not apply.) Additionally, successful completion of WOSC is required for both ARNG and USAR warrants prior to being eligible for promotion to CW4.

(c) CW4. Same as AC MOS 140A description at paragraph 12-3b(1)(c) . (References to THAAD, TRADOC, Joint commands, Army/ACOM staffs, and career managers do not apply.) These CW4s also serve in directorate staff positions at the JFHQ. Both ARNG and USAR warrants are required to successfully complete WOSSC prior to eligibility for promotion to CW5.

(d) CW5. Same as AC MOS 140A description at paragraph 12-3b(1)(d) . (Reference to USAADASCH does not apply.)

(2) MOS 140E, ADA systems tactician/technician. The 140X specialty code allows GMD positions to be filled by 140A or 140E.

(a) WO1 to CW3. At the time of publishing, there are no positions in the RC for WO1 through CW3 for MOS 140E.

(b) CW4. Same as AC MOS 140E description at paragraph 12-3b(2)(c) except that positions are only available in the ADA brigades and AAMDC. ARNG warrants are required to successfully complete WOSSC prior to being eligible for promotion to CW5. At this juncture, CW4s should begin, continue, or complete graduate-level studies. CW5. Same as AC MOS 140E description at paragraph 12-3b(2)(d) except that positions are only available in the ADA brigades and AAMDC.

Chapter 13

Engineer Branch

13-1. Introduction

a. Purpose/mission of the Engineer Regiment. The Engineer Regiment is a sub-profession of the larger profession of arms. It is a body of people — not just equipment or organizations — with a passion to serve as an engineer Soldier who embodies the Warrior Ethos and a technical set of skills. These technical skills set the Engineer Regiment apart via its unique services and knowledge that the Army needs to accomplish its missions. The purpose of the Engineer Regiment and its role within the U.S. Army is first and foremost to bring the three unique capabilities of combat, general, and geospatial engineering to support the overall efforts of the Army. Engineer warriors lead to serve ground forces: a regiment inspired to answer the commander's call.

b. Proponent information. The proponent for the Engineer Regiment is the U.S. Army Engineer School (USAES); Fort Leonard Wood, MO. Contact information for all agencies and directorates of the Engineer School can be found on the public Web page at: http://www.wood.army.mil/usaes/ . From this website, those individuals with a valid AKO account can find more refined information on the Engineer School Knowledge Network. Support for proponent functions is provided to the commandant of the U.S. Army Engineer School by the CG, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), 441 G Street, Washington, DC 20314-1000 and the Commander, Installation Management Command, 2405 Gun Shed Road, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-1223.

c. Functions.

(1) Terms.

(a) The Engineer Regiment. The Engineer Regiment represents the Army's engineer capabilities in both the operating and generating force. The Engineer Regiment consists of all active and RC Army, ARNG, and USAR engineer organizations (as well as the DOD Civilians and affiliated contractors and agencies within the civilian community) with a diverse range of capabilities that are all focused toward supporting the Army and its mission.

(b) The Active Component. The AC of the Engineer Regiment consists of AA military engineer units within combatant and ACOMs, USACE (defined below), and individual officers, NCOs, and civilians working inside non-engineer organizations including maneuver enhancement brigades, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and Directors of Public Works and Housing in Installation Management Command.

(c) The Reserve Component. The RC of the Engineer Regiment consists of the Army Reserve and the ARNG and constitutes more than three fourths of Army engineer forces. The RC of the Engineer Regiment includes a wide range of specialized units and capabilities.

(d) The Engineer Branch. The Engineer Branch includes both the HR managers in HRC and the Engineer Branch proponent (USAES) under TRADOC. Together these components generate and manage the centerpiece of those forces conducting engineer operations — Engineer Soldiers. The branch trains, educates, and manages Engineer Soldiers in a variety of military occupational specialties and skills. The mission of the USAES is to execute training, leader development education, and personnel proponency while advocating to the Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) Engineer priorities in doctrine, organizations, materiel, and facilities.

(e) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The USACE is the Army's DRU assigned responsibility to execute Army and DOD military construction, real estate acquisition, development of the nation's infrastructure and management of water resources through the Civil Works Program. USACE serves the Armed Forces and the nation by providing vital engineering services and capabilities, as a public service, across the full spectrum of operations — from peace to war — in support of national interests. Most of USACE's assets are part of the generating force, but selected elements are a part of the operational Army. Other USACE services include wetlands and waterway management, environmental restoration, and disaster relief support operations. With its subordinate divisions, districts, laboratories and centers, USACE provides a broad range of engineering support to the military departments, Federal agencies, state governments, local authorities, and foreign partners.

(2) Support.

(a) Lines of engineer support. The unique capabilities of the Engineer Regiment are combined together along four lines of engineer support to assure mobility, enhance protection, enable expeditionary force projection & logistics, and develop partner capacity and infrastructure in order to provide freedom of action to ground forces at every echelon executing unified land operations. With the publication of ADP 3-0 and the increased demand for stability operations, engineer requirements across the range of military operations have increased. Engineers provide support to Army and Joint maneuver commanders and staffs at all levels, installations, and the nation at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. By its very nature the Engineer Regiment is broad with many diverse developmental opportunities. Along the lines of engineer support, the Regiment supports emergency management in support of federal agencies, management and control of military construction programs for the Army and other Federal agencies, water and flood control, natural resource development, environmental restoration, civil works, maintenance and repair of utilities equipment, maintenance support to medical hospitals, installation of fixed or mobile power plants, interior and exterior repair of facilities to include carpentry, masonry, plumbing and electrical equipment, interface between the engineering and intelligence communities for planning and execution of Geospatial Intelligence and management of Geospatial Intelligence operations.

(b) Joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational. The Engineer Regiment is joint in its integration capabilities and supports the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of joint operations by complementing and augmenting U.S. Navy SEABEE units, U.S. Air Force REDHORSE and PRIME BEEF units, and host nation engineer capabilities. The Regiment is experienced at interagency support and leveraging nonmilitary and nongovernmental engineer assets to support mission accomplishment. It is capable of supporting or leading multinational engineer efforts.

13-2. Officer characteristics required

a. Characteristics required of all officers. All officers are expected to possess the base characteristics that will enable them to develop into agile and adaptive leaders for the 21 st century. Our leaders must be grounded in Army Values and the Warrior Ethos, competent in their core proficiencies, and broadly experienced to operate across the range of military operations. All officers must be physically and mentally fit, maintain and display self-control, remain calm under pressure, and adhere to published standards and regulations. They must be able to operate in JIIM environments and leverage capabilities beyond the Army in achieving their objectives. Our officers must be culturally astute and able to use their awareness and understanding to conduct operations innovatively and courageously to exploit opportunities in the challenges and complexities of the operational environment. Army officers must be premier warfighters who possess the Warrior Ethos and effectively apply the four core dimensions of leadership: values, attributes, skills, and actions. The four core leadership dimensions provide the basis for what an engineer leader must be, know, and do. The Army Values and attributes set the basis for the character of the leader — what a leader must be. The Soldier's Creed and skills developed by leaders establish his or her competence — what a leader must know. The actions that leaders conduct and execute constitute leadership — what a leader must do. This leadership framework describes a leader of character and competence who acts to achieve excellence across the full range of military operations. Further explanation of these characteristics can be referenced in AR 600-100 , ADP 3-0, ADP 6-22, and in chapter 3 of this publication.

b. Unique knowledge and skills of an Engineer officer. The Engineer Regiment requires officers who are well-grounded in engineer doctrine and possess the skills and attributes to solve the commander's toughest problems. Engineer officers are warriors first, but lead to serve ground force commanders and are masters of combined arms operations. Additionally, because of the technical nature of many engineer assignments, officers are required to continuously update their education and professional certifications. Engineer officers who have an undergraduate engineering degree should seek to become licensed as a Professional Engineer and obtain a master's degree in engineering or a related technical field. Engineer officers without an undergraduate engineering degree should seek to obtain a master's degree in an engineering related discipline and professional certification relevant to the Engineer mission, such as Project Management Professional (PMP), Project Engineer, or Geographic Information Systems Professional. To add the best value possible to the Army and the nation, Engineer officers must be lifelong learners who are experts in the technical and tactical domains across the full range of military engineering. They gain competency through a logical sequence of institutional training and education, experience gained in operational assignments, and continuous self-development initiatives. Engineer officers are classified into a single, AOC 12A. Engineer lieutenants and captains develop core technical competencies through attendance at PME. There are several branch-unique skills that require further professional development and qualification through completion of functional courses, self-development, and operational experience. The Engineer Branch uses SIs to further classify officers and code unit positions that require the skills, to provide commanders with engineer leaders who have the right skills for the job. Engineer officers obtain various SIs throughout their career to increase their value to the Army, increase their depth of expertise in applied engineering, increase their mastery of leveraging combinations of the three engineer capabilities, and increase the types of units/positions in which they may serve. An engineer officer with broader skills has more flexibility in being assigned to KD and developmental/broadening positions. The Engineer Branch has proponency for the following skills (detailed descriptions contained in DA Pam 611-21 ):

(1) S4 — Sapper Leader.

(2) W1 — Facilities Planner.

(3) W2 — Geospatial Engineer Officer.

(4) W3 — Professional Engineer.

(5) W4 — Degreed Engineer.

(6) W5 — Project Management Professional.

(7) W6 — Project Engineer.

(8) W7 — Environmental Officer.

13-3. Officer development

a. Officer development model. The officer development model is focused more on the quality and range of experience, rather than the specific gates or assignments required to progress.

(1) Initial entry officers gain engineer technical and tactical skills to develop a Warrior Ethos and gain important leadership experience. During these company grade assignments, officers gain critical tactical understanding that engineers are part of the joint and combined arms team and technical experience in general and geospatial engineering and construction management. They begin to develop combined arms competency that will allow them to lead combined arms formations during unified land operations.

(2) Throughout an officer's career, the Army's officer development model highlights the need to gain JIIM experience and exposure. The breadth of tactical and technical assignments within the Engineer Regiment ensures that officers are provided with JIIM developmental and broadening opportunities at installations and in contingency environments to achieve increasing levels of technical competency expected by field and garrison commanders.

(3) For broadening opportunities officers should view the concept of broadening as a purposeful expansion of a leader's capabilities and understanding provided through opportunities internal and external to the Army. Broadening is accomplished across an officer's full career through experiences and/or education in different organizational cultures and environments. The intent for broadening is to develop an officer's capability to see, work, learn and contribute outside each one's own perspective or individual level of understanding for the betterment of both the individual officer and the institution. The result of broadening is a continuum of leadership capability at direct, operational, and strategic levels, which bridges diverse environments and organizational cultures. The broadening process will be dynamic and variable across cohorts, grades, and branches or FAs. Opportunities will change in response to the Army's emerging missions, evolving structure and professional culture. Deliberate career management that carefully limits KD time to prescribed intervals, allowing exceptions only under limited extenuating circumstances is fundamental to the concept of broadening. Broadening opportunities may vary in scope, responsibility, and developmental outcomes and typically fall in four major categories listed below.

(4) Functional designation, that often occurs at the 4 th or 7 th year develops functional competencies inside or outside of the Engineer Regiment. The ACC groups interrelated branches and FAs into officer management categories called functional categories and functional groups. The functional designation process determines in which specialty officers will continue their development; either in their accession branch or in a different FA. Management of officer development in functional categories recognizes the need to balance specialization of the officer corps with the inherent requirement for officers to gain more breadth in an increasingly complex environment. Officers have periodic opportunities after the 4 th year of officer service to transfer to a different branch or FA. The process is known as the VTIP and is managed by HRC to balance inventories with Army requirements and to leverage individual officer preferences and demonstrated abilities. VTIP panels are conducted at least three times a year and are announced via MILPER message describing procedures and specialties to be considered for cross leveling. VTIP allows HRC to identify and target officers with critical skills early in their development, allowing them to obtain additional training and experience to bring those skills to bear as quickly as possible. The VTIP balances the force across the three functional categories. The intent of the VTIP panel is to fill requirements and provide the FAs enough time to send their officers to school and training prior to utilization. The VTIP process ensures that the needs of the Army are met for future field grade officer requirements in each functional category. Each functional category has its own unique characteristics and development model for officers, which reflects the readiness requirements of the Army today and into the 21st century. Officers in all functional categories are assigned across the Army in TOE and TDA organizations.

(5) An experience with civilian industry or within a community of students, scholars, and instructors at institutes of higher learning where the officer can gain new perspectives and knowledge, skills, and abilities not generally obtained from organic experiences, training, or education. Lifelong learning, supported by both civilian and military education as well as professional societies and associations, is necessary for Engineer officers to become technically competent in combat, general, and geospatial engineering and construction management, as well as joint and expeditionary operations. While the Army provides support, Engineer officers must be self-motivated to achieve lifelong learning.

(6) The paragraphs below represent a career guide by defining those professional development opportunities available at each rank that prepare the Engineer officer for further service at the next higher rank. It presumes a heavy focus on tactical/maneuver support operations for company grade officers, transitioning to a combined/Joint operational focus coupled with varied technical requirements for senior company grade and field grade officers. A constant theme throughout the career guide is the increased use of the self-development domain to produce technically and tactically competent leaders for the Army.

b. General career development. Engineer officer career development includes training, education, self-development, and KD assignments. The three domains of leader development — PME/functional training, operational assignments, and self-development — define and engage a continuous cycle of education, training, selection, experience, assessment, feedback, reinforcement, and evaluation to encourage officer development throughout career progression. The emphasis within each domain of leader development shifts throughout an officer's career to meet the ARFORGEN, mobilization, and warfighting needs of the Army. The AC Army engineer officer career map is at figure 13-1 .

(1) Professional military education. The institutional Army (schools and training centers) is the foundation for lifelong learning.

(2) Operational assignments. Upon completion of institutional training, leaders are ideally assigned to operational assignments. This operational experience provides them the opportunity to use, hone, and build on what they learned through the formal education process. Experience gained through on-the-job-training in a variety of challenging assignments and additional duties prepares officers to lead and train Soldiers in garrison commands and, ultimately, in combat. The officer's breadth and depth of experience are the metrics that accurately reflect the potential for promotion and service in positions of increased responsibility. Assignments that increase officers' overall technical and tactical knowledge and improve their understanding of combined, joint, interagency, and multinational operations will also help to broaden the skill sets that make them more effective combat leaders.

(3) Self-development. Leaders must commit to a lifetime of professional and personal growth to stay at the cutting edge of their profession. Every officer is ultimately responsible for their own self-development plan. Key elements of a leader' s self-development program should include cultural, language, and JIIM environments. Officers should set self-development goals and explore opportunities to serve in JIIM environments throughout their careers as a way to expand their overall knowledge base and increase their ability to lead in those environments. Officers should concentrate their efforts on attaining and honing a broad set of skills by holding KD positions that allow them to explore various aspects of their professional abilities.

(4) Skill identifier. The use of SIs supports career development, officer tracking, and management of assignments to develop multi-skilled Engineer officers to meet the Army's need and the goals of the officer. It is expected that officers will be managed and assigned to coded positions based on the officer's SIs. An officer will select which skills training meets their personal developmental goals and the technical focus they would like to have in their career. Skills training and classification will allow the Army to fill coded positions with officers that possess the right mixture of skills.

(a) Engineer officers should obtain at least one SI and are encouraged to obtain several SIs. This broadens both their technical engineer competence and their use to the Army.

(b) To support ARFORGEN, Engineer officers selected to serve in positions coded with Engineer SIs should complete the required training before being assigned to these positions.

(c) Engineer officers must complete their KD operational assignment and schooling to be best qualified at each grade and exceptionally qualified for future promotions.

c. Lieutenant development.

(1) Education. Engineer lieutenants are required to graduate from Engineer BOLC to ensure a strong foundation in officer common core/leadership training and in military specific engineer training. It is this strong foundation that allows for continued leader development in the operational and self-developmental domains. Follow-on specialized Engineer and non-Engineer tactical training such as Sapper, Ranger, Airborne, Route Reconnaissance Clearance Course-Leader, Urban Mobility Breacher, Explosive Ordnance Clearance Agent (EOCA), Stryker or Mechanized Leader, and others is encouraged to support company grade assignments.

(2) Assignment.

(a) KD (12-24 months) assignment as a platoon leader is critical for an engineer lieutenant and should be held for a minimum of 12 months.

(b) The following assignments for lieutenants are examples of developmental/broadening opportunities. A mixture of these assignments provides company grade officers with technical experience and the opportunity to lead, train, and support small units. This provides the foundation critical to continued growth as an engineer officer.

(1) Company XO.

(2) Battalion staff officer.

(3) Task force engineer.

(4) Aide-de-camp.

(5) USACE project engineer.

(3) Self-development. Numerous opportunities exist for self-development at the lieutenant level. For those lieutenants without a bachelor's degree, planning for degree completion is critical. Opportunities exist for lieutenants to become full-time students and also to attend online and off-duty courses. Officers who have a Bachelor of Science degree from an Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology accredited institution are highly encouraged to take the Fundamentals of Engineering exam so they can become an Engineer in training to prepare for Professional Engineer registration (licensure) later in their career. Various professional reading lists and doctrinal publications are available that officers should use to generate discussion in professional development sessions, as well as self-assessment tools to increase self-awareness. To stay current in emerging technologies and ideas, engineer lieutenants should become members of engineer professional/technical organizations. Completion of online courses through AKO Distributive Learning, DAU, or learning a foreign language is also encouraged.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer lieutenants must acquire and master troop-leading procedures, platoon and company operations, basic maintenance and logistical concepts, and administrative requirements inherent to platoons and companies. Each engineer lieutenant must also embody the Army's Warrior Ethos and values so that they can train and lead Soldiers to win our Nation's wars.

d. Captain development.

