Army Pamphlet 600-60

11 December 2001

UNCLASSIFIED

Personnel–General

A Guide to Protocol and Etiquette for Official Entertainment



SUMMARY of CHANGE

PAM 600-60
A Guide to Protocol and Etiquette for Official Entertainment

* Rewords social calls (chap 1 ).

* Deletes general guidelines in introductions and adds the word "gender" (chap 1 ).

* Rewords completely engraved invitations (chap 2 ).

* Corrects to state that a printed invitation usually starts with the host of an event on the first line (chap 2 ).

* Adds that telephone Invitations may be used where there is extremely short notice (chap 2 ).

* Adds an explanation of telefax invitations (chap 2 ).

* Changes reply of a married couple to a formal invitation when only one can attend (chap 2 ).

* Removes informal invitations and corresponding figure (chap 2 ).

* Removes reference to a sample reception and receiving line checklist (chap 3 ).

* Changes reference to carpet at receiving line (chap 3 ).

* Adds guidance regarding a woman standing at the end of the receiving line (chap 3 ).

* Clarifies guidance regarding position of receiving line in a room (chap 3 ).

* Removes guidance of alphabetical flag display (chap 3 ).

* Adds the order of precedence of Service flags (chap 3 ).

* Changes guidance regarding display of personal flags of attendees (chap 3 ).

* Removes guidance regarding formal dinners and exceptions (chap 3 ).

* Adds guidance regarding an interpreter at a dinner (chap 3 ).

* Adds guidance regarding toasts and prisoners of war (chap 3 ).

* Changes "musical and cannon salutes" title (chap 4 ).

* Adds samples for sequence of events of retirement, award, promotion, and retreat ceremonies (chap 4 ).

* Expands guidance on finials (chap 4 ).

* Changes guidance regarding streamers facing forward (chap 4 ).

* Revises guidance explaining the need for rules of precedence (chap 5 ).

* Removes reference to precedence among married, divorced, widowed, and unmarried women (chap 5 ).

* Revises the example of visiting official (chap 5 ).

* Consolidates guidance regarding seating of foreign visitors (chap 5 ).

* Clarifies guidance regarding seating and persons on promotion lists (chap 5 ).

* Changes seating of Sergeant Major of the Army to follow that of the Director of the Army Staff, a four-star general, or an equivalent rank civilian (chap 5 ).

* Adds table 6-1 titles and forms of address for Vice President, Govenor of a State, warrant officer, and enlisted personnel (chap 6 ).

* Changes the guidance regarding menu restrictions by adding table 7-1 (chap 7 ).

* Places updated references list in appendix A .

* Places official toasts in appendix C .

* Updates the precedence list and places it in appendix D .



FOREWORD

    Practices developed among nations in the course of their contacts with one another define the essence of protocol. Protocol is the combination of good manners and common sense, which allows effective communications between heads of state and their representatives. It is not static. Rather, it is an evolving science that, over the years, has lost much of its traditional pomp and picturesque ceremony. Changes in accepted protocol, however, are best left to the highest policy-forming officers in the Department of State. Errors in protocol may be mistaken as a signal of a change in the international climate. Persons using this pamphlet are cautioned that unauthorized innovations in protocol, however well intentioned, are improper.
    Etiquette encompasses the body of manners and forms prescribed by custom, usage, or authority. It is accepted as correct behavior when people deal with one another. Etiquette preserves respect for the rights and dignities of others. In short, etiquette represents good manners. Today, many of the old established customs are blended with less restricted ways of life--of entertaining with little or no help, in communicating with others, and in coping with everyday problems that once were handled by a staff. The full integration of women and divergent cultures into the Services brought more changes. Service people now have a more knowledgeable way of life. Still, as in bygone years, there are certain rules to be followed in order to reach the goal of easier, gracious living.
    As with any rule of the road, a charted course will get you to a specific place at a given time for a certain occasion. Proper etiquette is not artificial. It is a practical set of rules. When learned, these rules save time that would be wasted in deciding what is proper. Etiquette helps people proceed with the more important phases of social interaction.
    The intent of this pamphlet is to provide you with the basics of proper protocol and etiquette. Using this information as a foundation, you should feel at ease in such matters as calling cards, introductions, invitations and responses, official dinners, seating and precedence, forms of address, and arranging visits for important visitors. With practice, protocol and etiquette will not be difficult but will be instead a natural, courteous way to properly greet and entertain civilian and military visitors and colleagues.


Chapter 1
Visits and Introductions

1-1. Army customs

The exchange of courtesy visits is one of the Army's oldest and most established traditions. This is one way soldiers can make social contacts among themselves. These visits, known as official and social calls, are essential to mutual understanding, respect, confidence, and teamwork. The size and complexity of today's Army may hinder the exchange of courtesy visits. You should follow established customs of the Service whenever possible. Additional sources of information regarding visits, introductions, protocol, and etiquette are listed in appendix A .

1-2. General rules

Policies for making official and social calls differ widely in the various commands and organizations. Such calls are not made as extensively as in past years. Ask the adjutant, the commander's aide, or the agency executive officer about the commander's wishes.

1-3. Official calls

a. General. All official calls are made at the office of the person visited.

b. Arrival calls. Paid by a subordinate to an immediate superior and then on that officer's superior; for example, a new major to a battalion sets a courtesy call with his or her battalion commander and brigade commander for introduction. Another method is to have the newcomer escorted to the various offices, introduced to fellow workers, then at a time convenient to superiors, by appointment, courtesy calls are made. Official calls should be made within 48 hours after arrival at the new location.

c. Departure calls. The official procedures for leaving an installation or post may vary. Custom requires that an officer departing the post make an official call on his immediate commanding officers as an act of courtesy.

1-4. Social calls

The practice of making social calls has declined greatly. The more common practice today is to have a "hail and farewell" to introduce newcomers and say goodbye to those leaving. However, upon arrival at the new location, one should inquire as to which method the commander prefers.

a. Making social calls. Some general rules for making social calls:

(1) Calls are normally made at the officer's residence.

(2) The visit is planned at a time convenient to the officer visited.

(3) If the commander is married and the commander's spouse is present, the spouse of the officer making the visit should also attend.

(4) Social calls should last no less than 10 minutes and no more than 15 unless the caller is requested to stay longer.

b. Commander's reception. The custom at many installations is for the senior officer to periodically entertain assigned officers and their spouses at a reception or series of receptions.

c. New Year's Day call. It is customary in many organizations for the officers of the unit to call on the commanding officer on New Year's Day. One should inquire as to the local policy and how the commander desires to have people call, for example, alphabetical: A-M 1300-1415, M-Z 1430-1545.

1-5. Introductions

Brevity and accuracy are two requirements that must be kept in mind when introducing people. The person making the introduction is completely in charge of the situation for the length of time that it takes to effect it. There are a few simple rules to remember, as shown below.

a. A man is always presented to a woman--with the exception of the president of any country, a king, a dignitary of the Church, or when a junior female officer is "officially" presented to a senior male officer.

b. The honored/higher ranking person's name is stated first, then the name of the person being presented.

c. Young people are presented to older people of the same gender.

d. A single person is introduced to a group.

Chapter 2
Invitations

2-1. Formal engraved invitations

a. Engraved invitations ( fig 2-1 ) are the most formal invitation and are issued for very special occasions. They are engraved with black ink on a good quality white or cream colored vellum card stock.

b. Invitations are sent out 2 or 3 weeks in advance. If the function is extremely large, 3 or 4 weeks may be more suitable.

c. Engraved invitations often include an admittance card to be shown at the door. If admittance or seating cards are enclosed, they should be brought to the function.

d. If the party is in honor of a distinguished visitor or other high-ranking official, "the host" is usually the first line of the invitation, followed by "the event," then "in honor of," with the appropriate information on the individual(s) on the next line or two.

2-2. Semi-Engraved invitations

a. Semi-engraved invitations ( fig 2-2 ) are adaptable to any date or occasion and are less expensive. Individuals who must entertain frequently will generally use these invitations, they are correct for luncheons, receptions, dinners, and retirements.

b. Honored guests may be designated by the phrases "in honor of Major General and Mrs. Smith" or "To meet Major and Mrs. Jones." The first phrase is more often used for prominent persons; the second, for new arrivals and guests.

c. Formerly, it was not considered correct to ask an important official "to meet" anyone of lesser rank. Today, however, most officials may wish to know for whom a party is given, possibly influencing his or her acceptance.



Figure 2-1. Formal engraved invitation





Figure 2-2. Semi-engraved formal invitation


2-3. Formal handwritten invitations

Formal invitations may be hand-written ( fig 2-3 ) on white or cream note paper in black ink. The wording and spacing used on the formal engraved invitation ( fig 2-1 ) are followed. Often the host or hostess has a preference for handwritten invitations. They are more personal and a nice touch if the size of the party does not make preparing them burdensome.

2-4. Telephone invitations

a. Telephone invitations are correct for formal functions as well as for small affairs. They also can be used in a case where there is extreme short notice. The protocol officer, aide-de-camp, or secretary could make the calls.

b. To confirm oral invitations, reminder cards are frequently sent out to those who have accepted. The engraved, semi-engraved, or handwritten invitations may be used. Draw through the R.S.V.P. and telephone number, writing the words "To Remind" underneath. Or have the words "To Remind" printed on the invitation where the R.S.V.P. would normally be written.

2-5. Telefax invitations

Invitations may be extended by facsimile, especially in a case where time is limited. The fax should include the same information as the invitation above. The facsimile is also a tool to use to notify the invitee of a future event. This way the date and time can be "saved" months ahead of time, followed up by an invitation issued at a date closer to the event.

2-6. Replies to formal invitations

a. A reply to a formal invitation ( fig 2-4 ) should be written 48 hours after receiving a luncheon or dinner invitation.

b. A regret ( fig 2-5 ) includes the same information shown on the invitation, except that no reference is made to the time or place.

c. A formal invitation may request that the reply be addressed to an aide or social secretary. If this is not indicated under the R.S.V.P. on the invitation, the reply is addressed to the host and hostess.

d. A married couple may accept a formal invitation when only one can attend, depending on the event and their relationship with the host or guest of honor.

e. Printed reply cards may be enclosed with invitations to large official functions such as retirement reviews and receptions. This provides for accurate accountability of the guests. The card, with a self-addressed envelope, may be the fill-in type requesting specific information written by hand or typewritten.



Figure 2-3. Formal written invitation





Figure 2-4. Acceptance of a formal invitation


2-7. Withdrawing an acceptance or invitation

There are few valid reasons to withdraw the acceptance of an invitation: serious illness, a death in the family, absence due to an upcoming transfer, official duty, or very important business elsewhere. It should be noted that an invitation to The White House takes precedence over all others ( fig 2-6 ).

a. Recalling a formal invitation. When unavoidable circumstances warrant, a formal invitation may be recalled. If the occasion was small, and the invited guests would know the reason for withdrawal, none need be given. However, if guests are unaware of the reason for withdrawal, then the reason for recalling the invitation is prepared in a similar manner to the invitation ( fig 2-7 ).

b. Advancing or postponing an invitation. Advancing or postponing is better than canceling! An announcement changing the date of an invitation must include an R.S.V.P. ( figs 2-8 and 2-9 ).

2-8. Informal invitations

a. General. Invitations to informal dinner parties, luncheons, teas, cocktails, and buffet suppers may be extended by personal note, telephone, or a short message prepared on a calling card or formal card. If a reply is desired, include "R.S.V.P." or "Regrets only," followed by a telephone number or address. This may also be used on informal invitations when it is necessary to know the number of guests expected.

b. Informal note. An invitation to a social function may be extended by an informal note if the host or hostess does not wish to use the engraved card or the third person style invitation. Informal notes are correct for small informal dinners but are tiresome for large dinners and are incorrect for official dinners.

c. Replies to informal invitations.

(1) Informal notes and card invitations usually do not require a written answer, but one may be requested. A telephone reply is also proper.

(2) A written answer may be prepared either informally on a calling card or in the third person format used for engraved invitations (replies are addressed to the hostess only).



Figure 2-5. Regret to a formal invitation





Figure 2-6. Withdrawal of an acceptance to a formal invitation





Figure 2-7. Recalling an invitation





Figure 2-8. Advancing an invitation





Figure 2-9. Postponing an invitation


Chapter 3
Official Entertaining

3-1. Army customs

a. Foreign and local etiquette. Often the Army officer is required to deal officially and socially with distinguished officials of his/her own country, as well as those of foreign countries. A knowledge of the correct protocol and etiquette for all occasions makes him/her feel at ease in these relationships. When a guest in a foreign country, the officer conforms with its customs. When a host in a foreign country, he/she observes the social customs and formalities of his/her own country.

b. The host. Normally, the senior local commander is the host when foreign dignitaries are visiting Army installations. When senior officials of the Army and officials of other governmental agencies or foreign governments are visiting at the same time, the senior Army official is the host for the Army.

c. Guest of honor.

(1) When the guest of honor is a high-ranking official, the custom is to let him choose the date for the occasion and to consult personal staff about the guest list and general arrangements.

(2) After these steps, a formal invitation with "To remind" written on it is sent to the guest of honor.

3-2. Formal receptions and receiving lines

a. Formal reception. The formal reception is used more within military circles than in the private sector.

(1) The formal reception has provided a means by which military and civilian personnel get to meet the honoree upon his/her selection to a position or departure from the same.

(2) Formal receptions are also convenient for other special events, such as a wedding reception honoring a newly married couple, or introducing a group of newly arrived individuals and spouses to other members of the organization.

b. Planning the reception. An aide or protocol officer responsible for the arrangements for a reception must carefully plan for it. Here are some points to keep in mind:

(1) In addition to flowers and potted plants, decorations may include the flags of the nations whose representatives are guests, as well as the personal flags of high-ranking officials in the receiving line.

(2) A carpet runner is often laid in front of the receiving line. The carpet is only for the official party to stand on. Carpet runners are not mandatory and may be excluded for reasons of safety.

(3) It is thoughtful to provide nearby seating so that those receiving guests may rest occasionally.

(4) If there is a band, the acoustics are checked, and the musical selections are discussed with the bandmaster.

(5) Arrangements are made for appropriate photographs.

(6) The bar and buffet tables are separated to avoid congestion at either end of the room. The buffet tables are attractively decorated with flowers or a novel centerpiece.

(7) Soft drinks are made available for guests who do not drink alcoholic beverages.

(8) A group of junior personnel (officers, NCOs, and enlisted) may be stationed at the entrance to the building to greet and escort distinguished guests to the receiving line.

c. The receiving line.

(1) Formal luncheons, receptions, and dinners usually have a receiving line to afford each guest the opportunity to greet the host, hostess, and honored guest. The receiving line should be kept as small as possible.

(2) Suggested arrangements for receiving lines for official functions are listed below. These are only guides. The guest of honor is positioned based upon the host's preference.

(a) Host Guest of honor Hostess Spouse of guest of honor

(b) Host Guest of honor Spouse of guest of honor Hostess

(3) When a head of state is the guest of honor, the host and hostess relinquish their positions, and the line forms with the head of state, spouse of the head of state, the host, and hostess. At the head of the line there is an aide-de-camp or an adjutant to announce the guests.

(4) Guests should not shake hands with the aide or staff officer receiving the name of the guest. Guests give only their official titles or "Mr. (Mrs.) (Miss) (Ms.)"Jones. The aide presents the guest to the host who, in turn, presents him or her to the guest of honor. The guest, in proceeding down the line, simply shakes hands and greets each person with a "How do you do?"or, in the case of a friend or acquaintance, "Good evening, Sir John," or "It is good to see you again, Sir John." Because names do not travel well, the guest should repeat his or her name to any person in the line to whom it has obviously not been passed. The receiving line is no place for lengthy conversation with either the host or the honored guest.

(5) One rule remains unchanged and should not be broken: Do not receive guests or go through a receiving line holding a cigarette or a drink.

(6) It is acceptable for a female to stand at the end of the line. However, some hosts invite a man closely associated with the occasion to stand at the end of the line so that a female need not be in this position. Other hosts feel that this is incorrect, since a reception is to honor certain individuals only. If a man of sufficient seniority who has an important connection with the function is not present, it is better not to have any man at all at the end of the line. It is not proper to station a randomly selected junior officer who has no connection with the guest of honor at the end of the line.

(7) When does the man precede his lady in going through a receiving line? The old rule of "ladies first"should be followed upon all occasions other than White House or diplomatic visits. At the White House, for instance, the man goes down the line first. Many of the guests will have official titles, and it is easier for an aide to recognize the official and to announce, "The Secretary of State," as the aide presents the Cabinet officer, quickly followed by, "and Mrs. Smith." The relationship of the couple is clarified more easily than when the procedure is reversed.

(8) Unless the function is very large, hosts usually receive for 30 minutes from the time given on the invitation and then join their guests. Therefore, it is necessary for guests to be punctual. Otherwise, they are not announced and will have to seek out their host and apologize for their tardiness. At a large function it may not be possible for latecomers to be introduced to the guests of honor. In any case, this is a matter for the discretion of the host.

d. Positioning the receiving line. Sometimes the question arises whether the receiving line should be on the guest's right or left as they enter the reception area. While it is preferable to position the receiving line to the left as you enter the room, consideration must be given to the layout of the room. If positioning the receiving line to the left side would adversely impact the buffet or dinner tables then use the right side. The line should be stationed so that the guests may pass smoothly and conveniently to the gathering of the other guests.

3-3. Display of flags at military receptions and dinners

a. Placement. At military receptions and dinners, especially when general officers are present, the custom is to display appropriate national colors and distinguishing flags in the "flag line."

(1) The flag line is centered behind the receiving line and/or the head table.

(2) Flags displayed behind the receiving line or head table are arranged in order of precedence. The flag of the United States is always located at the place of honor, that is, the flag's own right (the observer's left), regardless of the order or location of individuals in the receiving line. When a number of flags are grouped and displayed from a radiating stand, the flag of the United States is in the center and at the highest point of the group.

b. Order of precedence.

(1) The flag of the United States is always displayed when foreign national flags, State flags, positional flags, individual flags, the United States Army flag, or other organizational flags are displayed or carried.

(2) The order of precedence of flags is as follows:

(a) The flag of the United States.

(b) Foreign national flags. Normally, these are displayed in alphabetical order (English alphabet).

(c) Flag of the President of the United States of America.

(d) Normally, the State flags are displayed in order of admittance to the Union. The territorial flags are displayed after the State flags in order of entry into the Union (see app B ).

(e) Military organizational flags in order of precedence or echelon.

(f) Positional flags in order of precedence.

(g) Personal flags in order of rank.

(3) The order of precedence of Service Flags is as follows:

(a) United States Army.

(b) United States Marine Corps.

(c) United States Navy.

(d) United States Air Force.

(e) United States Coast Guard.