(1) Education. After selection for promotion to captain, engineer officers will attend the Engineer Captain's Career Course (ECCC). It is highly encouraged for captains to attend ECCC prior to command. Options exist to attend other branch's CCC for those officers deemed qualified by their chain of command and desiring to do so. Engineer captains are encouraged to pursue technical engineer training through the USACE Proponent Sponsored Engineer Corps Training (PROSPECT) program. Engineer-specific technical training in project management, construction management, facilities management, geospatial engineering, environmental engineering, contracting officer representative, quality assurance, and other related areas is available. Tactical training such as Sapper, Ranger, Airborne, Route Reconnaissance Clearance Course-Leader, Urban Mobility Breacher, and the Joint Engineer Operations Course is also available.

(2) Assignment.

(a) KD (12-24 months) assignment as a company commander is critical for an engineer captain and should be held for a minimum of 12 months.

(b) The following assignments for captains are examples of developmental/broadening opportunities. A mixture of these assignments further develops technical and tactical competencies and the experience base necessary to succeed at the field grade level and beyond. Engineer captains should serve in developmental/broadening assignments following their KD assignment.

(1) Battalion/brigade staff officer.

(2) CTC observer/controller/trainer.

(3) Small group leader.

(4) Transition team.

(5) Provincial reconstruction team.

(6) Instructor (USAES/USMA/ROTC).

(7) Doctrine/training developer.

(8) USACE project officer.

(9) Exchange officer.

(10) Aide-de-camp.

(11) AC/RC observer/controller/trainer.

(3) Self-development. Numerous opportunities exist for self-development at the captain level. Engineer officers who plan to make the Army a career beyond company grade should obtain a graduate degree prior to promotion to the rank of lieutenant colonel. To assist with this goal, officers attending the ECCC are afforded an opportunity to get a master's degree from the University of Missouri Science and Technology's cooperative degree program. Additionally, the advanced civil schooling option is a fully funded program that supports advanced degree requirements for certain branches and FAs. Many universities award constructive credit for military courses, which can facilitate earning an advanced degree at an accelerated pace. Lastly, an officer can obtain an advanced degree at his or her own expense or by using tuition assistance during off-duty hours. A full explanation and eligibility requirements for these programs are contained in AR 621-1 . For those officers with undergraduate engineering degrees, their master's degree should be in the field of engineering or a related technical discipline. For those officers without an undergraduate engineering degree, obtaining a master's degree in Geospatial Engineering/Geographic Information Systems, Business Administration, Operations Research, Management, Architecture, or a related technical discipline may support qualification for a SI or support a FA designation and provide the skills necessary for higher-level command and staff positions. Officers who have passed the Fundamentals of Engineering exam should actively begin preparation for the professional engineer exam. Various professional reading lists and doctrinal publications are available that officers should use to generate discussion in professional development sessions, as well as self-assessment tools to increase self-awareness. To stay current in emerging technologies and ideas, engineer captains should be members of engineer professional/technical organizations. Completion of online courses through AKO Distributive Learning, DAU, or learning a foreign language is also encouraged.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer captains must successfully complete a 12 to 18 months KD assignment and should strive to complete several developmental assignments prior to promotion to major. Captains will transition their development to a mastery of engineer support of Army unified land operations.

e. Major development.

(1) Education. After selection for promotion to major, engineer officers will attend the Army's ILE. It is highly encouraged for majors to attend ILE prior to a KD assignment. Successful completion of ILE qualifies the officer in JPME at the level of JPME I. For the most competitive majors, additional educational opportunities following ILE exist, including degree programs at the SAMS. To prepare field grade officers for future JIIM assignments, it is recommended that majors attend the Joint Engineer Operations Course and/or the Joint, Interagency, Multinational Planners Course.

(2) Assignment.

(a) KD (12-24 months) assignment in one or more of the below jobs is critical for an engineer major and should be held for a minimum of 12 months.

(1) Battalion/brigade XO.

(2) Battalion/brigade operations officer (S3).

(3) BCT engineer (I/H/SBCT).

(4) Ranger Regiment/SF group engineer.

(5) Transition team/provincial reconstruction team member.

(b) Developmental/broadening. The following assignments are important to the broadening of engineer majors by allowing them to provide an engineer perspective in JIIM and other non-engineer organizations as well as to learn about other FAs of the Army. Some of these assignments will be available for majors after successful completion of a KD assignment while others will be available before completion of a KD assignment. Timeline management between the individual officer and Engineer Branch will be critical to ensure the officer is placed into the correct position given Army requirements:

(1) USACE deputy district commander.

(2) Forward Engineer Support Teams (FEST-A or FEST-B).

(3) CTC observer/controller/trainer.

(4) Division engineer planner/TAC engineer officer.

(5) JIIM staff officer.

(6) Doctrine/training developer.

(7) Instructor (USMA/USAES/ROTC).

(8) Training With Industry.

(9) Joint/ASCC/HQDA/ACOM staff.

(10) Aide-de-camp.

(11) Exchange officer.

(12) Director of Public Works.

(13) Geospatial Planning Cell OIC.

(3) Self-development. Engineer majors must continue refining and building upon their technical competence using self-development. At this point in their careers, all engineer officers are highly encouraged to have a master's degree in engineering or a related technical discipline. Officers with undergraduate engineering degrees who passed the Fundamentals of Engineering exam are encouraged to complete Professional Engineer registration (licensure). Officers without an undergraduate engineering degree are encouraged to pursue and obtain professional certifications such as PMP, Project Engineer, Geographic Information Systems Professional, and so forth. To differentiate officers by technical discipline, engineers at the field grade level should maximize the use of DA Pam 611-21's Army recognized SIs and project development SIs. Various professional reading lists and doctrinal publications are available that officers should use to generate discussion in professional development sessions, as well as self-assessment tools to increase self-awareness. Engineer majors should also increase their participation in professional/technical organizations to stay current in emerging technologies and ideas. Completion of online courses through AKO Distributive Learning, DAU, or learning a foreign language is also encouraged.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer majors must successfully complete a KD assignment for 12 to 18 months. Engineer majors should also serve in several developmental/broadening assignments to further develop their technical and tactical competencies and broaden their experience base necessary to succeed at the lieutenant colonel and colonel levels. Majors will transition their development to a mastery of engineer support as a part of joint and multinational operations. Some majors will develop a mastery of maneuver support operations and improve their competency to serve in maneuver enhancement brigades and protection staff officer positions.

f. Lieutenant colonel development.

(1) Education. After selection for promotion to lieutenant colonel, engineer officers may be selected by a HQDA board to complete resident SSC instruction. Those not selected by the HQDA board should consider completing the nonresident Army War College distance education course. The Joint Engineer Operations Course and/or the Joint, Interagency, Multinational Planners Course provides lieutenant colonels with a knowledge base of joint operations needed at this grade and is highly encouraged. Engineer lieutenant colonels centrally selected for battalion-level command will attend the Army, branch, and functional PCCs.

(2) Assignment.

(a) Key developmental. All promotable engineer majors and lieutenant colonels are eligible to compete for lieutenant colonel-level command during the Command Selection Board. Selection is based primarily on the officer's overall performance, demonstrated potential to lead larger organizations, experience, and qualifications. A centralized selection board will select officers in a given category based on HQDA guidance. HRC will slate officers to specific units within the categories. Officers being considered for command are allowed to select the categories in which they desire to compete. The HQDA CSL designates commands into four functional categories:

(1) Operations. This includes TOE engineer battalions throughout the Army as well as brigade troop battalions and brigade special troop battalions within BCTs. The majority of engineer lieutenant colonel commands are in this category.

(2) Strategic support. Lieutenant colonel USACE engineer district commands are in this category.

(3) Recruiting and training. TRADOC engineer battalions are in this category as well as branch immaterial USAREC battalion commands.

(4) Installation. Branch immaterial garrison commands are in this category. Engineer officers compete with all officers considered in this category.

(b) Developmental/broadening. The objective of lieutenant colonel assignments is for officers to continue to provide a valuable contribution to the regiment, the Army, and our nation based on their unique experiences and qualifications. Officers desiring to contribute in the tactical arena have numerous opportunities on staffs at all levels. Officers desiring to contribute in the technical arena have numerous opportunities in USACE and IMCOM. The following developmental and broadening assignments enhance the officer's technical and tactical competencies in a wide range of skill sets and offer operational and strategic value to the Army:

(1) Brigade DCO/XO.

(2) Division staff (division engineer, Chief of Protection, Chief of Plans).

(3) Corps Engineer staff officer.

(4) USACE deputy district commander.

(5) Senior observer controller trainer at a CTC.

(6) JIIM staff officer.

(7) ROTC Professor of Military Science.

(8) AC/RC training support battalion commander.

(9) USAES director.

(10) Joint/ASCC/HQDA/ACOM staff.

(11) Transition team/provincial reconstruction team commander.

(3) Self-development. Engineer lieutenant colonels must continue refining and building upon their technical competence using self-development. At this point in their careers, all engineer officers are highly encouraged to have a master's degree in engineering or a related technical discipline. Officers with undergraduate engineering degrees who passed the Fundamentals of Engineering exam are encouraged at this point of their careers to complete professional engineering licensure. Officers without an undergraduate engineering degree are encouraged to pursue and obtain professional certifications such as PMP, Project Engineer, Geographic Information Systems Professional, and so forth. Other areas where engineer lieutenant colonels may consider certification and credentialing are related to geospatial and environmental engineering, contracting, and other strategic planning and management disciplines. Various professional reading lists and doctrinal publications are available that officers should use to generate discussion in professional development sessions, as well as self-assessment tools to increase self-awareness. To remain current in emerging technologies and ideas, engineer lieutenant colonels should be active contributors to professional/technical organizations. Completion of online courses through AKO Distributive Learning, DAU, or learning a foreign language is also encouraged.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer lieutenant colonels are subject matter experts within any organization to which they are assigned. A wide variety of assignments ensures a tactical and technical expert that is comfortable in all levels of warfare (tactical, operational, and strategic).

g. Colonel development. The professional development objective for this phase of an officer's career is joint qualification, sustainment of warfighting, training, and staff skills; along with the provisions of senior, seasoned leadership, management, and executive talents. The majority of strategic level leaders in the Army are colonels. Colonels are expected to be multi-skilled leaders, strategic and creative thinkers, builders of leaders and teams, competent full spectrum warfighters, skilled in governance, statesmanship, and diplomacy, and understand cultural context and work effectively across all domains.

(1) Education. After selection for promotion to colonel, engineer officers should complete SSC, either resident or nonresident. Opportunities for educational fellowships are also available and can grant MEL SSC accreditation in lieu of attendance at an SSC. All colonels should pursue joint qualification, which consists of two parts: an education component and an experience component. The education requirement is met by completing the 10-week JPME II course or by resident SSC attendance at any of the service War Colleges. The education requirement for joint qualification is not waiverable. The experience requirement is met by serving an assignment in a joint billet for a prescribed period of time (usually 22-months, but less for combat and hardship assignments). Officers can apply for experience-based credit in lieu of assignment, but must demonstrate significant interaction with joint and/or interagency actors/organizations. Colonels interested in experience-based credit should work closely with their HR manager at the Senior Leader Development Office to ensure compliance with the most current waiver rules and request format. Engineer colonels centrally selected for brigade-level command will attend the Army, Branch, and functional PCCs.

(2) Assignment.

(a) Key developmental. Selection for colonel-level command is extremely competitive. Promotable engineer lieutenant colonels and colonels with less than 27 years of active federal commissioned service are eligible to compete for colonel-level command during the Command Selection Board. Selection is based primarily on the officer's overall performance, demonstrated potential to lead larger organizations, experience, and qualifications. A centralized selection board will select officers in a given category based on HQDA guidance. HRC will slate officers to specific units within the categories. Officers being considered for command are allowed to select the categories in which they desire to compete. The HQDA CSL designates commands into four functional categories:

(1) Operations. This includes TOE engineer brigades throughout the Army as well as BCTs and the maneuver enhancement brigades.

(2) Strategic support. Colonel USACE engineer districts are in this category.

(3) Recruiting and training. TRADOC engineer brigades are in this category as well as branch immaterial USAREC brigade commands.

(4) Installation. Branch immaterial garrison commands are in this category. Engineer officers compete with all officers considered in this category.

(b) Developmental/broadening. The objective of colonel assignments is for officers to continue to provide strategic value to the Regiment, the Army, and our nation based on their unique experiences and qualifications. Assignments include organizations and duties beyond those discussed in earlier sections. The spectrum of possible assignments is broad and is characterized as highly responsible, important, and requiring mature, skilled, and well-rounded officers. The following assignments ensure that engineer colonels further develop the broad range of competencies they have obtained to best provide strategic value to the Army and the nation.

(1) USAES assistant commandant.

(2) Combatant command staff.

(3) MSCoE staff.

(4) USACE staff.

(5) USAES director.

(6) HQDA/Office of the Chief of Engineers director.

(7) Exchange officer.

(8) JIIM staff officer.

(9) ROTC PMS.

(10) Joint/ASCC/HQDA/ACOM staff.

(11) ROTC PMS.

(12) Corps engineer.

(13) OSD staff assignment.

(3) Self-development. Engineer colonels must continue refining and building upon their technical competence using self-development. Various professional reading lists and doctrinal publications are available that officers should use to generate discussion in professional development sessions, as well as self-assessment tools to increase self-awareness. To remain current in emerging technologies and ideas, engineer colonels should hold leadership positions and be chief contributors within professional/technical organizations.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer colonels are subject matter experts within any organization to which they are assigned.



Figure 13-1. AA Engineer officer development model


13-4. Warrant officer development

a. Unique functions, knowledge, and skills of the engineer warrant officer. The Army warrant officer is an adaptive technical expert, leader, trainer, and advisor. Through progressive levels of expertise in assignments, training, and education, the warrant officer administers, manages, maintains, operates, and integrates Army systems and equipment through all levels of unified and decisive Engineer operations. They support a wide range of Engineer and Army missions throughout their career. Warrant officers in the Army are accessed with specific levels of technical ability. They refine their technical expertise and develop their leadership and management skills through tiered progressive assignment and education. The following are specific characteristics and responsibilities of the separate, successive warrant officer grades.

(1) Warrant officer one/chief warrant officer two. A WO1 is an officer appointed by warrant with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position given by the Secretary of the Army. CW2s and above are commissioned officers with the requisite authority pursuant to assignment level and position as given by the President of the United States. WO1s and CW2s primary focus is becoming proficient and working on those systems linked directly to their AOC/MOS. As they become experts on the systems they operate and maintain, their focus migrates to integrating their systems with other branch systems.

(2) CW3s are advanced level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, trainer, operator, manager, maintainer, sustainer, integrator, and advisor. They also perform any other branch-related duties assigned to them. As they become more senior, their focus becomes integrating branch systems into larger Army systems.

(3) CW4s are senior-level technical and tactical experts who perform the duties of technical leader, manager, maintainer, sustainer, integrator and advisor and serve in a wide variety of branch level positions. As they become more senior they focus on integrating branch and Army systems into Joint and national-level systems.

(4) CW5s are master-level technical and tactical experts who perform the primary duties of technical leader, manager, integrator, and advisor. They are the senior technical expert in their branch and serve at the highest levels.

b. Engineer specialties. The Engineer Regiment has two warrant officer MOSs, the Construction Engineering Technician (120A) and the Geospatial Engineering Technician (125D). Engineer warrant officers may be further awarded and classified with two SIs, project management professional and facility planner.

(1) Construction Engineering Technicians provide engineering expertise across the broad range of engineer operations in a variety of units. They provide subject matter expertise throughout their careers to the commander and staff on matters relative to the following functions/tasks:

(a) Supervise and coordinate construction of base camps and internment facilities in support of engineer construction operations.

(b) Supervise the construction, repair, and maintenance of vertical infrastructure in engineer construction operations.

(c) Supervise the construction, repair, and maintenance of vertical infrastructure in engineer construction operations.

(d) Provide advice and technical assistance on all aspects of electrical power and distribution in support of military operations. Supervise and manage separate teams performing theater prime power missions.

(e) Provide engineering support and expertise to deployable medical system hospitals, utilizing organic equipment such as power generation equipment, environmental control systems, water, waste, fuel and electrical distribution systems. Coordinate and supervise the installation and repair of water supply systems, plumbing, sewage, and heating and air conditioning systems.

(f) Plan, conduct, prepare, and provide planning studies and tests for identified engineer work projects. Address facilities citing environmental concerns, and estimated project costs as part of a survey & design detachment.

(g) Command survey and design and firefighting headquarters detachments.

(h) Develop training strategies, reviews and writes doctrine, presents formal engineering instruction to officers, warrant officers and NCOs.

(2) Geospatial Engineering Technicians (125D) provide the Army the necessary technical and tactical expertise to execute fundamental, geospatial engineering functions supporting Army units at all echelons through the generation of geospatial information, management and storage of enterprise geospatial databases for the common operating picture, terrain analysis and visualization, dissemination of geospatial information on both digital and hard copy, and the management of geospatial engineer operations. The 125D Engineer warrant officer provides assistance and advice to the commander and staff on matters relative to the following functions/tasks:

(a) Serve on the battle staff as the geospatial engineering expert at BCT, division, corps, Army and Joint commands.

(b) Acquire, coordinate, interpret, and analyze geospatial information, to include the effects of weather, and advise commanders and their staff on its effects on unified land operations.

(c) Manage geospatial support to Unified Land Operations within the BCT, division, corps, Army andJoint commands.

(d) Perform terrain analysis supporting the intelligence preparation of the battlefield process at the BCT, division, corps, Army and Joint commands.

(e) Integrate geospatial operations into the execution of the military decision-making process (MDMP) in support of BCT, division, corps, Army and joint operations.

(f) Identify gaps in geospatial information coverage and coordinate with collection entities to obtain and verify area of interest source data ensuring it satisfies geospatial mission requirements for the generation of essential elements of geospatial information.