(f) Army National Guard.

(g) Army Reserve.

(h) Marine Corps Reserve.

(i) Naval Reserve.

(j) Air National Guard of the United States.

(k) Air Force Reserve.

(l) Coast Guard Reserve.

c. General officer flags.

(1) For each general officer present at the head table of a reception or dinner, only one general officer "star"flag for each grade may be displayed, regardless of the number present for each grade.

(2) If two or more service general officers are participating in an event, star flags for each Service are displayed. The star flag of the senior officer precedes the others.

(3) Positional flags take precedence over personal flags. It is incorrect to display a four-star personal flag for the Chief of Staff or Vice Chief of Staff of the Army. When these individuals visit an installation or agency, someone in the official party normally carries a positional flag for this purpose. Keep in mind that the host's flags are always displayed/flown.

(4) While AR 840-10 does not address the issue of the display of positional or personal flags of guests attending military functions, the HQDA procedure is to display the positional or personal flags of individuals participating in the function. Positional or personal flags of guests in attendance but not participating are not displayed.

(5) Personal colors for retired general officers are not authorized for public display (AR 840-10, para 3-32 ), except when the officer is being honored at an official military ceremony. Also, if the officer is in attendance on the reviewing stand in an official ceremony and the flag displaying his or her rank is not already on display.

d. Flags of other nations. When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximate equal size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another nation in time of peace (4 USCS 7 (2000)). The exception to this is when the President directs that the flag of the United States be flown at half-staff. In this instance the flag of the United States will be flown at half-staff whether or not the flag of another nation is flown at full staff alongside the United States flag.

3-4. Seating arrangements

There are different plans for seating guests at dinners, luncheons, and banquets. The social occasion determines the best plan to use.

a. Usual mixed dinner. The plan in figure 3-1 is the traditional arrangement, with the host and hostess sitting at the head and foot of the table.

(1) Spouses are seated at dinners according to the ranks of their sponsors unless they personally hold official positions. For example: The wife of the man at the right of the hostess normally would sit at the right of the host. Rule to remember: The ranking female sits to the right of the host and the ranking man to the right of the hostess.

(2) All guests are seated by rank since female ambassadors, Cabinet members, and Congresswomen are on precedence lists within their own right and could outrank their husbands, or the senior man could sometimes be a bachelor or a widower. Situations like these would break the customary pattern of seating the husband next to the hostess and the wife next to the host.

(3) In completing the table plan, the second ranking man sits at the left of the hostess; the second ranking woman at the host's left. The third ranking lady sits at the right of the first ranking man; the fourth ranking lady at the left of the second highest-ranking man. This continues until all guests are seated. An exception to this arrangement would be if the guest of honor was an international visitor and language capabilities are in question, raising the need for a translator.

(4) If strict observance of rank would seat a wife next to her husband, one of them is moved. Pick that person to be moved and his new position carefully. Cause as little disruption of rank as possible.

(5) The host and hostess do not give up their positions at the head and foot of the table unless a guest is the president, king, or queen of a country. When this situation occurs, then the visiting dignitary sits at the head of the table and his wife at the other end. To avoid making themselves the "guests of honor" by sitting to the right of the distinguished visitors, the hostess sits to the left of the visitors and the host sits to the left of the visitor's wife. The highest ranking remaining guests would then be seated to the right of the dignitary and his wife. This rule does not apply to the President of the United States and the First Lady. They do not relinquish their places at the head and foot of the table when they are host and hostess.

(6) The plan in figure 3-2 is for large official dinners.

(7) When there is an equal number of males and females, some females must sit at the outside places on one side of the table. In the past this has been considered undesirable. To avoid this, two places may be set at each end of the table. Another way is to seat two females together; that is, move the third and seventh females together, and move the fifth male to the position of the seventh female at the end of the table, or make similar changes with the fourth and eighth female and the sixth man.

(8) When there are more males than females, there will be fewer places on one of the sides of the table, and men will occupy the last positions. Place settings must be spaced farther apart on that side to balance the table.

b. Mixed dinner--multiples of four. Arrangements used for seating guests in multiples of four at the usual mixed dinner are shown in figure 3-3 and figure 3-4 .

(1) The plan in figure 3-3 is used when all couples are married.

(2) The plan in figure 3-4 is suggested when a couple (such as the fifth ranking man and woman) are not married. They should be seated side by side.

(3) At tables of 8, 12, or any multiple of 4, the host and hostess cannot sit opposite each other without putting two males or two females together if there is an equal number of each present. To balance the table, the hostess moves one seat to the left, putting her right-hand guest opposite the host.

c. Mixed dinner--single host or hostess. A single host or hostess, or a host or hostess entertaining in the absence of his or her spouse, may choose from several seating arrangements. The most suitable plan depends on the number, importance, and marital status of the guests.

(1) The plan in figure 3-5 is suggested for a small dinner of 8 to 10 when a hostess or co-host/hostess is not desired. Usually this is the plan when the guest of honor is married and is not accompanied by his spouse.

(2) The plan in figure 3-6 is suggested when the ranking male and female are not married to each other and the single host or hostess does not wish to have a hostess or co-host/co-hostess at a dinner in multiples of four.

d. Mixed dinner--round table. The round table is used for large or small groups. This seating arrangement is very successful in stimulating conversation. A seating arrangement for either is shown in figure 3-7 . This table arrangement is good for hosts who prefer not to be the center of attention.

e. Gentlemen--dinners and luncheons. Figures 3-8 through 3-11 show plans for seating guests at gentlemen only parties or luncheons.

(1) The arrangement for host and co-host is in figure 3-8 . Since the table for a large gentlemen only dinner or luncheon is usually long and narrow, the host and co-host generally sit opposite one another at the center of the table.

(2) The planning figure 3-9 is used if the party is small or if a co-host is not desired.

(3) Another lunch or dinner arrangement at which the host presides alone is in figure 3-10 .

(4) The arrangement of the host and co-host at a round table is in figure 3-11 .

f. Ladies' luncheons. The plans in figures 3-8 through 3-11 may be used for seating ladies at luncheons. A member of the hostess' family or a close friend, other than the guest of honor, may act as a co-hostess.

g. Speaker's table at banquet. The seating arrangement at a speaker's banquet is shown in figure 3-12 . The host should seat lower ranking toastmasters and speakers as near to the center of the table with the least possible disturbance to another precedence. Lower ranking toastmasters and speakers are seated as to remain as inconspicuous as possible.

3-5. Formal dinners

Completely formal entertaining has practically disappeared from the American social scene because it requires a well-trained staff and expensive table furnishings. For these reasons, informal dinners have now become the norm. Details of strictly correct service, elaborate table settings, and formal menus can all be studied in general etiquette books. There may be times when the traditional formality of the past may need to be observed on some occasions, such as White House state dinners or when abroad. Thus, a few principles are reviewed here to help those who may be required to attend a formal dinner.

a. Dinner partners. At formal dinners, each man escorts the dinner partner, who sits on his right, to the dinner table.

(1) Each man may learn his partner's name from cards in small envelopes arranged on a silver tray in the entrance hall (see sample card in fig 3-13 ). At large dinners in hotels or clubs, a tray of name cards is usually placed in the room where cocktails are served.

(2) Each man opens his envelope or card in time to meet his dinner partner. The host makes certain that every man either knows or is presented to his dinner partner. At large official dinners, the aides make the introductions.

(3) After noting the name of his dinner partner on his card, each man checks the seating chart. The chart is usually displayed near the tray of name cards. It is generally a table-shaped board that shows the location of each guest's seat at the table.

(4) The host leads the way to the dining room. He escorts the ranking female and seats her at his right. The hostess comes next with the ranking male, unless the guest of honor is of a very high position. In this case, the host (hostess) and guest of honor enter the dining room first. The host or hostess and ranking female (male) enter next. All other guests follow in pairs, in no particular order of precedence.

b. Place cards.

(1) The place cards most generally used are heavy white cards about 2 inches high and 3 inches long. The flag of the hosting official or general officer or a unit crest may be embossed or stamped in the upper left corner or top center. The title or rank and surname are handwritten in black ink. If two people of the same rank and last name are present, a first initial may be used.

(2) Sergeants through master sergeants are referred to as "sergeant." Sergeants major and command sergeants major as, "Sergeant Major." Second lieutenant and a first lieutenant are referred to as "Lieutenant," and lieutenant colonels and colonels as "Colonel,"and all general officers as "General."

c. Smoking at the table. Smoking between courses or before the toasts is frowned upon at dinners. The safest rule to follow is, when there is the slightest doubt about smoking, don't. Remember, too, that most dinner guests do not appreciate the aroma of pipe and cigar smoke.

d. Interpreters. An interpreter may be required at a dinner for a foreign dignitary. The interpreter should sit close to the dignitary and the person for whom he/she is interpreting. Typical seating plans for an event requiring an interpreter are shown at figures 3-14 and 3-15 . The interpreter's duties are so demanding that he or she will find it difficult to eat and interpret effectively at the same time. However, this does not preclude the interpreter from being seated at the table to the right of the foreign dignitary and being served as are the other dinner guests.

e. Thank you notes.

(1) A thoughtful guest will always write a thank you note to the host/hostess who has entertained him or her. It is also thoughtful to send flowers or a gift for very special occasions.

(2) It is generally not necessary to write a thank you note for large official functions, such as a reception to which hundreds of guests have been invited.