(g) Manage generation of essential elements of geospatial information to fill gaps in geospatial information coverage.

(h) Serve as the tactical and technical advisor to the commander, staff and major subordinate commanders providing guidance on the use of geospatial engineers in support of decisive action.

(i) Manage geospatial information and services on the geospatial enterprise server that provides the foundation for the common operating picture for Army battle command systems.

(j) Coordinate with all echelons of geospatial engineer teams to transmit field collected geospatial data to the Theater Geospatial Planning Cell for inclusion into the enterprise geospatial database.

(k) Direct and supervise system administration of geographic information systems on local and wide area networks.

(l) Direct and supervise technical geospatial engineer training within unit.

(m) Develop training strategies, review, write doctrine, and present formal geospatial engineering instruction to officers, warrant officers, and NCOs.

c. Warrant officer one development.

(1) Education. AC and RC warrant officer candidates are required to attend the resident WOCS or the two-phased regional training institute run by State ARNG. WOCS graduates are conditionally appointed to WO1. This appointment is contingent upon certification by the United States Army Engineer School's Personnel Development Office, after successful completion of either the Construction Engineering Technician (120A) Course or the Geospatial Engineering Technician (125D) Course. Follow-on specialized Engineer and other tactical training such as Sapper, Ranger, Airborne, and others is encouraged to support their initial technical and leadership assignments.

(a) The 120A resident course consists of survey and design and vertical construction fundamentals, electrical distribution and design, and Engineer common leader skills. This training prepares 120As for duties in vertical construction platoons, survey and design detachments, and prime power platoons. The 120A RC course consists of four phases. Phase one (Common Leader Skills) and three (Vertical Skills) are DL and phase two (Survey and Design) and four (Theater of Operations Vertical Construction) are resident.

(b) The 125D resident course focuses on training the 125D WO1 and CW2 critical tasks as determined by the U.S. Army Engineer School. It includes a comprehensive review of geospatial information and services, doctrine, emerging geographic information systems and technology, and Army operations. It emphasizes integrating geospatial information and services products into the intelligence preparation of the battlefield and the MDMP at the BCT, geospatial engineering companies, division geospatial engineer teams, and ASCC geospatial planning cells.

(2) Assignment.

(a) Key developmental.

(1) 120A warrant officers will serve as a construction engineering technician in a vertical construction platoon. Select personnel will serve as an assistant White House facilities manager or as commander of a fire fighting headquarters detachment.

(2) 125D warrant officers will serve as a geospatial engineering technician in a BCT or a topographic company.

(b) Developmental/broadening.

(1) 120A warrant officers enhance their development through serving as assistant White House facilities manager or as commander of a fire fighting headquarters detachment.

(2) 125D warrant officers serve as geospatial engineering technicians on BCT, a topographic company or a division geospatial engineer team.

(3) Self-development. Numerous distributive learning and correspondence courses are available in a wide variety of topics to support all aspects of engineer and geospatial operations. This includes the Action Officer Development Course, which is a prerequisite for promotion to CW2.

(a) 120A warrant officers should pursue an associate's degree in construction management or an engineering related field.

(b) 125D warrant officers should pursue an associate's degree in Geography, Geographic Information Systems, Geospatial Intelligence, or a geospatial engineering related field.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer warrant officers must acquire and master the necessary technical requirements of their assignments, and understand the supporting systems utilized by engineer operations at increasing levels of responsibility.

(a) Initial 120A assignments should include strong leadership and technical experience in vertical construction techniques and project management.

(b) Initial 125D assignments should include leadership experience as an OIC of a division geospatial engineer team or assignment to the analysis platoon within the topographic company. The focus for 125D WO1s should be on acquiring and refining technical knowledge and experience in providing geospatial engineering support to the commander, battle staff, engineer staff officer, and in supporting the DCS, G-2's intelligence preparation of the battle space process and the Geospatial Intelligence Cell. A thorough knowledge of the MDMP is essential for warrant officers at this level and the warrant officer should be a member of the battle staff.

d. Chief warrant officer two development.

(1) Education. Engineer CW2s will enroll in prerequisite studies for the WOAC at approximately the third year of warrant officer service. After serving for at least 1 year as a CW2, warrant officers are eligible to attend the resident technical portion of the WOAC.

(2) Assignments.

(a) Key developmental.

(1) 120 A CW2s will serve as construction engineering technicians in vertical construction platoons.

(2) 125 D CW2s will continue to serve in BCTs and topographic companies.

(b) Developmental/broadening.

(1) 120 A CW2s will serve as detachment commanders of survey and design detachments, or as construction engineering technicians in prime power platoons. Select personnel will serve as an assistant White House facilities manager or as commander of a fire fighting headquarters detachment.

(2) 125 D CW2s will serve as geospatial engineering technicians on division geospatial engineer teams, or ASCC geospatial planning cells.

(3) Self-development. The completion of an associate's degree in a related technical field is highly encouraged. Engineer CW2s should pursue training and professional certifications, including project management, construction management, or geospatial engineering.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer CW2s must acquire and master the necessary technical requirements of their assignments, and understand the supporting systems utilized by engineer operations at increasing levels of responsibility. Increased emphasis of the battle staff and the MDMP process is essential for engineer chief warrant officers at this level.

e. Chief warrant officer three development.

(1) Education. ADL engineer warrant officers will attend WOAC not later than 1 year after being promoted to CW3, and must attend that course prior to promotion to CW4. National Guard warrant officers must complete this training prior to promotion to CW3. USAR warrant officers not on the ADL must complete this training prior to selection to CW3. The 120A and 125D WOAC consist of two phases. Phase I is a TRADOC common core prerequisite and must be completed prior to attending the Phase II resident course.

(a) The 120A resident course consists of training on base camp operations and management, the deployable medical systems found in combat support hospitals and Engineer common leader skills. This training prepares 120As for duties at Combat Support Hospitals, Engineer Brigades and Maneuver Enhancement Brigades. The 120A RC course consists of four phases. Phases one (Common Leader Skills) and three (Theater of Operations Vertical Construction) are distance learning; Phases two (Base Camp Operations) and four (deployable medical system training) are resident.

(b) The 125D resident course consists of advanced technical training in management skills required to plan and direct the five disciplines of geospatial engineering; data generation/management, data dissemination, terrain analysis, geospatial services, and visual support. This training prepares 125Ds for duties at geospatial planning cells and echelons above corps assignments.

(c) Select Engineer warrant officers will be nominated to attend ILE as a broadening opportunity and will subsequently serve in division, corps, NATO and DA-level assignments. Engineer warrant officers should attend the Joint Engineer Operations Course as part of their staff course PME requirement beginning YG12.

(2) Assignments.

(a) Key developmental.

(1) 120 A CW3s will serve in Engineer brigades, combat support hospitals, and maneuver enhancement brigades.

(2) 125 D CW3s will serve in an OIC position of a corps geospatial engineer team, as the geospatial technical expert in a geospatial planning cells, or as the geospatial technical expert at echelons above corps units.

(b) Developmental/broadening.

(1) 120 A CW3s will serve as a White House facilities manager or service school instructor.

(2) 125 D CW3s will serve as a service school instructor at the School of Geospatial Intelligence.

(3) Engineer chief warrant officers at this grade can expect broadening assignments to include duties as service school instructors, training/doctrine developers, and training team or provincial reconstruction team members.

(3) Self-development. Engineer CW3s should pursue a bachelors of Science degree in a related technical field prior to eligibility for promotion for CW4. Professional certifications in project management are also highly desired for further success.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer CW3s must acquire and master the necessary technical requirements of their assignments, and understand the supporting systems utilized by engineer operations at increasing levels of responsibility. A broadening assignment is important as the Engineer chief warrant officer matriculates to the senior technical advisor positions at senior warrant officer levels.

f. Chief warrant officer four development.

(1) Education. ADL Engineer CW4s will attend the WOSC conducted at the Warrant Officer Career College no later than 1 year after their promotion to CW4. This common core resident course prepares warrant officers to serve in staff positions at the highest levels. Officers must attend the WOSC prior to promotion to CW5. After 1 year time in grade, CW4s are eligible to attend the WOSSC.

(a) WOSC is an ARNG requirement for promotion to CW4. At this time, WOAC is an Army Reserve prerequisite for promotion to CW4.

(b) Engineer warrant officers will be provided additional follow-on functional technical training relating to their technical specialties beginning in FY12 and this will be a requirement for award of MEL 4.

(2) Assignments.

(a) Key nominative developmental assignments.

(1) 120 A CW4s can expect assignments as staff officers at the division and corps level, USAES Engineer Personnel Development Office, service school instructors/training developers, warrant officer assignments officer, or as a construction engineering technician in a prime power battalion.

(2) 125 D CW4s will be assigned as course administrators and instructors at the School of Geospatial Intelligence or as the geospatial technical expert for Joint commands.

(b) Developmental and broadening assignments. Engineer chief warrant officers at this grade may be considered for training team or provincial reconstruction team members.

(3) Self-development. Engineer CW4s should continue to pursue a bachelors of science degree in a related technical field prior to selection to CW5.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer CW4s should continue self-development efforts to enhance expertise in all aspects of geospatial engineering. Self-development should include correspondence courses, civilian education and institutional training. Engineer CW4s should devote time to obtaining a graduate-level degree.

g. Chief warrant officer five development.

(1) Education. CW5s will attend the WOSSC. ADL warrant officers will complete this course no later than 1 year after promotion to CW5. National Guard warrant officers must complete this course prior to promotion to CW5. Army Reserve warrant officers will complete this course prior to promotion to CW5. The WOSSC is the capstone for warrant officer PME. It is a branch immaterial resident course conducted at the Warrant Officer Career College. The WOSSC provides master-level chief warrant officers with a broader Army level perspective required for assignment to CW5 level positions as technical, functional and branch systems integrators and trainers at the highest organizational levels. Instruction focuses on "How the Army Runs" and provides up-to-date information on Army level policy, programs, and special items of interest. CW4s are eligible to attend the WOSSC. CW5s will also be encouraged to attend the PCC at Fort Leonard Wood to receive a regimental update.

(2) Assignments.

(a) Key nominative, branch immaterial assignments. Branch immaterial assignments at this grade could include the DCS, G-1 warrant officer personnel policy integrator, senior warrant officer advisor, CG, TRADOC DCS, G-3/5/7, and warrant officer career center staff.

(b) Developmental and broadening assignments.

(1) 120 A CW5s will serve as the regimental chief warrant officer, commander of the Prime Power School or as the engineering control officer at NATO's military headquarters.

(2) 125 D CW5s will serve as the geospatial engineer technical advisor for the Engineer Research and Development Center at the Topographic Engineer Center (TEC) or as the senior geospatial engineering technician for doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership, and education, personnel, and facilities integration at the MSCoE. Select CW5s can also expect to receive assignments consistent with the needs of the Army, such as service school instructors or as HQDA staff members.

(3) Engineer CW5s will serve the remainder of their careers in positions designated for that grade. The regimental chief warrant officer is a capstone, nominative assignment for an Engineer warrant officer and should be considered MOS immaterial.

(3) Self-development. Engineer CW5s should continue self-development efforts to enhance expertise in all aspects of engineering missions and support.

(4) Desired experience. Engineer CW5s should attend the Army's Force Management School to become familiar with the constitutional, statuary, and regulatory basis for the Army and the capabilities that must be sustained through the management of doctrine, organization, training, material, leadership, and education, personnel, facilities. Engineer CW5s must become familiar with Army and Engineer organizational roles, functions, and missions, especially at the ACOM and Army staff levels and with the force management process.



Figure 13-2. AA/ RC 120A Engineer warrant officer development





Figure 13-3. AC/ RC 125D Engineer warrant officer development


13-5. Engineer Reserve Component officers

a. Officer development model. The officer development model for the RC officers is the same as the AA officers except for these unique aspects of RC officer development and career management. The Engineer RC officer plays an important role in the Engineer Regiment and in the USACE. The wartime effectiveness of the Engineer Regiment is dependent upon the quality of the Engineer officers in USAR and ARNG units, as well as the IRR. Additionally, the quantity and quality of training that RC Engineer officers receive prior to mobilization dictates to a large extent their wartime effectiveness. RC Engineer officer development, in general, should parallel that of their AA counterparts. Even though RC Engineer officers are limited by geographical and positional considerations, they should strive for assignments in engineer units and maneuver enhancement brigades that yield the same developmental and competitive opportunities as their AA counterparts. There may not be a sufficient number of positions within a geographic area to allocate Engineer assignments. Therefore, planned rotation into progressively challenging engineer positions by RC commands is essential to producing the best qualified and trained Engineer officer. To meet professional developmental objectives in the Army Reserve, Engineer officers must be willing work with their personnel management officer team to rotate between TPU, the IRR, the IMA program, DIMA, Joint Reserve units, the IRR Augmentee (IRR-A) program, AGR programs, and even apply for short active duty tours. National Guard engineer officers should contact their state officer manager or their senior branch officer to ensure they can meet their professional development objectives. These transfers are necessitated by geographical considerations, as well as the need to provide as many officers as possible the opportunity to serve with troops in leadership and staff positions, or to complete PME requirements. Transfers within a component will normally be temporary, and should not be seen as impacting negatively on an officer's career. The success of an RC engineer officer is not measured by length of Service in any one component or control group, but by the officer's breadth of experience, assignments, duty performance, training, and adherence to branch requirements. Officers may elect to apply for a FA beginning at the rank of captain. Engineer officers in the IRR may find assignments in TPU IMA, DIMA positions in AA organizations, installations or HQDA agencies, tours of active duty in support of administrative support, contingency operations in support of administrative support annual training, or temporary tour on active duty. Assignments in the IRR can also be used for completing PME requirements. When IRR engineers are mobilized they are expected to complete Engineer Officer Refresher Course in residence before deploying.

b. General career development. As much as possible, RC officers should not be assigned to fill engineer SI coded positions until they have completed the training and have been classified with the SI. The USAES supports FORSCOM and the states in the development of Engineer officers and the training of engineer units in the USAR and ARNG. Through the Chief, NGB, the UAES also provides technical assistance to the respective State AG for the career management of ARNG Engineer officers. In general, qualifications and professional development are similar to AA officers. The RC Engineer officer career map is at figure 13-2 .

(1) Award of Engineer SIs for ARNG officers. ARNG officers, regardless of status, seeking award of the SIs must apply to the HR organization of their affiliated state, in coordination with the USAES. Each individual state, territory, and the District of Columbia holds final authority for the SI designation of affiliated commissioned officers, dependent on the needs of the state and the organization where the officer is currently assigned. Exceptions to policy will be handled by each state on a case-by-case basis, in coordination with the ARNG. Documents substantiating successful completion of education and experience should be included with the designation request (usually DA Form 4187 ). Award of the Engineer SIs to ARNG officers will be based on a combination of educational instruction and experience in qualified positions (see AR 611-1 ).

(2) Award of the Engineer SIs for USAR officers. SIs are awarded by area commanders and CG, U.S. Army Reserve Personnel Center (see AR 611-1 ).

c. Lieutenant development.

(1) Education. RC Engineer lieutenants must successfully complete Engineer BOLC B by the end of the second year (USAR) or 18 months (ARNG) of commissioned Service.

(2) Assignment. RC Engineer lieutenants will serve in leadership and Engineer staff positions at the company and battalion level for a minimum of 18-24 months.

(3) Self-development. Same as the AA.

(4) Desired experience. Same.

d. Captain development.

(1) Education. RC Engineer captains must successfully complete the ECCC through either the RC or residence courses.

(2) Assignment. RC Engineer captains will serve in at least one primary Engineer staff assignment for no less than 24 months, and additionally should serve as an Engineer company commander. Additional developmental assignments that will increase the basic warfighting competency of the officer should be sought if available.

(3) Self-development. Same.

(4) Desired experience. Same.

e. Major development.

(1) Education. RC Engineer majors will successfully complete at least ILE Common Core through RC DL, RC inactive duty training, or residence courses.

(2) Assignment. RC Engineer majors will serve as an Engineer primary staff officer at the battalion or brigade level for no less than 24 months. Other jobs may include Director of Public Works, centralized furnishings management office, and division engineer.

(3) Self-development. Same.

(4) Desired experience. Same.

f. Lieutenant colonel development.

(1) Education. RC Engineer lieutenant colonels must complete ILE Common Core for promotion to colonel. They are encouraged to attend either the resident SSC or complete the nonresident Army War College.

(2) Assignment. RC Engineer lieutenant colonels will serve a minimum of 24 months in at least one Engineer primary staff officer billet at the brigade or higher level. The most competitive and highly-qualified RC Engineer lieutenant colonels will have the opportunity to compete for RC Engineer battalion command selection. Other jobs may include Director of Public Works, centralized furnishings management office, and division engineer.

(3) Self-development. Same.

(4) Desired Experience. Same.

g. Colonel development.

(1) Education. RC Engineer colonels should successfully complete the resident or nonresident SSC or senior military fellowship.

(2) Assignment. RC Engineer colonels will serve a minimum of 12 months in a colonel-level senior staff officer position. They should strive for command selection to an Engineer brigade or maneuver enhancement brigade.

(3) Self-development. Same.

(4) Desired experience. Same.



Figure 13-4. RC Engineer officer development


13-6. Reserve Component warrant officer

Additional unique aspects of RC warrant officer development and career management can be found in paragraphs 7-9 , 7-14 , and 7-17 .