3-6. Toasts

a. Toasts are given upon various occasions--at wedding receptions, dinners, birthday parties, anniversaries, and dining-ins/outs. Today we honor individuals and/or institutions by raising our glasses in a salute while expressing good wishes and drinking to that salute. Etiquette calls for all to participate in a toast. Even non-drinkers should at least raise the glass to the salute.

b. Those offering a toast, male or female, should stand, raise the glass in a salute while uttering the expression of good will. Meanwhile, the individual(s) being toasted should remain seated, nod in acknowledgment, and refrain from drinking to one's own toast. Later, they may stand, thank the others, and offer a toast in return. A female may respond with a toast or she may remain seated, smile at the person who toasted her and raise her glass in a gesture of "Thanks, and here's to you."

c. At a formal event, the host initiates the toasting, Mr. Vice/Madame Vice at a Dining-in/out, or any guest when the occasion is informal. The subject of the toast is always based upon the type of occasion. General toasts would be "to your health," or to "success and happiness," although special occasions such as weddings or birthdays would require toasts more specific in nature such as, "to Mary and John for a lifetime of happiness and love" in the case of a wedding, or on a birthday, "may your next 25 years be as happy and as successful as your first 25 years."

d. When you are the one making the toasts at a formal occasion, you must be well prepared. You must have advance information about the person or persons to be toasted in order that your remarks are pertinent, related to the individual, and are accurate. If he or she is a close friend, you may make a more personal remark.

e. Toasts are generally given at the end of a meal, during or after dessert as soon as the wine or champagne is served and before any speeches are made. Toasts at dining-ins or dining-outs are often presented just prior to being seating for the meal.

f. At a small dinner a toast may be proposed by anyone as soon as the first wine has been served, and guests stand only if the person giving the toast stands. More than one toast may be drunk with the same glass of wine.

g. When toasting Prisoners of War water should be used as the toasting beverage.

h. For toasts to foreign guests or to heads of state, see appendix C or contact HQDA (SAUS-IA-FL), Foreign Liaison Protocol, at (703) 697-4762 or DSN: 227-4762.



Figure 3-1. Usual mixed dinner





Figure 3-2. Usual large official dinner





Figure 3-3. Married couples at mixed dinner





Figure 3-4. Unmarried couples (No. 5) at mixed dinner





Figure 3-5. Small mixed dinner (no hostess) (guest of honor and spouse are at No. 2)





Figure 3-6. Small mixed dinner (no hostess)





Figure 3-7. Roundtable seating arrangement





Figure 3-8. Stag dinner with host and co-host





Figure 3-9. Stag dinner with no co-host





Figure 3-10. Another stag dinner arrangement with no co-host





Figure 3-11. Stag dinner at roundtable with host and co-host





Figure 3-12. Speaker's table at a banquet





Figure 3-13. Sample of a dinner card





Figure 3-14. Roundtable seating plan





Figure 3-15. Rectangular or square seating plan


Chapter 4
Ceremonies

4-1. Rendering honors

a. Military ceremony. This section is intended to provide general information with regard to rendering of honors by both military and civilian participants and attendees at military ceremonies. For this publication, participants are defined as anyone participating in a ceremony and who would normally be on the reviewing stand or located with the host of the ceremony. Attendee is defined as anyone attending a ceremony as a guest or onlooker and who is not located on the reviewing stand or with the host. Neither definition applies to units participating in a ceremony (that is, platoons, companies, batteries, troops, color guards, and so forth). For information on the actual conduct of ceremonies, see Field Manual (FM) 22-5, Drill and Ceremonies, and obtain additional guidance on parades and reviews from Commander, Military District of Washington (ATTN: ANC&SE), Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, DC 20319.

b. Cannon salute accompanied by musical honors.

(1) Participants. Military in uniform--render the hand salute; military and civilians in civilian attire--stand at attention, and if wearing headdress, remove it (except that women never remove their headdress). Individuals being honored will salute as well.

(2) Attendees. Military in uniform--face the ceremonial party and render the hand salute; military and civilians in civilian attire--face the ceremonial party and stand at attention and if wearing headdress, remove it (except that women never remove a headdress).

c. During the national anthem and foreign anthems.

(1) Participants. While outdoors, military in uniform stand at attention and render the hand salute, while indoors they stand at attention. While outdoors or indoors, civilians stand at attention holding their headdress over their left shoulder with their right hand over the heart, if no headdress, they hold their right hand over their heart. While outdoors or indoors, military in civilian attire stand at attention holding their headdress over their left shoulder. If no headdress, they stand at attention.

(2) Attendees. Same as for participants.

d. During passing of colors.

(1) Participants. Military in uniform--(outdoors) stand at attention and render the hand salute when the Colors come within six paces and hold the salute until the Colors are six paces beyond; (indoors) stand at attention six paces before and after the Colors. Civilians--(outdoors) stand at attention holding headdress with the right hand over the left shoulder and with the right hand over the heart (if no headdress, hold the right hand over the heart); (indoors) stand at attention.

(2) Attendees. Same as for participants.

e. During a military funeral (flag draped casket). Anytime the casket is being moved--while standing still and in civilian clothes (outdoors), stand at attention with the right hand over the heart; (indoors) stand at attention. If in uniform (outdoors), salute; while indoors and in uniform, stand at attention. One may follow behind the casket with the mourners; it is not necessary to stay in place when the casket moves. For more definitive guidance, see AR 600-25 , appendix A.

4-2. Sequence of events

a. Standard sequence of events. The outlined below is a standard sequence of events followed at the greater majority of ceremonies. In some cases, a modified sequence of events is used to fit the particular ceremony at hand.
Pre-Review Concert
Formation of Troops
Arrival of Reviewing Official
March On
Honors
Sound Off
Inspection
Honors to the Nation
(Presentation of Award, promotion, retirement)
Remarks
March in Review

b. Modified sequence of events. The following outlines are suggested sequences for the appropriate ceremonies. In some cases, a modified sequence of events is used to fit the particular ceremony.

(1) Retirement ceremony.
Pre-ceremony concert/entertainment
Ceremony begins
March On
Honors
Sound Off
Inspection
Colors Advanced
Honors to the Nation
Presentation of Award (if applicable) then Retirement Certificate to the Retiree
Presentation of Award (if applicable) then Certificate of Appreciation to Spouse
Colors Posted
Remarks by: Host Retiree
March in Review
Final Musical Salute
Receiving Line

(2) Award ceremony.
Ceremony begins
Official Party is announced
Remarks by Host (Award Presenter)
Presentation of Award
Remarks by Award Recipient
Receiving Line

(3) Promotion ceremony.
Ceremony begins
Official Party is announced
Remarks by Host
Promotion Orders are read
Rank Insignia is pinned on
Remarks by Promoted Individual and presentation of flowers/gifts to spouse/family members (if applicable)
Receiving Line

(4) Retreat ceremony.

(a) The unit is formed facing the flag five minutes (if possible) before the sounding of retreat.

(b) Four minutes before the sounding of retreat, the adjutant or other appointed officer takes his position centered on and facing the line of troops and commands, "Battalion, Attention" and then, "Parade, Rest" .

(c) The adjutant faces about and executes parade rest. On the last note of "Retreat," the evening gun is fired. The adjutant then comes to attention, faces about, and commands, "Battalion, Attention, and Present, Arms" so that the unit is at present arms when the first note of "To the Color" or the National Anthem is sounded. The adjutant then faces about and executes present arms. The adjutant's salute is the signal for the band to begin playing to "To the Color."

(d) At the last note of "To the Color"or the National Anthem, the adjutant faces about, commands "Order, Arms," and then directs "Take Charge of Your Units."

(e) Unit commanders render the hand salute. The adjutant returns all salutes with one salute. This terminates the retreat formation.

4-3. Display of flags

Although AR 840-10 , Flags, Guidons, Streamers, Tabards, and Automobile and Aircraft Plates, covers in depth the use and etiquette for flags, some common sense rules need to be emphasized.

a. When displayed in a line, flags may be set up in one of two ways: from the flag's right to left (the most common method) or with the highest precedence flag in the center if no foreign national colors are present. When set up from right to left, the highest precedence flag always goes on the right of all other flags. In other words, as you look at the flag display from the audience, the highest precedence flag (normally the U.S. flag) is on your far left, other flags extend to your right in descending precedence. When setup with the highest precedence flag in the center, other flags are placed, in descending precedence, first to the right, then to the left, alternating back and forth (see AR 840-10, fig 2-3 ).

b. Some points to remember when displaying flags:

(1) When the U.S. flag is displayed with foreign national flags, all flags will be comparable in size. The flagstaffs or flagpoles on which they are flown will be of equal height. The tops of all flags should be of equal distance from the ground (AR 840-10, para 2-4b ).

(2) The Flagstaff head (finial) is the decorative ornament at the top of a flagstaff. The only finials authorized on the flag by Army organizations are the--

(a) Eagle (Presidential Flagstaffs).

(b) Spearhead (the only device used with Army flags).

(c) Acorn (markers and marking pennants flagstaffs).

(d) Ball (outdoor wall mounted for advertising or recruiting) (AR 840-10, para 8-2 ).

(3) When displaying the Army flag, the Lexington 1775 and Kosovo Air Campaign streamers are always positioned at the center facing forward (AR 840-10, para 6).

(4) Ensure all finials are positioned in the same direction. For most Army flags, this means that the flat portion of the finial is facing forward.

(5) Ensure that general officer personal flags are hung on the staff right side up. When properly hung, the point of the star (stars) will point to the right as the flag is viewed.