Chapter 14

Chemical Branch

14-1. Introduction

a. Purpose of the Chemical branch. The CM branch is aligned under the maneuver support functional group in the operations functional category, and is focused primarily on the development, integration, and employment of tactical capabilities that identify, prevent, and mitigate the entire range of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats and hazards through CBRN operations; that support operational and strategic objectives to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) through nonproliferation, counterproliferation, and CBRN consequence management; and allows our sister Services and unified action partners to operate safely in a CBRN environment. Additional functions include scientific, developmental, and material management activities for these programs. The branch provides the Army with a highly trained corps of CBRN experts to advise commanders and staffs at all levels in DOD. Officers assigned to the CM branch carry branch code 74.

b. Proponent information. The branch proponent is the Commandant, U.S. Army Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear School (USACBRNS), Ft Leonard Wood, MO, phone (573) 563-7691, email leon.usacbrnsdotmlpf@conus.army.mil .

c. Unique functions performed by Chemical branch. CBRN officers plan, employ, and coordinate CBRN systems from platoon level through corps and Joint Task Forces in support of joint and unified land operations. These systems include CBRN reconnaissance systems, warning and reporting systems, CBRN protection systems, and CBRN decontamination systems. CBRN officers coordinate assets and efforts in support of CBRN operations; provide security cooperation and partnership and threat reduction cooperation support; conduct WMD-interdiction operations, WMD-offensive operations, WMD-elimination operations, CBRN active defense, CBRN passive defense, and CBRN consequence management. CBRN officers work at all levels of command to advise and provide protection from the range of CBRN threats and hazards. CBRN officers are generally the sole subject matter experts on CBRN operations within their organization. CBRN Soldiers and units are recognized for their unique mission capabilities that include expertise in: planning, preparing, executing, and assessing CBRN operations within the range of military operations in a CBRN environment; sensitive site exploitation; CBRN reconnaissance; CBRN decontamination; CBRN contamination avoidance, protection; and consequence management. These traits make CBRN Soldiers and units invaluable in supporting both foreign and domestic contingency operations. Additionally, CBRN officers perform the following functions and tasks:

(1) Command and lead CBRN units from platoon to brigade, to include:

(a) CBRN platoons (reconnaissance, biological integrated detection systems, and decontamination).

(b) CM companies.

(c) Technical escort companies and teams.

(d) SF CM reconnaissance detachments.

(e) CM battalions and brigades.

(2) Command CM weapons storage and demilitarization activities/installations and ammunition manufacturing and storage activities/installations.

(3) Command and supervise environmental activities.

(4) Serve as CBRN staff officers in tactical through strategic national-level organizations including Army staffs from battalion through Army level and in OSD, joint, other federal departments, and combatant command staffs. As staff officers, CBRN officers plan, prepare, execute, and assess CBRN operations within the range of military operations in a CBRN environment to include: analyzing CBRN threats and hazards; conducting CBRN vulnerability assessments; planning, conducting, and supervising CBRN training and operations; evaluating CBRN technical and tactical intelligence data; planning CBRN reconnaissance and surveillance missions; planning and coordinating resources for decontamination operations; planning and coordinating WMD-elimination operations; and integrating CBRN into the scheme of protection for the force.

(5) Analyze capability requirements, determine gaps, and develop/revise doctrine, organizational structure, training and leader development, personnel, facilities, and material solutions to enhance the current and future regiment.

(6) Serve as CBRN advisors to USAR and ARNG organizations.

(7) Support CBRN protection and CBRN military support of civil authorities. Advise civil, federal, state, and international agencies in CBRN operations and consequence management for incidents involving CBRN materials.

14-2. Officer characteristics required

a. Characteristics required of all officers. All officers are expected to possess the base characteristics that will enable them to develop into agile and adaptive leaders for 21 st century. Our leaders must be grounded in Army Values and the Warrior Ethos, competent in their core proficiencies, and broadly experienced to operate across unified land operations. They must be able to operate in joint, interagency, intergovernmental and multinational (JIIM) environments and leverage capabilities beyond the Army in achieving their objectives. Our officers must be culturally astute and use their awareness and understanding to conduct operations innovatively and courageously to exploit opportunities in the challenges and complexities of the operational environment. They must be dynamic, competent warriors who apply the character attributes and core competencies required of contemporary leaders. Further explanation of these characteristics can be referenced in ADP 3.0, ADRP 6-22, and chapter 3 of this publication.

b. Unique skills.

(1) Decision-making skills. CBRN officers must be able to work in an environment where the volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) of a situation influences the time available for problem analysis but where sound and timely decisions are urgent. Information gained in this environment will vary in its completeness and ambiguity. An ability to operate under stress, make decisions, and act under a variety of conditions is critical to success.

(2) Tactical and technical skills. CBRN officers must be technically proficient with branch and mission-unique equipment, tools, and systems. CBRN mission success requires the proper balance between technical skills and the ability to understand and apply the appropriate tactical skills at the right moment. These skills must be gained and developed through repetitive operational and institutional assignments and continuous professional study and self-development. CBRN officers must not only know their own unique branch skills, tactics, techniques, procedures, and specialized equipment; but they must also know the uniqueness of the units to which they are assigned or are supporting.

c. Unique knowledge.

(1) Officers must possess expert knowledge of CM branch requirements, wide area security/combined arms maneuvers CBRN unit support, and coordination principles. This knowledge includes practical experience in tactics, combined arms operations, and the employment of all assets available to the CM branch, as well as general knowledge of JIIM operations and how the CM Corps supports each of them. Officers gain this knowledge through a logical sequence of broadening assignments, continuous education, training, and experience sustained through mentoring. Individual officers sustain knowledge through institutional training and education, experience gained in operational assignments, and continuous self-development.

(2) Serving as staff and faculty at the USACBRNS allows officers with operating force assignments to share field experience with the school and students. In turn, officers from the generating force return to the operating force with an updated knowledge of doctrinal, training, organizational, leadership, and materiel developments. With such an exchange of knowledge and experience between the field and the USACBRNS, these officers ensure that the CM Corps, sister Services, and the Army are fully prepared to fight and win on the increasingly complex battlefields.

d. Unique attributes.

(1) Personal attributes. CBRN officers must know and routinely execute drills and operate within established standard operating procedures. Officers must be physically fit, flexible, agile, adaptable, and values-based if they, as warfighters, are to lead CBRN Soldiers effectively across the range of military operations.

(2) Multifunctionality. CBRN officers initially will perform duties that are branch oriented; however, as the officer becomes more familiar with systems and their specialty, he or she can expect to be called upon for a wide range of duties including those providing JIIM exposure. Officers must develop and use a diverse set of skills as they move between branch TOE and TDA leadership positions and as they serve in branch/generalist assignments. CBRN officers must be able to design and lead CBRN organizations and personnel that enable the warfighter to retain the highest levels of combat power.

(3) Situational understanding of the operational environment. The ability to quickly judge terrain, weather effects, friendly capabilities, and threat capabilities is vital. This transcends viewing the terrain, analyzing the weather, and knowing the range capability of threat weapon systems and our weapon systems. It is the ability to visualize the area of operations and know how terrain and weather impact threat employment of CBRN weapons and how to optimize CBRN systems in a multidimensional environment.

14-3. Critical officer developmental and broadening assignments

a. Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear officer career development. CBRN officers develop in the operations functional category. A CBRN officer should expect, over the span of a 20 to 30 year career, to be assigned to a variety of units, organizations, and developmental and broadening assignments. An officer will serve in several troop assignments in CBRN and other units from platoon to Army level; CTC; TRADOC service schools; CM weapons storage and demilitarization; DA, DOD, field operating agency, OSD, interagency, joint and combatant command staff positions; and AC assistance to the RC (AC/RC) positions. KD assignments for each grade are listed below. These positions impact the Army and the CBRN mission over the longer term and are especially challenging. Officers should seek one or more of these assignments at each level of their career. (See fig 14-1 for an AC career development model and fig 14-2 for a RC career development model.) Regardless of the assignment, individual success is ultimately tied to performance.

(1) Lieutenant.

(a) Education. Newly commissioned officers will attend the CBRN BOLC at the USACBRNS at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. CBRN BOLC emphasizes leadership, tactics, combined arms operations, maintenance, supply, and physical fitness. Additional AOCs include CBRN decontamination, obscuration operations, hazardous materials, radiological operations, CM and biological warfare agents, and CBRN reconnaissance operations. CBRN lieutenants also undergo training with actual toxic CM agents, biological stimulants, and radioactive sources in the CM Defense Training Facility. Upon graduation lieutenants are DOD certified at the hazardous materials technician level, prepared to lead platoons, and serve as battalion CBRN officers. Lieutenants have the opportunity after BOLC to attend Airborne and other schools if follow-on duty assignments require specific training. Ranger training is authorized for officers with a projected assignment to the 75th Ranger Regiment.

(b) Assignment. BOLC graduates should expect to serve in a variety of positions ranging from battalion-level assistant S3/CBRN officer to CBRN company positions that will develop critical leadership and CM branch skills. KD duty positions include platoon leader (decontamination, CBRN reconnaissance, or Biological Integration Detection System), battalion/squadron staff officer, and company executive officer. These positions build a solid foundation that is the bedrock for the remainder of the officer's career. Assistant team leader in a CM response team and Aide-de-Camp assignments are broadening experiences for lieutenants.

(c) Self-development. Officers who have not completed an undergraduate degree must do so during this point in their careers. The Degree Completion Program enables selected commissioned officers to complete degree requirements at accredited civilian colleges and universities as a resident full-time student. Officers interested in the Degree Completion Program must submit applications through their chain of command to Commander, U.S. Army Human Resources Command (AHRC-OPA-C), 1600 Spearhead Division Road, Fort Knox, KY 40121, no later than 7 months prior to the requested Degree Completion Program start date.

(d) Desired experience. The focus during the lieutenant years is to acquire and refine leadership and branch-related coordination, logistics, and administrative skills. Inculcation of the Warrior Ethos and Army core values is essential in the development of young officers. CBRN lieutenants should also become proficient in both common core and branch tasks. Before promotion to captain, officers should possess an in-depth knowledge of unified land operations as well as knowledge of CBRN operations. Experiences on a contingency deployment or other real-world operational mission are invaluable in preparing lieutenants for detachment/company-level command in an expeditionary Army.

(2) Captain.

(a) Education. Officers will attend the CBRN Captains Career Course (CBRN C3 to prepare for detachment/company-level command and duties in brigade or higher-level staff positions. Officers have another opportunity to attend Airborne and other military schools en route from the career course to a follow-on assignment Officers are strongly encouraged to participate in a master's degree program offering enrollment while attending the CBRN C3. If not already certified, captains receive incident commander hazardous materials level certification as part of the CBRN C3.

(b) Key developmental assignments.

(1) Following attendance at the CBRN C3, captains should expect to serve as a CBRN officer in a BCT or brigade-level command. In this position, the officer has a major impact on the CBRN preparedness of that unit.

(2) Command is highly desirable for professional development in the CM Corps. CBRN company command opportunities are few and, as a result, are highly competitive. Therefore, many CBRN officers strive for branch generalist company commands, such as, battalion and brigade HHCs. Captains should aggressively prepare for and seek detachment/company-level command.

(c) Developmental and broadening assignments. Officers who have served at least 24 months in a branch-coded position, preferably to include company command, can be assigned to positions that round out leadership and technical proficiency listed below:

(1) Division/corps CBRN staff.

(2) Battalion/brigade primary staff.

(3) RC observer controller.

(4) Small group leader.

(5) CTC combat trainers.

(6) Technical escort team leader.

(7) USMA faculty and staff.

(8) ACOM/DRU or joint staff officer.

(9) ROTC staff.

(10) HQDA/Pentagon staff.

(11) USAREC.

(12) Scholarships and internships.

(13) Aide-de-camp.

(14) HRC assignments manager.

(15) Training With Industry.

(16) Instructor, USA Element, Naval Academy.

(17) Contingency support detachment, White House military office.

(d) Self-development. An officer should dedicate time to complete the CM Corps Professional Reading Program to gain a historical perspective on tactical, strategic and leadership challenges of interest to CM Corps Soldiers.

(e) Desired experience. Officers may opt to change their anytime after their 4 th year of service through the VTIP process conducted by HRC. The VTIP panel will approve transfers between AOCs based on needs of the Army and the suitability of officers to serve in a functional category. The three functional categories are - operations, operations support, and force sustainment. The change is based upon the needs of the Army, officer preference, military experience, and civilian schooling. A limited number of officers will be accessed into the AAC upon completion of detachment/company command. Captains should continue to gain an in-depth understanding of unified land operations and become proficient in all captain-level common core and branch tasks for CBRN officers. These tasks provide the foundation of CBRN operations and leadership required to effectively serve in the branch at increasing levels of responsibility. Captains require a working knowledge of command principles, battalion and brigade-level staff operations, and combat power/CBRN operations at the battalion to brigade levels.

(3) Major.

(a) Education. CBRN officers who remain in the operations functional category will serve in branch, functional group (maneuver support), or branch/FA generalist assignments. Their primary professional development objective is to continue to strengthen CM Corps tactical skills and leadership; at this level officers begin to attain JIIM experience and exposure. Majors will compete for the opportunity to attend the resident ILE common core and Advanced Operations and Warfighting Course; successful completion qualifies for the award of JPME I. Note. Completion of ILE is required prior to 15 th year of commissioned service. Completion of ILE is also required to remain competitive for promotion to lieutenant colonel.

(b) Key developmental assignments. CBRN majors should aggressively seek one of the following assignments:

(1) Battalion/ brigade S3.

(2) Battalion XO.

(3) Deputy division CBRN staff officer.

(4) Joint staff officer (refer to para 3-13 for information on Joint assignments).

(5) Major level commander.

(6) Separate brigade CBRN officer.

(7) Brigade primary staff officer.

(c) Developmental and broadening assignments.

(1) Division/CORPS/ASCC CBRN staff officer.

(2) ACOM/DRU/HQDA staff officer.

(3) TRADOC staff officer.

(4) SF Group CBRN officer.

(5) USMA faculty and staff.

(6) CTC combat trainer.

(7) RC observer/controller.

(8) Command and General Staff College.

(9) HRC assignments manager.

(10) ROTC.

(11) Maneuver enhancement brigade.

(12) CM/biological arms control/verification.

(13) USAREC.

(d) Self-development. Majors should continue self-development efforts to become experts in all aspects of the CM Corps and joint and multinational operations. Self-development should include correspondence courses (such as the Defense Strategy Course) and civilian education. Officers should devote time to a professional reading program to broaden their warfighting perspective. Officers should strive to complete a master's degree or equivalent at this point in their career. CBRN officers should also seek opportunities to attend the CBRN Senior Staff Planners Course at the USACBRNS. The course focuses on providing CBRN organizational capabilities, real-time threat and plans briefings, targeting information, protection, counter improvised explosive devices threats, environmental concerns, combating WMD, homeland security information sharing, planning at division and higher headquarters and existing intelligence on the current conflicts.

(e) Desired experience. For requirements at this grade, officers should have completed multiple developmental assignments as a major and assignments in CM branch-coded positions for at least 24 months, and ILE.

(4) Lieutenant colonel.

(a) Education.Selection for SSC is extremely competitive. Officers are selected to either attend SSC in residency or to complete SSC through the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course. A HQDA board centrally selects both of these courses. Self-development objectives should continue to build warfighting and branch technical expertise as well as support the officer's FA when applicable. Officers selected for lieutenant colonel in the operations functional category should seek assignments of greater responsibility in the branch, functional group, and branch/FA generalist positions. The objective for lieutenant colonel assignments is to seek positions that provide greater contributions to the branch and the Army that continue to develop overall JIIM skills.

(b) Key developmental assignments.The pinnacle assignment for CBRN lieutenant colonels is battalion commander. CBRN lieutenant colonels are centrally selected by a DA board to serve as commanders of CBRN battalions, brigade special troops battalions, training battalions, ammunition plants, CM facilities, depots, garrisons and recruiting battalions. Commands are typically 24 months in length. In addition, CBRN lieutenant colonels are chosen to serve as division CBRN officers by the Chief of CM at the USACBRNS. Division CBRN officer assignments are typically 24 months for CONUS and Korea. A SAMS assignment is considered KD after completion of the utilization tour. KD assignments include:

(1) Lieutenant colonel-level command.

(2) ACOM/ASCC/DRU, HQDA, OSD staff officer.

(3) Joint staff officer (refer to para 3-13 for information on Joint assignments).

(4) Division CBRN officer.

(5) Brigade DCO.

(6) SAMS.

(c) Developmental and broadening assignments.Desirable developmental assignments for CBRN lieutenant colonels include:

(1) Corps/ASCC CBRN staff.

(2) TRADOC staff.

(3) ROTC Professor of Military Science.

(4) Assignments Branch Chief HRC.

(5) CM/biological arms control/verification.

(6) Inspector General.

(7) Command and Staff College faculty and staff.

(8) 01C positions in maneuver enhancement brigade and division.

(9) USMA faculty and staff.

(d) Desired experience.Lieutenant colonels should have successfully completed requirements as a major as well as assignments as a lieutenant colonel in CM branch-coded positions for at least 24 months.

(5) Colonel.

(a) The primary objective for this grade is optimal application of a colonel's tactical and technical capabilities and executive and leadership skills in those positions that best support the OSD, combatant command, and multinational force requirements.

(b) CBRN colonels are assigned to command and senior staff positions in a wide variety of branch and branch/FA generalist positions.

(c) Key developmental assignments. The following assignments are considered KD for CBRN colonels:

(1) Colonel-level command.

(2) ACOM/DRU, HQDA, OSD.

(3) Joint staff officer (refer to chap 3-13 for information on Joint assignments).

(4) Corps or ASCC CBRN officer.

(5) Assistant Commandant, USACBRNS.

(6) Combatant Command CBRN officer.

(d) Developmental and broadening assignments .

(1) TRADOC staff officer.

(2) CM/biological arms control/verification.

(3) USMA faculty and staff.

(4) 01C coded positions in corps and ASCC.

b. Branch/functional area generalist assignments. Officers above the rank of lieutenant can expect to serve in branch/FA generalist assignments that may or may not be directly related to the CM branch. As the inventory of CBRN officers dictates, the opportunity to serve in positions such as ROTC instructor, recruiting command, and Inspector General may be available.

c. Joint assignments-field grade. CBRN officers can expect to be considered for joint duty assignments worldwide. After assignment to other KD positions, majors and lieutenant colonels should aggressively seek opportunities for joint qualification. Joint experience is important to the Army and professionally develops officers for advancement into senior leadership positions. At this point in their career, officers should be working toward JPME II qualification. Joint qualification is a benchmark qualification for promotion to colonel. Refer to paragraph 3-13 for information on Joint assignments.

d. Other assignments. CM branch officers may be assigned to organizations and duties beyond those indicated above. These other assignments may include White House/Congressional fellowships, National Security Council duty, United Nations duty, and CM branch representative at Allied service schools. The spectrum of possible assignments is large. These assignments can be characterized as highly responsible and important, requiring mature, skilled, and well-grounded officers. Officers should continue to broaden their experiences by also serving in JIIM assignments as well as functional group assignments (Maneuver Support).

e. Army Acquisition Corps. Qualified CBRN officers may request accession into the Army Acquisition Corps. An annual Army Acquisition Corps accession board selects a small number of CBRN officers following successful completion of command. These officers are managed as Army Acquisition Corps (FA 51) officers and work strictly within the acquisition arena in the Force Sustainment functional category for the rest of their careers. An Army Acquisition Corps officer's career development is focused toward serving as a program manager or as a commander of an acquisition command. Throughout their acquisition career, they continue as members of the CM Corps Regiment. This link between the CM Corps and Army Acquisition Corps should be strong so that the best possible CBRN-related equipment and systems are developed and procured.

f. Advanced civil schooling. Some CM Corps positions require advanced degrees. An advanced degree can provide additional opportunities for select assignments. The corps annually sends officers to graduate school to obtain advanced science degrees in disciplines, such as chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and environmental engineering. Selection is strongly tied to the manner of performance, undergraduate grade point average (GPA), graduate record examination scores, and the individual officer's career timeline. Officers incur a service obligation of 3 years for each year of school in accordance with AR 350-100. Upon graduation, officers will serve a follow-on utilization tour in a validated position for 2 or 3 years. (Further details on the Advanced Civilian Schooling Program can be found in AR 621-1 .)

g. Additional military schooling. Officers have additional opportunities to become proficient in several areas that provide ASIs. Some of these programs and courses are: CBRN Senior Staff Planners Course, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), Technical Escort/L3, Stryker NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle/L6, and CBRN Responder/R1.

h. Branch detail officers. The following applies to branch officers who are detailed:

(1) Under the branch detail program, some AG, Signal, Finance, MP, Transportation, Military Intelligence, Ordnance, and Quartermaster Corps officers are detailed to recipient branches from three to 5 years. As a recipient branch, the CM Corps receives officers each year from donor branches to fill its lieutenant authorizations. See AR 614-100 for specific details on the branch detail program.

(2) Lieutenants detailed to the CM Corps follow the same career development path as basic branch CBRN lieutenants. They can expect opportunities to serve at the battalion level as an assistant S3/CBRN officer and in platoon leader and executive officer positions at the company level. These officer development opportunities are the foundation for successful careers in every branch of the Army. At the end of the detail period, officers revert to their basic branch. These officers normally attend a transition course sponsored by their basic branch before serving subsequent assignments. (See chap 3 for additional information concerning the branch detail program.)



Figure 14-1. AA Chemical officer development


14-4. Assignment preferences and precedence

a. Preferences. The CM branch has diverse assignment opportunities that allow for numerous career development paths. The professional development goal of CM branch officers is to produce and sustain highly-qualified technically, tactically, and operationally oriented officers to lead the CM branch in combat and on other assigned missions. Assignments in the CM branch that provide experiences on a contingency deployment or other real-world operational mission are particularly important in developing leaders in an expeditionary Army. Requirements for individuals in the Married Army Couples Program are listed in AR 614-100 and requirements for the Exceptional Family Member Program are listed in AR 608-75 . All family concerns for individuals in these programs will be considered by assignment officers to support these individuals.

b. Precedence. Assignment to developmental leadership positions will have precedence, although there is flexibility on the sequence of assignments. Typically, CM branch officers should seek assignments in the following order: CBRN BOLC, battalion staff (as an assistant S3/CBRN officer), platoon leader, CBRN C3, BCT/brigade staff, detachment/company command, post-command assignment, battalion S3 or XO or brigade S3 (as a major), ILE, JIIM assignments, HQDA staff assignment, battalion-level command, division CBRN officer, SSC, JIIM assignments, HQDA staff assignment, brigade-level command, and Corps or ASCC CBRN officer.

14-5. Duration of critical officer life-cycle assignments

a. Key chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear positions. At the company grade level, because of the wide variety of assignments, no one quantitative standard will define success. The most important objective for the CBRN officer is to become versatile and proficient in the full range of CBRN operations. Captains should strive to serve as a company or detachment commander for a minimum of 12 months, with a goal of 18 months. Majors should seek to serve in an S3 and/or XO position for 12 to 24 months. Selected lieutenant colonels and colonels will serve 2 years in battalion and brigade commands. Colonels selected for garrison command have command tours of 2 years in length, with an option of a third year.

b. Chemical branch life-cycle. Figure 14-1 displays a CM branch life-cycle with typical developmental assignments.

14-6. Requirements, authorizations, and inventory

a. Goal. The goal is to maintain a healthy, viable career path for CBRN officers. To do this the field grade inventory must be optimized in order to meet branch authorizations, to provide sufficient flexibility to support branch/generalist positions, and to provide majors the opportunity to serve as a battalion S3/XO while attempting to stabilize for 3 years.

b. Officer Personnel Management System implementation. The numbers of authorized CBRN billets, by grade, will vary as force structure decisions are made and actions to implement them are taken. Officers desiring additional information on CM branch authorizations or inventory are encouraged to contact the personnel development office at the USACBRNS.

14-7. Key officer life-cycle initiatives for Chemical Corps

a. Structure. The Army will make changes to the structure of CBRN organizations through the Total Army Analysis process. Other minor changes are possible due to the iterative nature of the restructuring and recoding process.

b. Acquire. Officers will continue to be accessed into the CM branch through the USMA, ROTC, and OCS. Accessions are based on the needs of the Army and officer preference. Because of the lack of branch-specific civil schooling and opportunities for relevant experience, there will be few opportunities for direct commissioning in the CM branch.

c. Distribute. CM branch officers will continue to rotate between TOE and TDA units in CONUS and OCONUS with a goal of longer assignments at one station.

(1) Stabilized installation assignments. Officers assigned to installations with ample professional development opportunities may be stabilized for extended periods. Some company grade officers may be offered the opportunity to attend CBRN C3, and return to their initial installation.

(2) Life-cycle units. Officers at all levels assigned to life-cycled units (generally the SBCTs and BCTs) will remain in the unit for a minimum of 3 years. Branch detailed officers will remain in their detail branch until after completion of the assignment to the BCT.

(3) Cyclic units. The majority of the installations will be managed on a cyclic manning system. Replacements will be sent to these units and installations periodically to maintain readiness of the units. Tour lengths and developmental positions opportunities can vary. Branch detail officers will remain on standard branch detail timelines.

d. Deploy. CM Corps officers are warriors who remain personally and professionally prepared to deploy worldwide at all times. Whether assigned to deployable TOE units with high levels of readiness or fixed-site TDA organizations, all CM Corps officers must be deployable to accomplish missions across the range of military operations. CBRN officers may deploy at any time with their units to deter potential enemies or adversaries and to protect national interests or as individuals to support joint and multinational operations in stability or defense support of civil authorities. CM Corps officers must prepare themselves and their families for this most challenging life-cycle function.

e. Sustain.

(1) Promotion. CM branch officers will compete for promotion only within the Operations functional category. Knowledge, skills, experience, duty performance, and adherence to branch requirements are all factors that influence promotion. Promotion rates will be determined by Army needs/DOPMA goals.

(2) Command. CM branch officers will continue to be centrally selected for battalion and brigade-level command. CBRN officer command opportunities are in the operations category. Commands are located in four functional categories: operations, strategic support, recruiting and training, and installation. Officers have the option of selecting the category or categories in which they desire to compete for command.

(3) Officer evaluation report. The OER will reinforce the linkage between officer development and OPMS. Starting with captain, the rater will recommend the rated officer for the functional category which best suits his or her abilities and interests.

f. Develop. Officer development will continue to occur through a methodical sequence of progressive assignments in TOE units with troops, staff/TDA assignments, and institutional training assignments. Self-development continues to be an essential component of officer development. The goal is to professionally develop officers to expertly employ CBRN assets and have knowledge of maneuver skills in support of combined, joint, and multinational/coalition operations. Development occurs through the Army and joint school systems as well. Other officer development areas include advanced civilian schooling to support the needs of the Army and individual preferences.

g. Separate. The officer separation process remains unchanged.

14-8. Branch transfer

a. All officers desiring to transfer into the CM Branch must follow the guidance provided in the CBRN officer branch-transfer policy memorandum (available upon request).

b. This policy intends to assist officers in the rank of first lieutenant through non-promotable major who reclassify to AOC 74. Officers reclassifying into AOC 74 will receive CBRN technical training while limiting redundancy of previously received tactical (common core, or other) training. The AOC granting authority will award AOC 74 based on completion of CBRNC3.

c. Officers in the rank of major (promotable) and above are considered for branch transfer on a case-by-case basis. Officers may request a grade waiver exception to policy for 74A branch transfer. All requests for grade waiver exception to policy must be approved in writing by the Commandant, USACBRNS.

14-9. Chemical Reserve Component officers

a. General career development. RC CBRN officer development objectives essentially parallel those planned for their AA counterparts. Company grade officers must develop a strong foundation through assignments in their branch before broadening begins. The U.S. Army RC CBRN officer plays a vital role in the CM Corps mission. The RC comprises the majority of all CBRN units and personnel associated with the CM Corps force structure. Therefore, interaction and interoperability between the components is essential. Reserve officers commissioned into the CM Corps are designated branch code 74 (CM) by the Commander, HRC. See chapter 7 for guidance on RC officer development.

b. Branch developmental opportunities.

(1) RC CBRN officers should strive for CBRN assignments that yield the same developmental opportunities as their AA counterparts, while understanding that certain assignment opportunities may often be constrained by the geographic dispersion of units and positions. Therefore, planned rotation into progressively challenging CBRN positions by RC commands is essential to producing the best-qualified CBRN officer.

(a) To meet professional development objectives in the USAR, CBRN officers must be willing to serve in the following Army Reserve categories: TPU, the IRR, the IMA, Army Reserve Element, and the AGR programs.

(b) Professional development objectives in the ARNG differ from the USAR in that ARNG officers serve in a variety of assignments within their own states force structure. ARNG officers also have an opportunity to apply for and serve in Military Technician Programs and the Title 32 or Title 10 AGR Programs.

(c) Transfers between RC categories are necessitated by geographical considerations, and the need to provide as many officers as possible the opportunity to serve with troops in leadership and staff positions. Such transfers will normally be temporary, and should not be seen as impacting negatively on the officer's career. The success of an RC CBRN officer is not measured by length of service in any one category, but the officer's breadth of experience, duty performance, and adherence to branch development goals. Officers may elect to apply for a FA beginning at the rank of captain. AGR officers will be boarded and accessed into a valid assignment by HRC. The Army Reserve AGR program is currently open to CBRN second lieutenant to major applicants. For additional guidance on RC officer development, see chapter 7 .

(2) CBRN officers in the IRR may find assignments in reinforcement units, IMA positions in AC organizations, installations, or HQDA agencies, as well as tours of active duty for special work, annual training, or temporary tour on active duty. Servicemembers are authorized to complete their PME requirements while serving in the IRR and IMA.

(3) Typical assignments may include the following:

(a) TPU positions in CBRN units, CBRN positions in non-CBRN units, or TPU branch immaterial positions.

(b) IMA positions that provide officers the opportunity to train and serve in 74 or branch immaterial assignments typically in support of AC commands or structure.

(c) Counterpart training program.

(d) Positions in Army Reserve Elements.

(e) AGR tours where AGR officers serve full-time in support of either the ARNG or USAR. Officers receive similar benefits as AA officers, including the opportunity for retirement after 20 years of active Federal service.

c. Life-cycle development model. Professional development requirements are normally satisfied by attendance at military schools combined with planned, progressive assignments in CBRN units or positions. The RC life-cycle development model for CBRN officers is shown in figure 14-2 . In order for a CBRN officer to achieve the desired branch experience at each grade, the length of service in a given position is not the focus; the key is assignment diversity and sufficient time served during each assignment to develop branch competence. The following paragraphs describe how company and field grade RC officers may gain and maintain CM branch experience throughout a career. The desired goal for CBRN officer assignments is at least one assignment in a CM branch-coded position for a total of 24 months at the company grade level and at least two assignments in a CM branch-coded position for a total of 48 months at the field grade level. Officers should pursue the following experiences:

(1) Lieutenant.

(a) Newly commissioned officers branched CM will attend CBRN BOLC Phase III at the USACBRNS, Fort Leonard Wood, MO. CBRN BOLC prepares lieutenants to lead platoons and serve as battalion CM officers. During CBRN BOLC, CM lieutenants also undergo instruction with actual toxic CM agents, biological simulants and radioactive sources in the CM Defense Training Facility. USAR lieutenants must complete CBRN BOLC by the end of their 2nd year of commissioned service. ARNG officers must report to CBRN BOLC by the end of 18 months commissioned service or request waiver from NGB.

(b) A baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university is required for promotion to captain.

(c) Officers should seek assignments as platoon leaders, company XOs, or battalion assistant S3s/CBRN officers. These positions build a strong foundation for subsequent development as a CBRN officer.

(d) Lieutenants should also become proficient in common core tasks.

(2) Captains.

(a) All officers should complete a CCC, preferably the resident CBRN C3 at Fort Leonard Wood, MO.

(b) Officers who have completed the CBRN BOLC or other branch basic BOLC III and are unable to attend the resident CBRN C3 may receive credit by attending the RC CBRN C3 that consists of a combination of distance learning course work and resident training at the USACBRNS.

(c) Officers should seek assignments or experience equivalent to brigade/group-level CBRN officer or other brigade-level staff positions. Company command is highly desirable for continued professional development. The survey team leader on a WMD-civil support team is a very desirable developmental assignment in the National Guard.

(d) CBRN captains should continue to become proficient in common core tasks. An officer should also dedicate time to complete the CM Corps Professional Reading Program to gain a historical perspective on tactical, technical, strategic, and leadership challenges of interest to CM Corps Soldiers.

(e) The desired goal for CBRN officer assignments at the company grade level is at least one assignment in a CM branch-coded position for a total of 24 months.

(3) Major.

(a) The key requirement for development and progression at this grade is enrollment in and completion of ILE Common Core.

(b) Field grade officer development paths reflect a greater variety of assignment possibilities. Developmental positions for majors include maneuver enhancement brigade, sustainment brigade, armored cavalry regiment, or group CBRN officer; battalion XO and S3; and division or other major command level staff positions.

(c) CBRN majors should continue self-development efforts to become experts in all aspects of the CM Corps, joint and multinational operations, as well as in a FA when applicable. Time should be devoted to a professional reading program to broaden the warfighting perspective.

(d) Majors should strive to obtain a master's degree from an accredited college or university, but it is not a requirement for promotion to lieutenant colonel.

(e) RC CBRN officers should apply for and if selected participate in USAR additional professional development opportunities, such as the RC National Security Course.

(4) Lieutenant colonel.

(a) ILE Common Core is mandatory for promotion to lieutenant colonel. Note. RC majors must complete ILE Common Core for promotion to lieutenant colonel (see chap 7 ).

(b) Developmental positions include lieutenant colonel-level staff positions, CBRN or other battalion-level commands, RSC staff positions, and operational and functional command staff positions. In the National Guard, state joint force headquarters staff positions and division CBRN officer positions are available and desirable. Self-development objectives should continue to build warfighting and technical expertise and support the officer's FA when applicable.

(c) Assumption of CBRN position duties at the lieutenant colonel level with no prior CBRN training or experience is discouraged. Fully successful performance generally requires the skills and instincts developed over time by practice of the CBRN segment of the military art. (Refer to chap 7 for a detailed description of RC career management and development.)

(d) RC officers should compete for selection at resident/nonresident SSC.

(5) Colonel.

(a) RC lieutenant colonels must complete ILE Common Core for promotion to colonel (see chap 7 ).

(b) CBRN positions available at this grade include colonel-level commands, Deputy CBRN brigade commander, Deputy Assistant Commandant-USACBRNS, NGB, USARC, DA, and Joint staff.

(c) Assumption of CBRN position duties at the colonel level with no prior CBRN training or experience is discouraged. Successful performance generally requires the skills and instincts developed over time by practice of the CBRN segment of the military art. (Refer to chap 7 for a detailed description of RC career management and development.)



Figure 14-2. RC Chemical officer development


Chapter 15

Military Police Branch

15-1. Unique features of Military Police branch

a. Unique purpose of Military Police branch. MP Corps officers contribute to operational success by leading MP in missions supporting unified land operations including offensive, defensive, stability, and civil support operations. These missions span across the range of military operations from stable peace to major decisive action consisting of lethal or nonlethal engagement against a wide range of threats. The MP Corps' diverse capabilities are fully integrated at every level and mission within the operating environment. MP officers are developed to meet the challenges and demands inherent across the range of military operations. MP officers must understand: campaign plan execution; cultural, ethnic, political, tribal, religious and ideological factors; and the dimensions of war (measured in maturity, timing, infrastructure, and civil authority) that cross through all MP disciplines. MP officer experiences and competencies at each progressive level of operations (tactical, operational, and strategic) are inherent in developing leaders within the MP Corps. The MP Corps has three unique critical disciplines: police operations, detention operations and security and mobility support. These functions are further defined in paragraph b, but introduced here:

(1) Police operations encompass the associated law enforcement activities to control and protect populations and resources to facilitate the existence of a lawful and orderly environment and uphold the rule of law.