(6) When displaying the flag of the Chief of Staff, Army, or Vice Chief of Staff, Army, don't confuse the two. The Chief of Staff's flag has one diagonal, while the flag of the Vice Chief of Staff has two diagonals.

(7) When using spreaders to display flags (spreaders are horizontal devices that allow the flag to "flair" slightly, thereby giving it a better appearance), ensure the flag is draped across the spreader from the flag's left to right.

(8) Ensure the U.S. flag is always the same height or higher than all other flags on display. This also holds true for other national colors being used in the same display.

4-4. Seating

Seating at ceremonies has always been a cause for concern. Generally, there are two areas that must be considered: seating of the official party and seating of guests.

a. Seating the official party. Consideration must primarily begin with the reviewing officer. The reviewing officer is the key individual in the official party even though the host is in charge. Field Manual 22-5, chapter 9, clearly points out the positions of the official party and should be followed in preparation of the ceremony.

b. Seating of guests. Normally the personal guests of the reviewing officer and distinguished guests are seated to the rear of the dais (reviewing stand) on the right side facing the line of troops. Protocol dictates that the families of both be seated first, followed by the senior ranking non-family guest.

c. Overview seating. On the left rear of the dais, VIP guest seating in the front row is normally used for overflow and to recognize the importance of the personal friends. Depending on the number of seats available, guests expected, and wishes of the reviewing officer, the personally invited guests should be as close to the reviewing party as possible.

Chapter 5
Order of Precedence

5-1. Determining precedence order

a. This chapter contains some general rules that should be followed when determining precedence order.

b. In unofficial life, precedence is determined according to age, friendship, and the prominence of the guests. Age naturally receives deference, as do clergymen and persons of scholastic distinction, unless there is a noticeable difference in age.

c. In a private home, a foreign guest is always given the place of honor unless someone of advanced age is present. A stranger (such as a house guest brought by a friend), an out-of-town guest, or a guest invited for the first time has precedence over frequent guests or relatives.

d. In official life, protocol governs the precedence of government, ecclesiastical, and diplomatic personnel. Age is not honored in itself. A young official precedes an older one if the office of the younger one is higher. There is only one official precedence list, and it is the responsibility of the Chief of Protocol in the State Department.

e. Unlike other countries with "official" lists of precedence, custom and tradition have established the order of precedence in the United States (see app D ).

f. In the United States, official position is determined by election or appointment to office or by promotion within the military establishment. The relative importance of different offices is weighed. The date an office was established determines its seniority.

g. Military rank takes precedence over the principle of "courtesy to the stranger." For example, a visiting foreign officer at an American dinner given in his honor may not be seated in the guest of honor's seat if another foreign dignitary or foreign officer of higher rank is a guest also. When it is impossible to avoid inviting someone of higher rank other than the guest of honor, the host must decide whether to--

(1) Ask the ranking guest to waive his right for the occasion in favor of the guest of honor.

(2) Seat the guests strictly according to precedence, even if it places the guest of honor well down the table (when ambassadors and very high ranking guests are present, this plan must be followed).

(3) Make the senior guest the co-host.

h. A visiting foreign officer is given precedence over an American officer of a slightly higher rank. But, a foreign officer is only seated ahead of the Chief of Staff of the Army if the foreign officer is of the same rank or greater position in his own country.

i. A hierarchy of the church determines protocol within ecclesiastical circles.

j. Diplomatic precedence has been established by international agreement dating from the Regulation of Vienna of 19 March 1815. The precedence of the various Chiefs of Mission is decided by their length of service in the receiving country. The sending country's size, date of independence, and importance in international affairs usually are not considered when establishing precedence.

(1) An ambassador accredited in May 1976 precedes another accredited in January 1977. An ambassador, however, always precedes a minister.

(2) Below the rank of charge d'affaire, precedence is established according to the position in the mission. For example, when the British Ambassador ranks the Danish Ambassador, the British First Secretary precedes the Danish First Secretary at dinners. A change of ambassador or ministers alters the relative positions of the entire staff. An ambassador traveling on leave or visiting his or her home country does not have the same status as when "on post."

(3) Although other officials may concede their positions on certain occasions, the Chief of the Mission, as the representative of his or her government, never yields his or her place.

k. When persons without protocol ranking are included at an official dinner, age, local prominence, and mutual interests are considered when seating unofficial guests. Linguistic ability may also be a deciding factor when foreign guests are present. After the guest of honor and second ranking official have been seated, non-ranking guests may be placed between those of official rank in the most congenial arrangement.

l. At times it may not be possible to give a dignitary the seat that is due by protocol. The host should express his regrets to the guest as soon as he or she arrives and explain the reason for the breach of protocol.

m. In spite of all these established rules, protocol does not cover some unforeseen situations, such as a newly created official position, or the appointment of a female to a diplomatic or Cabinet post where her official position may far outrank that of her husband. Common sense and discretion usually resolve problems such as these.

n. Protocol and precedence vary from country to country. For the proper protocol to observe in a foreign country, contact the protocol service in that country's ministry of foreign affairs or equivalent department. The highest ranking local official sometimes determines protocol.

5-2. Individuals frocked to a higher grade

These individuals are entitled to all honors, courtesies, and benefits of the higher grade except for pay and allowances. They are, therefore, seated ahead of others in their actual pay grade but behind all individuals actually holding the rank to which frocked. When more than one frocked person is present (frocked to the same rank), effective date of frocking will dictate precedence.

5-3. Individuals on approved promotion lists

Such individuals differ from those who are frocked to the next higher grade in that they continue to wear the insignia of rank of the current pay grade. There is no requirement to allow their seating above others in the same rank and grade.

5-4. Sergeant Major of the Army

At Army official and social functions, conferences, meetings, and ceremonies, the Sergeant Major of the Army (SMA) is accorded protocol ranking equivalent to a general officer. He or she should be ranked behind the last four star general officer or civilian equivalent. However, if the Director of the Army Staff is present, the Sergeant Major of the Army is ranked immediately following the Director of the Army Staff. These courtesies should, in addition to seating, include billeting, transportation, and parking consistent with existing Army regulations. Among the senior enlisted representatives of each Service, precedence is determined by Service seniority when at Army events. When the SMA is visiting a command or installation, that command's command sergeant major should be consulted on protocol issues involving the SMA. A former SMA retains the rank of Sergeant Major of the Army and should be afforded similar courtesies as the SMA. When the SMA and one or more former SMAs are present, the serving SMA takes precedence, and the former SMAs are ranked by date of rank as SMA. In the case of a SMA who held the rank of CSM, use the date of appointment as SMA.

5-5. Retired Army officers

Retired officers are ranked following active duty officers of the same grade. They are ranked in order of recency of retirement, not by age. Former Chiefs of Staff of the Army are ranked immediately following the current CSA and in order of recency of retirement. For example, the last CSA to retire will be ranked first after the current CSA. Retired Army officers are authorized to wear the uniform of the highest grade held during their active service on ceremonial occasions such as military funerals, memorial services, inaugurals, patriotic parades, national holidays, or other military parades or ceremonies in which any Active Army or Reserve unit is taking part (see AR 670-1 , para 29-3). Retired general officers of the Regular Army, ARNG, and USAR may display their individual flags privately in their homes. Public display of individual flags is prohibited except when the officer is being honored at an official military ceremony or the officer is in attendance on the reviewing stand in an official military ceremony and another flag depicting his or her rank is not already displayed.

Chapter 6
Forms of Address

6-1. Overview

As part of their official duties, Army officers and their spouses may be required to take part in social functions in the United States and overseas. This chapter provides general rules that will be helpful.

6-2. High officials

Address high officials such as presidents, ambassadors, and Cabinet members by their titles only, never by name. When addressing the spouse of the President, alone or together with the President, use only the surname, never her full name or initials. Spouses of high-ranking officials, including the Vice President and Cabinet members, do not share their spouse's official titles; therefore, write and address them in the usual way.

6-3. Elected officials

Address all Presidential appointees and Federal and State elected officials as "The Honorable." As a general rule, do not address county and city officials (excluding mayors) as "The Honorable."

6-4. Use of "His Excellency"

Although the courtesy title "His Excellency" is accorded to high foreign officials, it is rarely used in addressing officials of the United States. However, some Governors within their own States are accorded this title.

6-5. Distinguished officials

Table 6-1 shows the titles and forms of address for some distinguished officials of the United States. Locate other listings of titles and forms of address in Protocol by Mary Jane McCaffree and Pauline Innis. For questions concerning titles and forms of address, contact Department of the Army Protocol, Office of the Chief of Staff Army (DACS-DSP), DSN 227-0692.