(2) Detention operations involves the detainment of a population or group that pose some level of threat to military operations

(3) Security and mobility support is a MP discipline conducted to protect the force, noncombatants, and preserve the commander's freedom of action.

b. Unique disciplines performed by the Military Police branch. MP perform three critical disciplines, which support the range of military operations in all environments. These functions and supporting actions are performed during unified, JIIM operations as well as during operations exclusive to the Army:

(1) Police operations is the primary discipline of MP and shapes the actions and perspective of MP Soldiers and leaders in the conduct and execution of all other disciplines. Police operations encompass the associated law enforcement activities to control and protect populations and resources to facilitate the existence of a lawful and orderly environment and uphold the rule of law. Police operations and the associated skills and capabilities inherent in that discipline provide the fundamental base on which all other MP functions are framed and conducted. Within the military community, the police operations discipline is an enabler of the commander's inherent responsibility to maintain order and discipline within the ranks of their formation. This is the most visible application of the police operations discipline to most Army personnel and includes law enforcement in support of posts, camps, and stations on CONUS and OCONUS U.S. military installations and base camps. It is through the execution of garrison law enforcement that MP gain critical interpersonal skills and technical policing and investigative capabilities critical to police operations in any operational environment. Outside of U.S. territory, MP execute police operations to establish or preserve civil security, civil control, and support the rule of law. In many operations, especially following major combat operations or disasters in which host nation capabilities have been destroyed or rendered ineffective, establishing civil security and civil control are critical to gaining a stable and secure environment. MP execute the police operations discipline early in these operations in conjunction with security and mobility support missions enabled by police intelligence operations, to set conditions for successful transition to stability and eventual transfer of authority to host nation police and security elements. As stability becomes the dominant operation in the operational environment, the focused demand for MP capabilities generally transitions from primarily security and mobility support to police operations. MP units provide police development and transition teams to build police capability within the security force assistance framework as part of a comprehensive effort that includes all instruments of national power. Stability operations typically produce the highest magnitude of requirements for police operations within the context of the range of military operations.

(2) Detention operations are conducted by MP to shelter, sustain, guard, protect, and account for populations (detainees or U.S. military prisoners) as a result of military or civil conflict or to facilitate criminal prosecution. Detention involves the detainment of a population or group that pose some level of threat to military operations. The detention operations discipline ensures the humane treatment of all detainees and is of significant tactical and strategic importance. MP performing detention operations preserve the capturing unit's combat effectiveness by relieving it of the responsibility to secure and care for detainees. Similar to police operations, as stability becomes the dominant operation in the operational environment, a large part of the demand for MP detention capabilities will transition to and focus on advising/mentoring the host nation in reestablishing the host nation's detention capability and capacity to support the rule of law. MP units perform their detention discipline of collecting, evacuating, and securing detainees throughout the area of operations. MP MOS 31E, Correction/Detention Specialist, are specifically trained for detention and confinement of detainees and U.S. military prisoners. Police intelligence operations, the MP integrating function, is conducted during detention operations. The police information collected on analysis, may contribute to the commander's critical information requirements; intelligence-led, time-sensitive operations; or detention strategies necessary to forecast, anticipate, and preempt crime or related disruptive activities to maintain order.

(3) Security and mobility support is a MP discipline conducted to protect the force, noncombatants, and preserve the commander's freedom of action. MP play a critical role in opening a theater and expedite the secure movement of theater resources to ensure commanders receive forces, supplies, and equipment needed to support the operational plan and changing tactical situations. Throughout all aspects of the security and mobility support discipline, MP conduct proactive measures to detect, deter, and defeat threats within the area of operations. During forcible entry operations, MP provide security and mobility support for lodgments near key points of entry in the operational area that offer central access to air, land, and sea transportation hubs. MP also provide security and mobility support during major combat operations to protect the mission command headquarters, equipment, and services essential for mission success as prioritized by the joint force commander or geographic combatant commander. MP provide the joint force commander or geographic combatant commander with a wheeled-armor, mobile fighting force that can move, shoot, and communicate against any threat. Major subtasks associated with the security and mobility support include; movement support to mobility operations, traffic regulation and enforcement, enforcement of main supply route regulations, route reconnaissance, movement of dislocated civilians, resettlement operations, populace and resource control, reconnaissance, surveillance, area and base security, protective services, response force operations, secure supply routes and convoys, antiterrorism, physical security, logistical security and crime prevention. Police intelligence operations, the MP integrating function is integrated throughout security and mobility support. Analysis of the police information collected, may contribute to the commander's critical information requirements; intelligence-led, time-sensitive operations; or policing strategies necessary to forecast, anticipate, and preempt crime or related disruptive activities to maintain order.

c. Unique features of work in the Military Police branch. MP officers work at all levels of command and staff, providing daily interaction with JIIM law enforcement organizations participating in Joint Task Forces and multinational force missions. Additionally, MPs participate in a broad spectrum of protection and contingency operations ranging from security assistance missions to combat operations. MP Soldiers frequently deploy as the contingency force in support of U.S. policy objectives. MP Soldiers and units are recognized for their unique mission capabilities. These capabilities include, but are not limited to: expertise in dealing with the demands of cross-cultural operations, universal acceptability as a force focused on security and safety, and the ability to apply interpersonal communication skills in conflict resolution using minimum force techniques enhanced through practical experience gained during post, camp, and station L&O mission execution. These traits make MP units invaluable in supporting contingency and nation-building assistance operations. Additionally, MP officers will:

(1) Command and control MP, detention, and Criminal Investigation Division (CID) units and organizations.

(2) Provide MP coordination and liaison at all Army, joint, and allied levels, as appropriate.

(3) Serve as host nation police/detention advisors and mentors up to the national level (Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Interior).

(4) Develop doctrine, organizations, and equipment for future MP missions.

(5) Serve as instructors at various pre-commissioning programs, service schools, and service colleges.

(6) Serve as MP advisors and commanders to USAR and ARNG organizations.

15-2. Officer characteristics required

The MP branch requires officers who are skilled in leadership at all levels, knowledgeable in MP tactics, techniques, and procedures, possess strong Army Values, leader attributes and leader skills, can quickly adapt to changing dynamics when dealing with people and encountering complex situations, and fully understand the key leadership actions that must be taken to ensure success. Additionally, there are branch-unique skills, knowledge, and attributes that require professional development.

a. Unique skills. MP officers must possess skill proficiency related to the individual and associated collective tasks that are part of the three MP disciplines. This includes not only knowledge of the tasks, but the ability to execute them under a variety of conditions and at progressive levels of command responsibility. MP officers must be versatile leaders as they deal with complexity in both peace and war where decisions are always critical and high impact, from saving lives, to conducting combat operations, to enforcing laws in a manner that will be upheld under court scrutiny.

(1) Decision-making skills. MP officers often work in an environment where time available for problem analysis is severely constrained, and sound, timely decisions are urgent. Available information in this environment will vary in its completeness and ambiguity. The ability to operate under stress, develop viable courses of action, make decisions, and accomplish the mission regardless of constraints is critical to an MP officer's success.

(2) Human dimension skills. MP officers must develop skills that allow them to deal effectively with various cross-cultural, ethnic and human dimensional attitudes encountered in the majority of MP-related activities. A thorough understanding of these attitudes and emotions is critical to MP success. MP officers deal with a broad range of domestic and international issues that require application of the core human values of fairness, patience, and compassion. Therefore, an effective grasp of the human dimension is pivotal in managing situations of stress or conflict, and in the proper use of conflict resolution or deterrence.

(3) Leadership skills. Effective leadership is the overarching trait required of all MP officers. It summarizes the Army's seven core values of loyalty, duty, respect, selfless-service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. Leaders inspire Soldiers with the will to win and provide purpose, direction, and motivation in all operational environments. MP officers are expected to study the profession, becoming both tactically and technically proficient. Equally important, however, they must continually demonstrate strong character and high ethical standards in order to infuse these traits into their units and Soldiers. Lastly, MP leaders must take responsibility for their decisions, be loyal to superiors, subordinates, and peers, inspire and direct assigned resources toward a purposeful end, and provide a vision that focuses and anticipates the future. The MP officer must constantly refine these skills if he or she is to successfully lead MP Soldiers.

b. Unique knowledge. Army and MP professional development programs produce versatile and competent Soldiers and leaders. The unique aspects of MP knowledge include the development of special qualifications needed to perform such duties as provost marshal (PM), area security/force protection officer, physical security officer, detention, and criminal investigations. To be successful, MP officers must possess a high degree of technical knowledge about how the Army, as well as the MP Corps, functions, and laws and regulations at local, state, federal, and international levels. Knowledge of the Army should include general knowledge of combined arms; joint, interagency, and multinational operations; and how the MP Corps supports each of them. Branch officers must maintain a proper balance between technical skills and the ability to understand and apply the appropriate tactics, techniques, and procedures at the right time and place. These abilities can only be gained and developed through repetitive operational assignments and continuous professional study and self-development. MP officers must have the ability to operate independently and articulate the capabilities of MP Soldiers to others across the full spectrum of military operations.

c. Unique attributes. The skills and knowledge needed to function as an MP officer supplement core attributes required of all Army officers. Army officers are expected to maintain the technical proficiency and flexibility necessary to perform any branch-related mission. However, the nature of the three MP disciplines often demands that MP officers possess certain attributes unique to the MP Corps. The most critical of these unique requirements are:

(1) Personal attributes. MP officers must possess exceptionally high moral and ethical values. The MP mission is to enforce laws, directives, and punitive regulations. This demands that the standards of the MP officer be above reproach. The diversity of MP functions, particularly those associated with collecting, analyzing and disseminating information also require MP officers to continually seek self-improvement across a wide range of skills, from computer applications to interpersonal communications. MP officers have several professional certifications and credentialing opportunities such as Certified Protection Professional, Professional Certified Investigator, Certified Corrections Executive and certified corrections manager; a list of all credentialing and certifications for MP officers can be found on the Credentialing Opportunities On-Line (COOL) Web site ( https://www.cool.army.mil/index.htm ). Finally, MP officers must also recognize the critical importance of physical fitness and personal bearing if as warfighters, they are to lead MP Soldiers effectively across the full range of MP disciplines.

(2) Professional attributes. MP officers must demonstrate professional attributes that reinforce MP Corps values and traditions. Skill proficiency, dedication, teamwork, and flexibility, coupled with fairness and respect for others, highlight the essential traits demanded of every MP Soldier, regardless of rank. These professional attributes form the basis for the trust that the Army has placed in the MP Corps and is reflected in the mission to impartially enforce the law.

(3) Multifunctionality. As MP branch officers progress in their careers, they can expect their assignments to become increasingly diverse. Initially, officers will perform duties related to their branch. Eventually, as the officer becomes more familiar with his or her specialty and the Army, he or she can expect to be called upon to perform a wide range of military duties. This may include serving in various leadership positions, as well as serving in branch/functionally aligned generalist assignments. MP officers may perform duty outside the branch working JIIM opportunities utilizing their unique skills. Some MP officers may perform in a joint, intergovernmental or interagency billet as an expert in protection, working at the Drug Enforcement Administration or Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in countering terrorism (Joint Terrorism Task Force) or in a multifunctional billet such as Secretary of General Staff, Office Chief of Legislative Liaison, and so forth.

15-3. Officer developmental assignments

a. Branch officer key development. MP officers are a part of the Operations functional category. This is an environment which places great emphasis on leading Soldiers. For company grade officers, the focus is on the platoon leader, company or detachment command, BCT staffs, MP brigade and battalion staffs and PM operations officers as key and developmental assignments. In the field grade ranks, the focus is on critical troop-related duty positions such as battalion S3, battalion XO, brigade S3, division deputy PM, detention unit staff, installation DES or PM, or MP-coded division staff positions in the command posts, PM or deputy PM of an installation, and battalion and brigade command. A field grade officer should seek the opportunity for an internship at a large metropolitan police department to broaden the policing skill set. Other professional development assignments include instructor duty at the MP School or one of the senior leadership institutions (Command and General Staff College, USMA, and others), and service on Joint/DOD/Army/ACOM, ASCC, or DRU staffs. SAMS utilization tours are developmental (not key) assignments accomplished after an MP officer attends Command and General Staff College. After completion of a SAMS utilization assignment, the MP officer should spend 12-24 months in MP major KD positions such as battalion or brigade S3/XO or deputy division PM. Regardless of the duty position, individual success is ultimately and inseparably dependent upon performance.

(1) Lieutenant.

(a) Education. The MP lieutenant's first objective is to complete BOLC. BOLC emphasizes leadership, tactics, training operations, maintenance, supply, and physical training. Additional AOCs include MP law and order operations, communication skills, personnel administration, drivers training, and weapons training. Graduates of BOLC possess the technical and tactical skills, physical fitness, and leadership qualities required to successfully lead a platoon. They are familiar with the three disciplines of the MP Corps and are trained on the most critical tasks required of a platoon leader. These officers demonstrate a thorough understanding of and willingness to live by the Army Values and a firm grasp of the attributes, skills, and actions that form the foundation of a competent and confident leader. Following BOLC, selected officers may attend specialized courses, such as the Interservice Nonlethal Individual Weapons Instructors Course, Special Reaction Team, DA Police Academy, Antiterrorism/Force Protection program manager (designed for those engaged in Antiterrorism/Force Protection at brigade-level organizations or higher), and Airborne, Air Assault or Ranger School, to support follow-on assignment requirements and to complement professional development. Key MP Schools include Physical Security, Criminal Antiterrorism and Police Intelligence Management, and Special Reaction Team.

(b) Assignment. The second objective is a branch assignment with troops. Consistent with Army requirements, lieutenants can expect an initial assignment as a platoon leader in an MP company. Platoon leader is a KD assignment. All lieutenants should serve a minimum of 12-18 months as a platoon leader. While serving as a platoon leader, lieutenants should develop a comprehensive understanding of Army operations and military life that will provide a solid foundation for assuming the challenge of company command. Additional skill sets learned as a platoon leader are conducting police operations with their platoons and serving as a duty officer, both of which enhance lieutenants' tactical policing skill set at the platoon level. Beyond a platoon leader assignment, lieutenants should take advantage of opportunities to broaden their technical, tactical and leadership skills in company XO or staff officer positions at battalion or brigade level (MP or BCT) or within an installation PM office. Participation in a combat or contingency deployment or other real-world operational mission is especially valuable in preparing lieutenants for company or detachment command in today's expeditionary Army. Other valuable assignments for MP lieutenants are area security/force protection officer, detention officer, operations officer, and law and order operations officer.

(c) Self-development. Platoon leaders should seek to observe/intern with a local police agency (40 hours, ideally) and/or jail/detention agency. Platoon leaders should also seek professional certifications with accredited civilian agencies such as the American Society for Industrial Security International, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and certified corrections manager. Additionally, officers who have not completed an undergraduate degree must do so at this point in their careers. The Degree Completion Program allows selected officers to complete baccalaureate degrees at their own expense while still drawing full pay and allowances at their current rank as full-time students at accredited colleges or universities. Officers are required to have a baccalaureate degree from an accredited university prior to promotion to captain. Time allotted for degree completion is normally limited to 12 months. Officers interested in the Degree Completion Program must submit applications through their chain of command to HRC Operations Division, OPMD, no later than 3 months prior to the requested Degree Completion Program start date.

(2) Captain.

(a) Education. Officers are eligible to attend the MP Captains Career Course (MPCCC) between their third and eighth year of commissioned service. This course prepares officers to command at the company or detachment level and to serve in MP staff positions. MPCCC trains officers to successfully function as staff officers and ensures that officers possess the technical, tactical, and leadership skills required to successfully lead companies. Graduates of MPCCC will have a firm grasp of the attributes, skills, and knowledge that form the foundation of competent and confident leaders.

(b) Key developmental assignments. Command of an MP unit (company or detachment) provides invaluable leadership experience for an MP captain. Captains who have not commanded an MP unit will be assigned, if possible, to locations that provide an opportunity for command for a minimum of 12-18 months. Command of a MTOE or selected TDA units are considered equivalent assignments. Because of current and projected strengths and the number of available companies, MP company grade officers should not expect more than one assignment to a command or other key and developmental position. Some captains may be offered a second command at the U.S. Army MP School, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) Protective Services Unit, Army Corrections Command, brigade special troop battalions, or BCT HHC, or USAREC.

(c) Developmental and broadening assignments. MP captains should continue developing their technical and tactical skills. Maximum hands-on experience in a variety of MP leadership positions should be sought during this phase (CID, detention, PM, division staff, counter staging units). Other valuable assignments for MP captains include staff officer positions at the battalion or brigade level, small group leader or staff officer at the U.S. Army MP School, DES, or PM operations officer at the installation or ACOM, combat developer or system development officer at the MSCoE, ASCC, or DRU level. Captains should seek out DES or installation PM operations officer positions when available to include dual-hatting when serving in command positions. Attendance at branch-specific functional training courses is recommended, depending on timing and opportunity. Opportunities exist to attend the following courses: Law Enforcement Senior Leaders (LESL) course, Antiterrorism Level II Program Manager Course, Criminal Antiterrorism and Police Intelligence Management and Physical Security.

(d) Nominative or generalist assignments. Captains are also eligible for nominative or generalist jobs, such as USMA faculty and staff, U.S. Army Cadet Command, USAREC, or RC. Assignment to one of these career opportunities is discussed between the Soldier and the HRC branch assignment manager, and will be confirmed based on the professional development needs of the officer and Army requirements.