Table 6-1. Titles and forms of address for U.S. officials
Official Form of address
The President of the United States
Envelope:
Official The President
The White House
Washington, DC 20500
Social The President and Mrs. Doe (surname only)
Wife of President Mrs. Doe (surname only)
Salutation Dear Mr. President
Dear Mr. President and Mrs. Doe
Complimentary Close
Respectfully
or Respectfully yours
Invitation The President
Or, if abroad:
The President of the United States of
America and Mrs. Doe
Introductions Same as above
Wife of President The First Lady, Mrs. Doe (Surname only)
Conversation Mr. President
Or, in prolonged conversation: Sir
   
The Vice President of the United States
Envelope:
Official The Vice President
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510
Social The Vice President and Mrs. Smith
(Surname only)
(Home address)
Wife of Vice President Mrs. John Charles Smith
Salutation Dear Mr. Vice President
Dear Mr. Vice President and Mrs. Smith
Complimentary Close Respectfully or Respectfully yours
Invitation The Vice President
Or, if abroad:
The Vice President of the United States
of America and Mrs. Smith
Conversation Mr. Vice President
Or, in prolonged conversation: Sir
   
United States Senator
Envelope:
Official The Honorable John Doe
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510
Social The Honorable John Doe and Mrs. Doe
Salutation Dear Senator Doe
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitations Senator (and Mrs.) Doe
Place card Senator Doe
Mrs. Doe
Introductions Senator Doe or The Honorable John
Doe, United States Senator from (State)
Conversation Senator Doe or Senator
When the senator is a woman : Use Senator
   
United States Representative
Envelope:
Official The Honorable John Doe
House of Representatives
Washington, DC 20515
Social The Honorable John Doe and Mrs. Doe
Salutation Dear Mr. Doe
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitation Mr. (and Mrs.) Doe
Place Card Mr. Doe
Introductions Mr. Doe or The Honorable John Doe
Representative from (State)
Conversation Mr. Doe
When the Representative is a woman: Use Mrs. or Miss
   
Secretary of Defense
Envelope:
Official The Honorable John Charles Doe
Secretary of Defense
Washington, DC 20301
Social The Honorable John Charles Doe
The Secretary of Defense and Mrs. Doe
Wife of Cabinet Member Mrs. John Charles Doe
Salutation Dear Mr. Secretary and Mrs. Doe
Complimentary Close Respectfully or Sincerely
Invitation The Secretary of Defense (and Mrs. Doe)
Place Card The Secretary of Defense
Mrs. Doe
Introductions Secretary Doe or The Secretary of
Defense, Mr. Doe or
The Honorable John Charles Doe,
Secretary of Defense
Conversation Mr. Secretary or Mr. Doe or Sir
   
Secretaries of the Armed Services
Envelope:
Official The Honorable John Charles Doe
Secretary of the Army (Navy, Air
Force)
Social The Honorable John Charles Doe
Secretary of the Army (Navy, Air
Force) and Mrs. Doe
Salutation Dear Mr. Secretary
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitation The Secretary of the Army (Navy, Air
Force) and Mrs. Doe
Place Card The Secretary of the Army (Navy, Air
Force) Mrs. Doe
Introductions Secretary Doe or The Secretary of the
Army (Navy, Air Force) or
The Honorable John Thomas Doe, Secretary
of the Army (Navy, Air Force)
Conversation Mr. Secretary or Mr. Doe
   
Governor of a State
Envelope:
Official The Honorable John Thomas Doe
Governor of California (City, State)
Social The Honorable
The Governor of California
and Mrs. Doe
Salutation Dear Governor Doe
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitation The Governor of California
(and Mrs. Doe)
Place Card The Governor of California
Introductions Governor Doe
or
The Honorable John Thomas Doe, Governor of California (or the State of California)
Conversation Governor Doe or Governor or Sir
   
Mayor
Envelope:
Official The Honorable John Joseph Doe
Mayor of San Francisco (State, ZIP)
Social The Honorable John Joseph Doe and
Mrs. Doe
Salutation Dear Mayor Doe
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitation The Mayor of San Francisco (and Mrs. Doe)
Place Card Mayor Doe
Introductions Mayor Doe
or
The Honorable Joseph Doe
Mayor of San Francisco (or the city of)
Conversation Mayor Doe or Mr. Mayor or Sir
When the Mayor is a woman: Use Mayor, Mrs., or Miss
   
Assistant Secretaries
Envelope:
Official The Honorable John Doe
Assistant Secretary of the Army
for . . .
Washington, DC 20310
Social The Honorable John Doe and Mrs. Doe
Salutation Dear Mr. Doe
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitation: Mr. (and Mrs.) Doe
Place Card Mr. Doe
Introductions Mr. Doe
or
The Honorable John Doe,
Assistant Secretary of the Army
for. . .
Conversation Mr. Doe
   
Officers
Envelope:
Official (full rank) John Charles Doe, USA
(USAF, USMC)
Social (full rank) and Mrs. John Charles Doe
When the officer is a women:
(full rank) Mary Smith Doe and Mr. John Smith
Salutation Dear General, Colonel, Lieutenant Doe
(Use General for all grades of general,
Colonel for colonel and lieutenant
colonel, and Lieutenant for all grades of
lieutenant)
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitation General, Colonel, Lieutenant (and Mrs.,
Mr.) Doe
(Use General for all grades of general,
Colonel for colonel and lieutenant
colonel, and Lieutenant for all grades of
lieutenant)
When the officer is a women:
(full rank) Mary Smith Doe and Mr. John Smith
Place Card General, Colonel, Lieutenant Doe
Conversation General, Colonel, Lieutenant Doe
(full rank) (full name) (position title)
   
Warrant officer (man or woman)
 
Salutation Dear Mr. (Mrs.) (Miss) Jones
Invitation Chief Warrant Officer (and Mrs.) Doe
Chief Warrant Officer (and Mr.) Doe
Place card Mr. (Mrs.) (Miss) Doe
   
Enlisted personnel
Envelope:
Official (full rank) John Charles Doe, USA
(USAF, USMC)
Social (full rank) and Mrs. John Charles Doe
When the soldier is a women:
(full rank) Mary Smith Doe and
Mr. John Smith
Salutation  
Sergeant Major of the Army Dear Sergeant Major of the Army
Command Sergeant Major
Sergeant Major
Dear Sergeant Major
First Sergeant Dear First Sergeant
Master Sergeant Dear Master Sergeant
Sergeant First Class
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
Dear Sergeant
Complimentary Close Sincerely
Invitation (full rank) and Mrs. John Charles Doe
When the soldier is a women:
(full rank) Mary Smith Doe and
Mr. John Smith
Place Card  
Sergeant Major of the Army Sergeant Major of the Army
Command Sergeant Major Sergeant Major Doe
Sergeant Major Sergeant Major Doe
First Sergeant
Master Sergeant
Sergeant First Class
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
Sergeant Doe

Chapter 7
Arranging Visits for Dignitaries

7-1. Planning

a. At HQDA level an executive agent is designated to plan the visit of a foreign dignitary. At other levels the respective protocol offices execute the planning for the visit of a dignitary with guidance from an executive agent or specific requests from the dignitary. An aide for a U.S. dignitary will coordinate with the executive agent or local protocol project officer. The aide or escort officer may experience certain logistic, social, and protocol problems. Often the itinerary has been clearly defined by higher authority, and all that is required of the aide or escort officer is to carry out the plan. However, an inexperienced planner may fail to anticipate unexpected and troublesome details. Imaginative forethought combined with common sense will generally avoid embarrassing surprises. Careful consideration must also be given to security requirements in the early planning stages of the visit.

b. The last minute details of the visit must be carefully planned and a realistic timetable established. The names of all persons in any way associated with the visit, their exact duties and schedules, and the transportation of persons and luggage should all be laid out well in advance.

c. Planning should include, but not be limited to, the elements below.

(1) Ensure that all arrangements, including reservations for hotels and restaurants, are in writing.

(2) Provide for special dietary needs required by national custom, religious convictions, or individual dietary restrictions.

(3) Ensure that dignitaries are met and seen off by officers of equal rank whenever possible. As a general rule, this requires that a general officer be present at the arrival and departure of a general officer on an official visit.

(4) Ensure that all drivers of the official party are briefed regarding their schedules and are given exact directions so that they can operate independently if they become separated from the other vehicles.

(5) Ensure a folder is prepared for each member of the visiting party. The folder should contain, as a minimum, a map of the area, the local itinerary, and lists of room assignments and telephone numbers.

(6) Provide billeting for the escort officer in the same building as the dignitary when possible. If not, make suitable transportation available to the escort.

(7) Set aside enough time in the schedule for meetings, calls, meals, changes of clothes, coffee breaks, visits to shopping facilities, occasional rest periods, and transportation. The planner should actually time the travel from place to place and allow extra time for boarding vehicles and transferring baggage.

(8) Ensure an aide is available from their own armed service. Frequently, aides are officers of the highest caliber and are destined for future positions of authority in their country. They will form lasting impressions about the United States and the Army, based on the treatment they receive as members of a visiting party. Give special attention to their transportation, dining, and recreational needs. Their living accommodations at least should be single rooms in hotels and in distinguished visitors quarters. Room assignments should be in keeping with their status as members of a dignitary's party rather than their rank.

(9) Carefully plan the schedules for spouses of guests, especially those of foreign guests. Determine their interests and make plans for the following:

(a) Sightseeing trips to places of historic interest, scenic views, or whatever the local area offers.

(b) Shopping tours (if there are excellent stores offering American-made products). These may include fashion shows.

(c) Luncheons. If the dignitary is given a staff luncheon, his wife is given a luncheon by her American hostess or another high ranking official's wife. American officials wives attend. Notable local citizens are invited, such as those of the same national origin as the guest and the wives of consular officials in the area.

(d) Tea hosted by one of several American wives to honor the visitor and her companions.

7-2. The escort officer

a. The selection of an escort officer is a difficult task. The choice cannot be based solely on the availability of a particular officer. Not all officers are suitable as an escort because they have differences in appearance, bearing, background, and experience.

b. In many cases, it is necessary to select an officer with a speaking knowledge of the guest's language. An officer with absolute fluency, however, may be a less suitable escort officer than another having somewhat less fluency.

c. There are effective escort officers at all levels and in any organization. At times, a commander may not want to part with a valued subordinate even for a few days. The officer planning the visit must then use great tact and convince the commander that the foreign dignitary's visit is in the best interest of the nation and the Army.

d. The overall escort officer has charge of the entire visit or tour, but it may be advisable to appoint a local escort officer who is familiar with the local installation or activity that the dignitary is to visit.

e. The local escort officer should be chosen carefully and briefed on the local schedule. The briefing, including likely problems and best solutions, should include the following often overlooked points:

(1) Uniform requirements are made for all planned activities. Escorts must know that they too have to be in the prescribed uniform for the event.

(2) The local escort officer must keep the overall escort officer informed of the schedule and any changes to it. The local escort officer makes every attempt to avoid surprise. The overall escort officer is informed of any special requests or wishes of the dignitary.

(3) Both escort officers must know where emergency type facilities (that is, dry cleaners, shoe repair, and so forth) are located so that they can take care of any requirements the dignitary or escort may have.

(4) The overall escort officer is told of the toasts to be offered at formal luncheons and dinners and for the correct responses to them. The overall escort officer must also know about any speeches or press interviews that are to be given by the dignitary.

(5) The escorts must have information or reference material on handling any emergency, such as messing, transportation, and medical needs.

(6) It is wise to have an escort for a foreign wife. When choosing her escort, consider her language, age, and position. Escorts may be female officers or Service wives whose language capabilities, travel, or position would make them valuable to the guest.

7-3. Entertaining foreign dignitaries

In planning a local schedule, the tendency is to resort to the more ordinary entertainment since it is easiest to plan. Use distinctive local resources to vary the guests' exposure to American entertainment. By sharing the responsibility of host with different groups, visitors are exposed to larger social circles. Local civic organizations are often willing to help entertain visiting dignitaries. Although many prefer to invite persons of equal position to a dinner or small party, some variety may improve larger functions such as receptions. When possible, include guests of the same national origin as the guest of honor, as well as a representative selection of junior officers.

a. Menus. At the same time the invitations are sent out, the menu should be planned. The most important aspect in planning menus for foreign guests is dietary restrictions. Guests may say that once they are outside their country, they conform to local customs (see table 7-1 for a record of dietary restrictions by country). Individual dietary restrictions may vary. When entertaining foreign guests, it is best, when in doubt, to contact the State Department Office of Protocol or the embassy of the foreign country.

b. Beverages. Many foreign guests do not drink alcoholic beverages. The host should provide a complete range of drinks from orange juice, light alcoholic beverages (such as Compari and soda) to heavier drinks, such as scotch and soda.

c. Aids to entertainment. Biographic notes on guests and country information sheets are invaluable in aiding conversation. Sending guest lists to U.S. guests helps them become familiar with foreign names. Names that have pronunciations unfamiliar to English-speaking persons may be spelled phonetically as well. The same courtesy may be extended to foreign guests.

Table 7-1. Record of dietary restrictions
Country No beef No pork No restriction Other
ARGENTINA     X  
AUSTRALIA     X  
AUSTRIA     X  
BELGIUM     X  
BOLIVIA     X  
BRAZIL     X  
BULGARIA     X  
BURMA     X  
CAMEROON     X  
CANADA     X  
CHILE     X  
CHINA     X  
COLOMBIA     X  
CZECHOSLOVAKIA     X  
DENMARK     X  
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC     X  
ECUADOR     X  
EGYPT   X    
EL SALVADOR     X  
ETHIOPIA     X  
FINLAND     X  
FRANCE     X  
GERMANY     X  
GHANA     X  
GREAT BRITIAN     X  
GREECE     X  
GUATEMALA     X  
HAITI     X  
HONDURAS     X  
HUNGARY     X  
INDIA X X    
INDONESIA   X    
IRAN   X    
ISRAEL   X   X
ITALY     X  
JAPAN     X  
JORDAN   X    
KOREA     X  
LEBANON   X    
MALASYIA   X    
MEXICO     X  
MOROCCO   X    
NEPAL X      
NETHERLANDS     X  
NEW ZEALAND     X  
NICARAGUA     X  
NIGERIA     X  
NORWAY     X  
PAKISTAN   X    
PANAMA     X  
PARAGUAY     X  
PERU     X  
PHILIPPINES     X  
POLAND     X  
PORTUGAL     X  
ROMANIA     X  
SAUDI ARABIA   X    
SOUTH AFRICA     X  
SPAIN     X  
SWEDEN     X  
SWITZERLAND     X  
THAILAND X      
TUNISIA   X    
TURKEY   X    
USSR     X  
URUGUAY     X  
VENEZUELA     X  
YUGOSLAVIA     X  
ZAIRE     X  

Chapter 8
Guide to Proper Dress

8-1. Proper dress for a military or social function

The guidance shown at table 8-1 is for Army personnel to use in choosing the proper dress while attending a military or social function. The occasions listed are those for which a guest would normally receive a written invitation. For correct uniform composition, accessories, insignia, and accouterments, see AR 670-1 . Table 8-2 provides guidance on the dress codes normally used today.

8-2. Tie worn with Army blue and Army white uniforms

The four-in-hand tie is worn with the Army blue and Army white uniforms at functions that begin in the afternoon and before the hour of retreat. The host may prescribe either the four-in-hand or bow tie for evening affairs according to the degree of formality.

8-3. Wear of the Army white uniform

The Army white uniform may be worn as prescribed by local commanders in areas that require this uniform ( AR 670-1 ), or in other areas as the individual wishes.

8-4. Equivalent uniforms of Army and other Services

Table 8-3 and table 8-4 contain the uniform equivalency and occasions for wear by males and females in the Army, Marine Corps, Navy/Coast Guard, and Air Force. It also contains the appropriate attire for female and male civilian spouse/escorts.

Table 8-1. Army uniform/civilian attire
Occasion/function Civilian attire Army uniforms Ladies attire
Ceremonies, parades, reviews, official visits of foreign dignitaries Coat and tie Army blue with four-in-hand, Army green Afternoon dress/suit
Receptions, daytime or early evening semi-formal occasions requiring more than duty uniform Dark business suit Army blue with bow tie or four-in-hand Cocktail dress
Official formal functions (black tie) Dinner jacket/tuxedo Army blue, white, or black mess Army blue with bow tie Long or short evening dress
Official formal evening functions (white tie) Tails Army blue, or black evening mess Evening formal

Notes:
1. The Army white/Army white mess/Army white evening mess uniforms may be substituted for the Army blue equivalent uniforms from April to October, except in clothing zones I and II where they may be worn year-round.


Table 8-2. Dress codes
Category Dress
Formal (White Tie) Blue/white evening mess
Semiformal (Black Tie) Blue/white mess; Army blue with bow tie

Uniform informal
Army blue w/four-in-hand (Note 1 )
Duty uniform Army green (Note 2 )
Civilian informal Civilian coat and tie
Casual Civilian open collar or sweater w/coat
Very casual Shirt and slacks

Notes:
1. Enlisted personnel may wear the Army green uniform with black bow tie, and white shirt.
2. Or uniform dictated by local policy.


Table 8-3. Uniform comparison chart (men)
Occasion/function Army Marine Corps Navy/Coast Guard Air Force Civilian attire
Ceremonies: parades, reviews, official visits of civilian dignitaries, change of command ARMY GREEN UNIFORM
General duty wear
SERVICE UNIFORM General wear SERVICE DRESS UNIFORM
General wear
SERVICE DRESS UNIFORM
General wear
Business suit
Receptions: daytime/early evening formal or semi-formal (no bow tie required) ARMY BLUE/WHITE UNIFORM
Wear at general official/social occasions
BLUE DRESS A OR B and WHITE DRESS A OR B Wear at general official/social occasions FULL DRESS UNIFORMS
Wear at general official/social occasions
CEREMONIAL DRESS UNIFORMS (winter/
summer) Informal daytime and evening occasions
Dark business suit
Social function of general or official nature--black tie ARMY BLUE/WHITE MESS Equivalent to black tie EVENING DRESS B or MESS DRESS UNIFORM Equivalent to black tie DINNER DRESS UNIFORM Equivalent to black tie MESS DRESS UNIFORM
Black tie occasions
Dinner jacket/tuxedo
Official formal evening: state event--white tie ARMY BLUE EVENING MESS Equivalent to white tie EVENING DRESS A UNIFORM Equivalent to white tie FORMAL DRESS UNIFORM Equivalent to white tie MESS DRESS UNIFORM (silver tie tab and cummerbund) Equivalent to white tie Tuxedo/tails


Table 8-4. Uniform comparison chart (women)
Occasion/function Army Marine Corps Navy/Coast Guard Air Force Civilian attire
Ceremonies, parades, reviews, official visits of civilian dignitaries, change of command ARMY GREEN UNIFORM
General duty wear
SERVICE UNIFORM General wear
SERVICE DRESS UNIFORM
General wear
SERVICE DRESS UNIFORM
General wear
Afternoon dress/suit
Receptions: daytime/ early evening formal or semi-formal (no bow tie required) ARMY BLUE/WHITE UNIFORM
Wear at general official/social occasions
BLUE DRESS A OR B and wHITE DRESS A OR B Wear at general official/social occasions
FULL DRESS
UNIFORMS
Wear at official/ceremonial occasions
CEREMONIAL DRESS UNIFORMS (winter/
summer)
For informal daytime and evening occasions
Afternoon dress/suit; cocktail dress
Social function of general or official nature--black tie ARMY BLUE/WHITE MESS Equivalent to black tie EVENING DRESS B OR MESS DRESS uniform Equivalent to black tie DINNER DRESS UNIFORM Equivalent to black tie
MESS DRESS UNIFORM
For black tie occasions
Long or short evening dress
Official formal evening; state event--white tie
ARMY BLUE EVENING MESS Equivalent to white tie EVENING DRESS A UNIFORM Equivalent to white tie FORMAL DRESS UNIFORM Equivalent to white tie
MESS DRESS UNIFORM (white tie/wing tip collar) Equivalent to white tie Long evening dress

Appendix A
References

The Official Army Publications Web Sites.