(e) Functional designation. Functional designation is now through VTIP, but generally occurs between the 4 th and 7 th year of service.

(f) Project Warrior. A small number of captains may participate in Project Warrior, a program designed to spread the expertise developed by CTC observer/controllers to the rest of the MP Corps. After 12 to 24 months at a CTC, Project Warrior officers are assigned to the MP School as small group leaders to provide additional combined arms tactical experience to MP instruction and allow CTC lessons learned to be incorporated into the training base.

(g) Self-development. Though not a requirement for promotion, officers are encouraged to obtain a master's degree from an accredited college or university. A number of opportunities exist for highly-qualified MP officers to participate in fully funded and partially funded graduate civilian education. Two fully funded programs exist, the MP branch advanced civil schooling program and the Army's Expanded Graduate School Program. These programs are generally focused for officers in their 8th to 12th year. MP branch focuses advanced civilian schooling allocations in disciplines such as detention, criminal justice, or security management. The goal of the Expanded Graduate School Program, offered post-commissioning to officers with high potential, is development of broader skills such as language, regional knowledge, diplomacy, governance, etc. Officers selected to participate in a fully funded civilian training or education program will be assigned to a follow-on utilization tour within an MP unit that best utilizes their degree (for example, corrections master to the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks or a like unit). MP officers may attend a partially funded cooperative degree program while attending the MPCCC.

(h) Attendance at the FBI National Academy is offered to high potential, active duty MP captains and majors who have completed a baccalaureate degree and the MPCCC, and have successfully commanded. Subjects taught during the nine-week course include: forensic science, criminal law, behavioral science, and management applications. Upon graduation officers will be assigned to a follow-on utilization tour that best utilizes the skills learned at the FBI National Academy. MP captains should also seek out professional certifications from accredited civilian organizations such as American Society for Industrial Security International, Federal Emergency Management Agency and American Correctional Association.

(i) Captains should intern (usually 1 to 3 months) at mid-sized police departments and/or detention agencies. Internships will allow for officers to gain critical law enforcement practical experience as well as detention experience.

(3) Major.

(a) Education. Command and General Staff College for majors is essential for their professional development. Officers should continue to pursue other professional development goals to include completing a graduate-level degree if their job requirements permit. The 3-month Command and General Staff College Common Core Course will be delivered in residence at Fort Leavenworth for most basic branch officers and RC officers, and a complement of sister Service and international officers. Immediately following the common core course, AC basic branch officers attend a 7-month Advanced Operations and Warfighting Course at Fort Leavenworth, focused on planning and executing the range of military operations at the tactical and operational levels. RC officers may attend through TASS which has classrooms located in the CONUS and overseas, or can take the common core via an advanced distributed learning course. Officers completing the Command and General Staff College Common Core Course and Advanced Operations and Warfighting Course are JPME I qualified. History, leadership, and joint instruction receive heavy emphasis throughout the curriculum. Simulations are used extensively to drive the learning, and officers have multiple opportunities to practice their warfighting competencies and skills. Other valuable qualifications include language skills and proficiency.

(b) Key developmental assignments. KD assignments include MP battalion S3 or XO, MP brigade S3 or XO, CID battalion/group S3 or XO, deputy division PM, installation deputy DES or PM (when authorized major or higher), brigade/division MP Planner, OPMG staff officer and Regional Corrections Facility (RCF) or CID Field Office commander (when authorized a major).

(c) Developmental and broadening assignments. MP majors should perform duty in strategic staff positions (that is, HQDA, U.S. Army MP School, ACOM, ASCC or DRU staff) and maneuver unit staffs (for example, Corps, Division, BCT), and acquire institutional experience to include detention and CID experience. Other typical assignments include corps staff, ACOM, ASCC, DRU/joint/DOD/Army staff, Command and General Staff College faculty and staff, USMA faculty and staff, USACIDC, Inspector General, service school instructor, MSCoE concept officer, or RC support. Majors can also serve in other branch/generalist positions. A small number of officers are selected for the SAMS. SAMS utilization tours are 'developmental' (not key) assignments and are completed upon graduation from Command and General Staff College. After SAMS utilization tours MP majors should seek out 12-24 months in MP major KD positions.

(d) Assignments after promotion to major will be closely managed by HRC. MP Branch is responsible for branch assignments and generalist assignments.

(4) Lieutenant colonel.

(a) Education. Lieutenant colonels are encouraged to continue their individual professional development by completing the SSC program. Selection for the resident phase and the U.S. Army War College Distance Education Course continues to be done by a HQDA central selection board. Lieutenant colonels should consider attending the LESL course early for added value to DES or PM duties.

(b) Key developmental assignments. MP lieutenant colonels can expect assignment to senior staff positions where they will be employed in a wide variety of operational or key branch/generalist positions or Protection Functionally aligned positions. Key and developmental assignments include division PM, installation DES or PM (when authorized a lieutenant colonel), MP battalion commander, MP brigade S3 or XO, MP deputy brigade commander, OPMG division/branch director and MP School staff. A HQDA central selection board will select a limited number of officers for battalion command and key billet positions. Selection rates for command vary because of the number of commands available and the size of the year group under consideration.

(c) Developmental and broadening assignments. MP lieutenant colonels can also be assigned to JIIM/DOD/Army/ACOM, ASCC, DRU staff assignments, ROTC or RC support and should seek JIIM assignments and internships with appropriate state and federal law enforcement/detention agencies.

(5) Colonel.

(a) The primary objective during this phase of an officer's career is to maximize use of his or her technical and tactical capabilities, leader and management skills and other executive skills in positions of senior responsibility. A wide variety of critical positions are available, to include brigade command, corps, ACOM, ASCC or DRU PM, service school director, OPMG division director, corps/ASCC protection directors and JIIM/DOD/Army staff assignments.

(b) A HQDA centralized board will select a limited number of officers for brigade command and key billets. Selection rates for command vary because of the number of commands available and the size of the year group under consideration.

b. Branch, functionally aligned (protection) and area generalist assignments. Officers above the rank of lieutenant can expect to serve in generalist assignments, such as ROTC, AC/RC liaison, U.S. Army Recruiting, USMA faculty and staff, and Inspector General, which may or may not be directly related to the MP branch but are important to the Army.

c. Joint assignments. MP officers can expect to be considered for joint duty assignments worldwide. After assignment to key and developmental positions, majors and lieutenant colonels should aggressively seek opportunities for joint qualification. Joint experience is important to the Army and is essential to individual officers for their advancement into senior leadership positions. An officer on the active duty list may not be appointed to the grade of O7 unless the officer has completed a full tour of duty (36 months) in a joint duty assignment. Although the Assistant Secretary of Defense (FMP) may waive that Joint duty assignment requirement on a case-by-case basis for scientific and technical qualifications for MP officers, officers receiving scientific and technical waivers must serve continuously in the specialized field or serve in a Joint duty assignment before reassignment to a nonscientific and technical position. (See the National Defense Authorization Act of 2007 for further information).

d. Other assignments. MP branch officers may be assigned to organizations and duties beyond those indicated above. These other assignments may include White House Fellowships, duty with the National Security Council, Joint Chiefs of Staff Internship, or the United Nations, as well as MP branch representatives at allied service schools. The spectrum of possible assignments is large, and these assignments can be characterized as highly responsible and important, requiring mature, skilled officers. MP officers should broaden their assignments by serving in positions in JIIM opportunities and seeking functionally aligned assignments within the protection warfighting: MP, CM, and EN.



Figure 15-1. AA Military Police officer development


e. Warrant officer military occupational specialty qualification, professional development and assignments. USACIDC provides a full range of criminal investigative services and support to commanders and directors at all levels, USACID conducts serious and sensitive felony criminal investigations, protective services operations, criminal /police intelligence operations, provides full spectrum forensic support, and maintains criminal records and biometric information for DA, DOD, and overseas contingency operations worldwide.

(1) CID special agents.

(a) Investigate felony and other significant crimes of interest to the Army as defined by military regulations and federal law.

(b) Plan, organize, conduct, and supervise felony investigations.

(c) Examine and process crime scenes.

(d) Collect, preserve, and evaluate physical evidence for scientific examination by laboratories and use in judicial proceedings.

(e) Obtain and execute arrest warrants, search warrants, and DOD Inspector General subpoenas.

(f) Conduct raids and task force operations.

(g) Interview victims and witnesses, interrogate suspects and subjects, and obtain written statements under oath.

(h) Develop, coordinate, and control the activities of sources.

(i) Represent the Army's interest in joint investigations conducted with the DOD, the Department of Justice, and various federal, state, local, and foreign investigative agencies.

(j) Testify before an assortment of disciplinary and administrative boards, at courts martial, in Federal District Courts, and before other judiciary tribunals.

(k) Write, review, and approve technical investigative reports.

(l) Recommend crime prevention measures to commanders.

(m) Conduct personal security vulnerability assessments.

(n) Provide personal security for designated officials.

(o) Supervise investigative case management and overall investigative operations.

(p) Provide technical guidance and direction to subordinate investigative units.

(q) Collect, analyze and disseminate criminal intelligence to commanders in support of their force protection efforts.

(r) Develop, conduct, and supervise student instruction in criminal investigative methods and techniques.

(s) PME includes, but is not limited to: Child Abuse Prevention and Investigation Techniques, Hostage Negotiations, Advanced Crime Scenes, WMD investigator, Criminal Antiterrorism and Police Intelligence Management, fraud, and computer crime courses.

(2) Military occupational specialty qualification and development.

(a) MOS qualification. At all warrant officer grades, CID special agents must be U.S. citizens and qualify for a security clearance of top secret. The qualifications outlined in AR 195-3 must be met and the Commander, USACIDC, must accredit CID special agents.

(1) Basic level MOS qualification (WO1). In addition to the general MOS qualifications, CID special agents must complete the WOCS and the MP WOBC. This course emphasizes the necessary skills to become a team chief that include leadership, investigative and technical skills, and physical training.

(2) Advanced level MOS qualification (CW2/CW3). Continuation of the CID special agent career path provides for completion of the MP Warrant Officer Advance Course. This course emphasizes the necessary skills to be a special agent-in-charge, battalion, group, brigade, and ACOM operations officers and focuses on broad managerial skill sets required to manage geographically separated and remote organizational assets. This course provides specific technical and tactical training required at the mid-level supervisory echelon.

(3) Senior-level MOS qualification (CW4). Each selection to higher grade provides for additional training requirements. CID special agents are required to complete the WOSC, which is a branch immaterial course provided to all Army warrant officers of this grade. This course provides specific training that focuses on the ability to work in senior advisory or supervisory positions and to perform Army staff operations functions.

(4) Master-level MOS qualification (CW5). CID special agents, who acquire the master level for warrant officers, must complete the WOSSC, which is a branch immaterial course provided to all Army warrant officers of this grade. Warrant officers at this skill level receive specific training that focuses on senior-level staff skills, leadership, mentorship, and organizational operations at the strategic level.

(b) Professional development.

(1) Warrant officer one.

(a) The primary performance objective for the new MP WO1 special agent is a leadership role within a CID unit. Consistent with Army requirements, WO1 special agents can expect an initial assignment as a senior special agent assistant to the team chief at a large installation or as a team chief at a small installation. Each WO1 can also expect to be the senior member of a two-person tactical, deployable investigative team. Each WO1 should continue to develop a comprehensive understanding of investigative techniques, tactics, and procedures. Each WO1 should develop an understanding of CID and Army operations that will provide a solid foundation for assuming duties as a detachment commander/ special agent-in-charge.

(b) The WO1 must have experience as an enlisted CID special agent (MOS 31D) and have graduated from WOCS. The new warrant officer's first objective is to complete WOBC. Following WOBC, selected WO1s may attend specialized courses, such as Airborne or Air Assault School, Hostage Negotiation School, or Protective Services Training to support follow-on assignment requirements and to continue professional development needs.

(c) Warrant officers who obtained a waiver and have not completed an undergraduate degree should continue to work towards that goal. Qualification for selection as a warrant officer candidate in MOS 311A requires a waiver for any applicant who has not already earned a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university.

(2) Chief warrant officer two.

(a) CW2 special agents will continue to fill junior leadership roles within a CID unit. The primary performance objective as a CW2 will be a successful tour as a team chief. CW2 SAs can expect to continue to be the senior member of a two-person tactical, deployable investigative team.

(b) CW2s should continue developing as leaders and investigators. They should seek functional training and operational assignments that enhance specific leadership and investigative skills. Examples of training opportunities include the FBI National Academy, Canadian Police Academy, and advanced training in specific investigative skills that focus on advanced investigative techniques, such as drug suppression, economic crime, protective services, interviews and interrogations, forensics, and police intelligence operations or criminal intelligence management. Assignments such as personal security officer (PSO) and operations staff officer at a CID battalion or brigade are available. A limited number of opportunities exist for highly- qualified CW2s to participate in fully funded advanced civil schooling as forensic science officers, or for training and utilization as a polygraph examiner. Staff and specialty training and assignments should normally only be considered after a successful tour as a team chief. Assignments for a very select few superior CW2s, as an instructor at the U.S. Army MP School are available. CW2s must complete the Action Officers Development Course prior to attending the WOAC. Every CW2 eligible for selection to CW3 is expected to have completed undergraduate studies and have earned a baccalaureate degree.

(3) Chief warrant officer three.

(a) The primary performance objective for the CW3 is a successful tour as a special agent-in-charge (SAC). Any CW3 who has not served as a SAC should be selected for a SAC position, based on the availability of that position and the needs of the Army. Other duties include staff and specialty positions, such as personal security officer, police intelligence operations officer, battalion, group, brigade, or USACIDC staff officer, MP school instructor, and polygraph examiner.

(b) No later than 1 year after promotion to CW3, the warrant officer special agent should complete WOAC. This course must be completed prior to promotion to CW4. CW3s should continue to seek functional training and operational assignments that enhance specific leadership and investigative skills. They remain eligible for training opportunities like the FBI National Academy, Canadian Police Academy, and advanced training in specific investigative skills, such as FSO. Those selected for duties as a SAC will be eligible to attend the annual SAC training course. Assignments to the U.S. Directorate of Training as branch chiefs are also available. A limited number of opportunities remain for highly- qualified CW3s to participate in fully funded advanced civil schooling such as forensic science officers, training, and utilization as a polygraph examiner or digital forensics examiner (DFE) and digital media collector (DMC). In addition, CW3s should continue to pursue other professional development goals to include work towards a graduate-level degree. Regardless of the duty position, individual success is ultimately and inseparably tied to performance.

(4) Chief warrant officer four.

(a) The primary performance objective for the CW4 is a successful tour as a CID battalion operations officer or a large CID detachment commander. Field investigative unit operations officer, police intelligence operations officer, and protective service unit operations officer are additional critical CW4 assignments. CW4s can expect assignments to senior staff or supervisory positions where they will be employed in a variety of operational or instructional positions.

(b) No later than 1 year after promotion to CW4, he or she should complete WOSC. This course must be completed prior to promotion to CW5. In addition, CW4 should continue to pursue other professional development goals to include completing a graduate-level degree. CW4s should be given consideration for technical operational assignments in environments for exposure and experience.

(5) Chief warrant officer five.

(a) The primary objective in utilizing the CW5 is to maximize his or her technical and tactical capabilities, leadership and management skills, and other executive skills in positions of the highest responsibility in the warrant officer ranks. Critical positions include battalion operations officer, group operations officer, senior special agent on the Inspector General team, USACIDC chief of investigative operations, policy and CCWO advisor to the CG, CID, and regimental chief warrant officer of the MP Corps Regiment.

(b) CID special agents selected for promotion to CW5 will be scheduled to attend the WOSSC. CW5s should complete a graduate-level degree if they have not already done so. CW5s must be given consideration for technical operational assignments in JIIM environments for exposure and experience for a minimum of six months. Designees for regimental chief warrant officer of the MP Corps Regiment will be required to complete the Army Force Management Course.

15-4. Assignment preferences and precedence

a. MP Corps Branch Officer preferences and precedence.

(1) Preferences. The MP branch has diverse assignment opportunities that allow for numerous career development paths for commissioned officers. The goal of the professional development of MP branch officers is to produce and sustain highly-qualified, tactically and operationally oriented officers to lead MP Soldiers during wartime, contingency, and other assigned missions. Assignments in the MP Corps will develop the officer's ability to achieve that goal. Requests from officers for assignments that do not contribute to achieving that goal will likely be rejected. MP field grade officers should look at opportunities to perform as a strategic leader on a Joint Staff.

(2) Precedence. Assignment to developmental leadership positions will have precedence, although there is flexibility on the sequence of assignments. Typically, MP branch officers should seek the following assignments: MP BOLC, platoon leader, staff officer in an MP battalion or brigade, installation PM operations officer; MPCCC, company or detachment command, battalion, brigade or division staff, nominative assignments, JIIM opportunities, Command and General Staff College, battalion S3 or XO or brigade S3 (as a major), battalion command, division PM, installation PM, SSC, brigade command, and ACOM, ASCC or DRU PM.

(3) MP branch officer assignments. MP officers should use the chart at figure 15-1 to determine key and developmental positions throughout their careers.

(4) Requirements. Officers should meet certain standards in terms of schooling, operational assignments, and manner of performance within the MP Corps at each rank. Meeting these standards ensures that the officer has acquired the skills, knowledge and attributes to remain proficient in the MP Corps at that rank. With this proficiency, the officer is qualified for promotion/retention in the branch. These standards for schooling and operational assignments best prepare an officer for command or positions of greater responsibility in the branch. All MP branch officers should seek the opportunity to perform in key and developmental assignments at each rank/grade.

(5) Company grade key and developmental assignments. Because of the wide variety of MP missions and units, no one quantitative standard will define success. The most important objective for MP Corps company grade officers is to have served in leadership positions (preferably platoon leader and company commander). Platoon leader and company command positions are critical in that they ensure the MP officer is able to lead, train and care for Soldiers. Additionally, the MP officer must be well-rounded in the basic techniques needed to execute wartime missions. Company grade officers should complete the following requirements within the MP Corps.

(a) Lieutenant.As an MP lieutenant, the officer must complete MP BOLC and one assignment as a platoon leader. Lieutenants should serve as platoon leaders for a minimum of 12 months, with a goal of 18-24 months.

(b) Captain.As an MP captain, the officer must meet the following requirements:

(1) Complete the MPCCC. Officers who are branch transferred after successful completion of any branch CCC will be considered to have met this educational prerequisite.

(2) Captains should serve as a company or detachment commander for a minimum of 12 months, with a goal of 18-24 months.

(6) Field grade key and developmental assignments.

(a) Major.As an MP major, the officer should meet the following requirements:

(1) Complete Command and General Staff College.

(2) Serve a minimum of 12 months, with a goal of 18-24 months, as a battalion or brigade S3 or XO, deputy division PM, RCF/CID field office commander (when authorized a major), installation deputy PM, branch-related position on joint/DOD/Army ACOM, ASCC, DRU or multinational staffs, instructor at a branch service school, transition team member, or in any MP branch position that is coded at the rank of major or above.

(b) Lieutenant colonel.As an MP lieutenant colonel, the officer should serve a minimum of 12 months, with a goal of 18-24 months, as a battalion commander, division PM, installation PM (when authorized a lieutenant colonel), brigade S3 or XO, deputy brigade commander, transition team commander, branch-related position on joint/DOD/Army/ACOM, ASCC, DRU or multinational staffs, or in any MP branch position which is coded at the rank of lieutenant colonel or above. If selected by a HQDA board, MP lieutenant colonels should complete resident or nonresident SSC.

(c) Colonel.As an MP Corps colonel, the officer should serve a minimum of 12 months, with a goal of 18-24 months, in any one of the positions listed below that is coded at the rank of colonel in the MP Branch:

(1) Brigade commander.

(2) Branch-related positions on joint/DOD/Army/ACOM, ASCC, DRU or multinational staffs; ACOM, ASCC, DRU, or Corps PM; senior director at U.S. or other service schools.

(3) Staff or faculty position at a Command and General Staff College-equivalent service school or USMA.

(4) Division chief or higher position on joint/DOD/Army/ACOM, ASCC, DRU, or interagency staff.

(5) Garrison commander or installation chief of staff.

(6) Nominative or specialized position outside DOD.

b. Military Police warrant officer Criminal Investigation Division special agent preferences and precedence.

(1) Preferences. The MP warrant officer has diverse assignment opportunities, which allow for numerous career development paths. The goal of the professional development of MP warrant officers is to produce and sustain highly-qualified and tactically and operationally oriented warrant officers to lead CID special agents and other Soldiers during wartime and on other assigned investigative missions in tactical and garrison environments for the joint and expeditionary Army force. Assignment within the MP Corps and the USACIDC will develop the warrant officer's ability to achieve that goal. Requests from warrant officers for assignments which do not contribute to achieving that goal will likely be rejected.

(2) Precedence. Assignment to developmental leadership positions will have precedence, although there is flexibility on the sequence of assignments. Typically, MP warrant officers should seek assignments and training in the following order: WOCS, MP WOBC, CID team chief, special agent-in-charge of a small CID office, MP WOAC, special agent-in-charge of a large CID office or CID detachment commander, MP School instructor, battalion/group investigative staff officer, MP WOSC, battalion operations officer, USACIDC investigative staff officer, MP School division chief, WOSSC, group or USACIDC level investigative operations officer, CCWO advisor to the CG of USACIDC, and regimental warrant officer of the MP Corps Regiment.

c. Miltary Police warrant officer Criminal Investigation Division special agent assignments. Figure 15-2 displays an MP branch time line with key and developmental positions for warrant officers. Additionally, it identifies those positions that serve as key and developmental jobs for MP warrant officers.



Figure 15-2. Military Police warrant officer development


15-5. Requirements, authorizations, and inventory

The number of authorized MP billets, by grade, will vary as force structure decisions are made, and actions to implement them are taken. The goal of the MP Corps is to maintain a healthy, viable career path for MP officers while providing an agile, adaptive, and ready force to execute all assigned missions. To do this, the field grade inventory must be optimized in order to meet branch authorizations, to provide sufficient flexibility to support branch/FA generalist positions, and to provide majors with up to 2 years of key and developmental position time. Officers desiring more information on MP branch authorizations or inventory, by grade, are encouraged to contact the U.S. Personnel Proponency Office or HRC MP Branch assignment officer.

15-6. Key officer life-cycle initiatives for Military Police Corps

a. Structure. Any changes to the authorizations of MP units will be based on the restructuring and recoding. Additional changes may result due to the iterative nature of the restructuring and recoding process.

b. Acquire. The majority of commissioned officers in the MP Corps are accessed directly from ROTC and USMA and, to a lesser extent, OCS. All officers should meet the physical and aptitude requirements specified in AR 40-501 . Designation of the MP Corps as an initial branch is regulated by HQDA through the various commissioning sources. The remainder of commissioned officers in the MP Corps is acquired through in-service branch transfers. Accession via branch transfer is directed by HQDA and may be voluntary or involuntary based upon the needs of the Army. Officers of other branches who desire a transfer to the MP Corps may submit a written request for branch transfer in accordance with AR 614-100 .

c. Distribute. MP branch officers will continue to rotate between operating force and generating force units in CONUS and OCONUS with a goal of longer assignments at one station (consistent with Army Force Stabilization policies). Officers should have more time to gain the requisite skills in their branch and their branch/FA generalist assignments. In particular, majors should receive more key and developmental position time and increased stability. Operations functional category MP officers will work either in branch or branch/FA generalist positions.

(1) Officers assigned to installations with ample professional opportunities may be stabilized at that installation for extended periods. Additionally, some company grade officers may be offered the opportunity to attend the MPCCC and return to their initial unit of assignment. Individual timelines are affected by Army, MP, and ARFORGEN requirements.

(2) Life-cycle managed (LM) units. Consistent with Army focus on force stabilization, officers at all levels assigned to LM units (generally SBCT/IBCT/HBCT) will remain in the unit for a minimum of 3 years.

(3) Cyclic units. The majority of installations will be managed on a cyclic manning system. Replacements will be sent to these units and installations periodically to maintain readiness of the units. Tour lengths and developmental position opportunities can vary.

d. Train and develop. Today's MP officer is confronted by two diverse and complex challenges. First, the officer should lead and train Soldiers who can achieve tactical success; protect and expedite the movement of critical resources; evacuate, process, and intern enemy prisoners of war; and support law enforcement operations. Second, in the garrison environment the officer manages technical planning and supervision in the areas of law enforcement, crime prevention, criminal investigations, antiterrorism, physical security, and detention. To master the skills required to meet these challenges, MP officers selected for major must complete Command and General Staff College. Officers selected for colonel should complete SSC if selected by a HQDA board. Professional development can also occur through TASS via select self-development courses.

e. Deploy. MP branch officers are warfighters who remain personally and professionally prepared to deploy worldwide at all times. Whether assigned to Operating Force (MTOE) units or generating force (fixed-site TDA) organizations, all MP officers must be deployable to accomplish missions across the full spectrum of conflict. MP officers may deploy tomorrow with their units to deter potential adversaries and to protect national interests, or as individuals to support joint and multinational operations other than war such as humanitarian and peace keeping missions. MP branch officers must prepare themselves and their families for this most challenging experience.

f. Sustain.

(1) Promotion. MP branch officers will compete for promotion only within the Operations functional category.

(2) Command. Senior MP branch officers will continue to be centrally selected for command. Command opportunities for MP Corps officers are included within the operations, strategic, recruiting and training, and installation categories. MP commands generally fall within four groups: combat support, detention, criminal investigation, and law enforcement. The results of the command selection process are announced in the CSL.

(3) Officer evaluation report. The OER will reinforce the linkage between officer development and OPMS starting with captain, the rater and senior rater will recommend the rated officer for the functional category which best suits his or her abilities and interests.

g. Transition. The separation process for MP officers remains unchanged.

h. Compensate. Pay and benefits are handled through the DCS, G-1 with special recruiting or retention benefits staffed through the Office of the PM General.

15-7. Military Police Reserve Component officers

a. General career development. MP officers in the RC play a vital role in the total force structure during peace as well as mobilization. A majority of requirements in the MP Corps are in the RC, and certain specialized organizations such as detention units exist almost entirely within the USAR and ARNG. To fulfill its wartime mission, the MP Corps must rely on extensive interaction with the RC. Wartime effectiveness will depend to a large extent on the quality and level of training RC MP officers receive. RC MP officers serve the same roles and missions as their AC counterparts.

b. Reserve Component officer qualifications and development. To meet professional development objectives, RC officers should rotate among TPUs (USAR) or M-Day units (ARNG), IRR, and IIMA assignments. Those interested in serving the National Guard or Army Reserve on a full-time basis may apply for entry into the AGR program. Officers selected for the AGR program may elect to complete an active duty career in support of either the National Guard or Army Reserve. RC officers are assigned to positions in MTOE and TDA organizations; however, the vast majority of positions are in MTOE units. Their duties and responsibilities will be fundamentally the same as their AC counterparts, with the exception of those personnel management, administrative and operational requirements unique to the National Guard and Army Reserve. All RC MP assignments are open to both male and female officers.

(1) The RC MP officer has a challenging and complex mission. The officer should lead and train Soldiers who can achieve tactical success. He or she must be tactically and technically proficient and capable of executing the three MP disciplines of police operations, detention and security, and mobility support. Additionally, the ARNG MP officer plays a major role in preparing for and providing assistance to their state during natural disasters, sensitive public activities, consequence management events, and civil disturbances. A requirement for proficiency in both battlefield operations and peacetime MP skills usually means a wide variety of educational opportunities and challenging assignments for the MP officer.

(2) The majority of RC officers appointed for assignment in the MP Corps come from ROTC, federal OCS, and state OCS programs. All officers meet the prerequisites specified in AR 135-100 for appointment in the RC of the Army. HQDA and area commanders regulate appointment to the MP Corps as an initial branch. Additional requirements for appointment of ARNG officers are listed in NGR 600-100 .

(3) Positions in all MP skills are available to RC officers. National Guard warrant officers Federal recognition and related personnel actions are found in NGR 600-101 . The qualifications and professional development for RC CID special agents are in paragraph 18-3 .

c. Development model. There are three phases of professional development for RC MP Corps officers (see fig 15-3 ). These phases are related to military rank and depict broadly based goals and career opportunities at each rank so that an officer may expand capabilities and optimize performance. These objectives are flexible since the actual course of an officer's professional development and utilization will be influenced by RC requirements and the officer's strengths, experiences, performance and desires.

d. The professional development objectives for Reserve Component officers by grade are as follows:

(1) Lieutenant.

(a) The MP lieutenant's first objective is to complete MP BOLC. Lieutenants appointed without concurrent active duty should complete MP BOLC within 24 months of the date of appointment. This course emphasizes leadership, tactics, training operations, maintenance, supply, and physical training. Additional areas of study include MP operations, law, communication skills, personnel administration, drivers training, and weapons training. Graduates of MP BOLC possess the technical and tactical skills, physical fitness, and leadership qualities of the MP Corps and are trained on the most critical tasks required of a platoon leader. These officers demonstrate a thorough understanding of and willingness to live by the Army Values and a firm grasp of the attributes, skills, and actions that form the foundation of a competent and confident leader. Following MP BOLC, selected officers may attend such specialized courses as Airborne and Air Assault to support their follow-on assignment.

(b) The second objective is a branch material assignment with troops. Consistent with Army requirements, RC MP lieutenants can expect an initial assignment as a platoon leader for a minimum of 24 months (with a goal of 24 to 36 months). This will ensure lieutenants develop a comprehensive understanding of Army operations and military life that will provide a solid foundation for assuming the challenge of company or detachment command. Lieutenants should seek leadership positions and every opportunity to broaden technical, tactical and leadership skills in support of the MP combat and peacetime missions. Some assignments may also be with a battalion or brigade headquarters staff. Nearly all are with counter staging or detention organizations.

(c) RC MP lieutenants are eligible for promotion to captain when they meet the service and educational requirements contained in chapter 7 .

(2) Captain.

(a) RC officers of the MP Corps in the rank of first lieutenant or higher who have completed an officer BOLC are eligible to attend the MPCCC. The MPCCC may be taken in residence at the MP School or an RC officer may complete the MPCCC-RC, which consists of four phases in combination of DL and resident training, and is designed for the RC officer to complete each resident phase in an annual training period. This course is sequential; therefore, the student must complete each phase before moving to the next. Phases one and three are DL and Phases two and four are resident phases. The DL portions are taken online with instructor-to-student and student-to-student interaction capability either in asynchronous or synchronous mode through the MSCoE's Life Long Learning Center. Each DL phase prepares the officer to successfully complete each resident phase. The culminating event of MPCCC-RC is the Joint Warfighter Exercise (Phase four). MP, CM, and EN captains participate in this exercise, taking everything they have learned and effectively applying it throughout the exercise. The phases, coupled with the resident phases, allow instructors to keep the course material current and compliant with the operating environment. MPCCC-RC prepares officers to command at the company or detachment level and to successfully function as a staff officer and ensure that the officers possess the technical, tactical, leadership, and physical fitness skills required to lead successfully a company or detachment.

(b) The most critical leadership position for an MP captain to hold is commander of a company or detachment for a minimum of 24 months (with a goal of 24 ot 36 months). Officers should seek maximum hands-on experience in a variety of MP leadership positions as captains. RC captains should actively pursue assignments in both TPU/M-day units and as IMAs to broaden their professional experience and enhance opportunities for training and education. Captains can expect to serve in a broad range of command and staff assignments, including a variety of generalist opportunities. MP captains should continuously strive to develop their technical and tactical skills in preparation for a field grade assignment.

(c) RC captains are required to complete CCC to be considered for promotion to major. RC captains who are serving in an active status and meet educational, performance and service requirements may be selected for promotion by a centralized mandatory board or by a unit board convened to fill vacancies.

(3) Major.

(a) The primary professional development objective of an RC MP Corps major is to continue to strengthen MP skills. Key and developmental assignments at this rank are battalion or brigade S3 or XO, or deputy division/RRC PM for a minimum of 24 months (with a goal of 24 to 36 months).

(b) The needs of the service increasingly dictate that an officer serve in positions away from troops. Key and developmental positions at this rank include observer/controller in an exercise division in support of unit training and readiness; instructor/staff officer in an institutional training division in support of the TASS; and staff officer at a brigade or above.

(c) Regardless of their career track, MP majors should ensure they attend DL or resident Command and General Staff College. RC officers are required to complete Command and General Staff College common core to be considered for promotion to lieutenant colonel, timely completion is key to remaining competitive. RC officers may attend Advanced Operations and Warfighting Course through TASS which has classrooms located in the CONUS and overseas, or can take the common core via an advanced distributed learning course.

(d) RC majors who are serving in an active status and meet educational and service requirements may be selected for promotion by a centralized mandatory board or by a unit board convened to fill position vacancies based on status. Majors not selected for promotion after consideration by two consecutive mandatory boards are not retained beyond 20 years of commissioned service unless selectively continued.

(4) Lieutenant colonel.

(a) Lieutenant colonels can expect assignments to senior staff positions where they will be employed in a variety of branch and generalist positions in units, training centers and headquarters elements. Division PM, brigade S3 or XO, or deputy brigade commander are key assignments during this phase.

(b) At this phase, officers may be selected for battalion command or its equivalent, as identified by their JFHQ or U.S. all-designated positions list. Only a very small percentage of eligible officers will actually have an opportunity for battalion command because of the limited number of command positions available. RC officers not selected for battalion command should seek out positions of increased responsibility that capitalize on skills. Promotion to colonel without battalion command is possible based on the overall strength of the officers' file.

(c) Lieutenant colonels are required to complete Command and General Staff College common core to be considered for promotion to the rank of colonel. RC lieutenant colonels are encouraged to complete SSC, if selected by the ARNG and the USAR boards. Standards for the selection process can be found in AR 350-1 .

(d) RC lieutenant colonels are eligible for selection to colonel upon completion of the requisite service requirements listed in chapter 7 . Lieutenant colonels remain eligible for promotion to colonel as long as they continue to serve in an active status and meet the selection criteria.

(5) Colonel.

(a) The primary objective for this phase is maximum use of the officer's technical and tactical capabilities and his or her managerial and executive skills in positions of senior responsibility.

(b) Colonels are encouraged to complete SSC. Both the ARNG and USAR conduct SSC selection boards, and standards for the process can be found in AR 350-1 . Only a very small percentage of eligible officers will actually have an opportunity for brigade or equivalent command because of the limited number of command positions available. RC officers not selected for brigade command should seek out positions of increased responsibility that capitalize on skills. Promotion to brigadier general without brigade command is possible based on the overall strength of the officers' file.



Figure 15-3. RC Military Police officer development


Chapter 16

Special Forces Branch

16-1. Unique features of the Special Forces Branch

a. Unique purpose of the Special Forces Branch. The mission of the SF is to conduct special operations across the full range of military operations in any operational environment. SF expands the range of available options to the geographic combatant commander in a variety of scenarios where the commitment of conventional military forces is not feasible or appropriate. They provide military capabilities not available elsewhere in the armed forces. They are the only force specially selected, trained, and equipped to conduct Unconventional Warfare. SF operations are inherently JIIM. These operations are conducted at the operational and strategic level. SF Soldiers are language trained, culturally astute, and regionally oriented. SF frequently conduct their operations with or throug