Publication Section I
Required Publications

AR 600-25. Salutes, Honors, and Visits of Courtesy.   (Cited in para 4-1 e .)

AR 670-1. Wear and Appearance of Army Uniforms and Insignia.   (Cited in paras 5-5 , 8-1 , and 8-3 .)

AR 840-10. Flags, Guidons, Streamers, Tabards, and Automobile and Aircraft Plates.   (Cited in paras 3-3 c (4) , 3-3 c (5) , 4-3 , 4-3 a, 4-3 b (1) , 4-3 b (2) , and 4-3 b (3) .)

FM 22-5. Drill and Ceremonies.   (Cited in paras 4-1 a and 4-4 a .)

Publication Section II
Related Publications

A related publication is a source of additional information. A related publication does not have to be read to understand this pamphlet.

AR 25-50. Preparing and Managing Correspondence.  

Air Force Pamphlet 900-1. Guide to Air Force Protocol. 1978.  

DOD 4515.13-R. Air Transportation Eligibility  

McCaffree, Mary Jane, and Pauline Innis. Protocol, The Complete Handbook of Diplomatic, Official, and Social Usage. California: Devon Press, Inc., 1989.  

MDW Regulation 1-8. Parades and Reviews.   Available from Commander, MDW (ATTN: ANC&SE), Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, DC 20319.

OPNAVINST 1710.7. Social Usage and Protocol Handbook. Washington: Foreign Liaison and Protocol Selection, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 1979. Obtain on the Internet at http://neds.nebt.daps.mil/Directives/dirindex.html.  

Swartz, Oretha D.. Service Etiquette. 4th ed. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1988.  

Keith E. Bonn. The Army Officer's Guide. 48th ed. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1999.  

U.S. Military Academy. Guide to Military Dining-In. 1976. Obtain U.S. from the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY 10996-1781.  

Publication Section III
Prescribed Forms

This publication prescribes no forms.

Publication Section IV
Referenced Forms

This publication references no forms.

Appendix B
Lists of States and Territories and Date of Entry into the Union

B-1. State and territory entry into the Union

A State and territory precedence list is presented in table B-1 .

B-2. Use of the State and territory dates of entry into the Union

Use State and territory dates of entry into the Union to determine placement of State and territorial flags in relation to other flags that are present.

Table B-1. State and territory dates of entry into the Union
State Date Order
Alabama 14 December 1819 22
Alaska 3 January 1959 49
Arizona 14 February 1912 48
Arkansas 15 June 1836 25
California 9 September 1850 31
Colorado 1 August 1876 38
Connecticut 9 January 1788 5
Delaware 7 December 1787 1
Florida 3 March 1845 27
Georgia 2 January 1788 4
Hawaii 21 August 1959 50
Idaho 3 July 1890 43
Illinois 3 December 1818 21
Indiana 11 December 1816 19
Iowa 28 December 1846 29
Kansas 29 January 1861 34
Kentucky 1 June 1792 15
Louisiana 30 April 1812 18
Maine 15 March 1820 23
Maryland 28 April 1788 7
Massachusetts 6 February 1788 6
Michigan 26 January 1837 26
Minnesota 11 May 1858 32
Mississippi 10 December 1817 20
Missouri 10 August 1821 24
Montana 8 November 1889 41
Nebraska 1 March 1867 37
Nevada 31 October 1864 36
New Hampshire 21 June 1788 9
New Jersey 18 December 1787 3
New Mexico 6 January 1912 47
New York 26 July 1788 11
North Carolina 21 November 1789 12
North Dakota 2 November 1889 39
Ohio 1 March 1803 17
Oklahoma 16 November 1907 46
Oregon 14 February 1859 33
Pennsylvania 12 December 1787 2
Rhode Island 29 May 1790 13
South Carolina 23 May 1788 8
South Dakota 2 November 1889 40
Tennessee 1 June 1796 16
Texas 29 December 1845 28
Utah 4 January 1896 45
Vermont 4 March 1791 14
Virginia 25 June 1788 10
Washington 11 November 1889 42
West Virginia 20 June 1863 35
Wisconsin 29 May 1848 30
Wyoming 10 July 1890 44
     
Territory    
     
American Samoa   54
Commonwealth of Northern Marianas   55
District of Columbia   51
Guam   53
Puerto Rico   52
Trust Territories   56
Virgin Islands   57

Appendix C
Official Toasts

C-1. Toasts for foreign guests or heads of state

Table C-1 lists appropriate toast addresses.

C-2. Protocol contact

For additional information regarding foreign guests or heads of state, contact the Foreign Liaison Protocol Office at (703) 697-4762 or Defense Switched Network (DSN) 227-4762.

Table C-1. Official toasts
Country Official toast
ALBANIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Albania
ALGERIA His Excellency, the President of the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
ARGENTINA His Excellency, the President of the Argentine Republic
AUSTRALIA Her Majesty, the Queen (Queen/King)
AUSTRIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Austria
BAHRAIN His Highness, the Emir of the State of Bahrain
BANGLADESH His Excellency, the President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
BELGIUM His Majesty, Albert II, King of the Belgians (King/Queen)
BOLIVIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Bolivia
BOTSWANA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Botswana
BRAZIL His Excellency, the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil
BULGARIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Bulgaria
CAMEROON His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Cameroon
CANADA Her Majesty, the Queen (Queen/King)
CHILE His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile
CHINA His Excellency, the President of the People's Republic of China
COLOMBIA His Excellency, the President of Republic of Colombia
CROATIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Croatia
CZECH REPUBLIC His Excellency, the President of the Czech Republic
DENMARK Her Majesty, the Queen of Denmark (Queen/King)
DOMINICAN REP His Excellency, the President of the Dominican Republic
ECUADOR His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Ecuador
EGYPT His Excellency, the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt
EL SALVADOR His Excellency, the President of the Republic of El Salvador
ESTONIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Estonia
FINLAND His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Finland
FRANCE His Excellency, the President of the French Republic
GABON His Excellency, the President of the Gabonese Republic
GERMANY His Excellency, the President of the Federal Republic of Germany
GHANA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Ghana
GREECE His Excellency, the President of the Hellenic Republic
GUATEMALA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Guatemala
HONDURAS His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Honduras
HUNGARY His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Hungary
INDIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of India
INDONESIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Indonesia
ISRAEL His Excellency, the President of Israel
ITALY His Excellency, the President of the Italian Republic
JAPAN His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Japan
JORDAN His Majesty, the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
KAZAKHSTAN His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan
KENYA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Kenya
KOREA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Korea
LEBANON His Excellency, the President of Lebanon
MALAYSIA His Majesty the King
MEXICO His Excellency, the President of Mexico
MONGOLIA His Excellency, the President of Mongolia
NETHERLANDS Her Majesty, the Queen of the Netherlands (Queen/King)
NEW ZEALAND Her Majesty, the Queen of New Zealand (Queen/King)
NORWAY His Majesty, the King of Norway (Queen/King)
OMAN The Sultan of Oman
PAKISTAN His Excellency, the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
PARAGUAY His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Paraguay
PERU His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Peru
PHILIPPINES His Excellency, the President of the Republic of the Philippines
POLAND His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Poland
PORTUGAL His Excellency, the President of Portugal
ROMANIA His Excellency, the President of Romania
RUSSIAN His Excellency, the President of the Russian Federation
SAUDI ARABIA His Majesty, the King
SENEGAL His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Senegal
SINGAPORE His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Singapore
SLOVAK REPUBLIC His Excellency, the President of the Slovak Republic
SOUTH AFRICA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of South Africa
SPAIN His Majesty, the King of Spain
SWEDEN His Majesty, the King of Sweden
SWITZERLAND His Excellency, the President of Switzerland
THAILAND His Majesty, the King of Thailand
TUNISIA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Tunisia
TURKEY His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Turkey
UAE His Excellency, the President of the United Arab Emirates
UGANDA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Uganda
UKRAINE His Excellency, the President of Ukraine
UNITED KINGDOM Her Majesty, the Queen
VENEZUELA His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Venezuela

Appendix D
Precedence List

D-1. Individual precedence

Rank or precedence of individual persons for official purposes is listed in table D-1 .

D-2. Use of precedence

Precedence order is followed for seating arrangements.

Table D-1. Precedence list of civilian and military persons
VIP code Official
VIP code: 1
1 PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
2 HEADS OF STATE/REIGNING ROYALTY
VIP code: 2 (four-star equivalent)
3 VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
4 GOVERNORS IN OWN STATE (SEE #42)
5 SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
6 CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT
7 FORMER PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES
8 U.S. AMBASSADORS WHEN AT POST
9 SECRETARY OF STATE
10 PRESIDENT, UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY (IN SESSION)
11 SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS
12 PRESIDENT, UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY (NOT IN SESSION)
13 ACCREDITED AMBASSADORS OF FOREIGN POWERS
14 WIDOWS OF FORMER PRESIDENTS
15 ACCREDITED FOREIGN MINISTERS AND ENVOYS
16 ASSOCIATE JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT
17 RETIRED CHIEF JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT
18 RETIRED ASSOCIATE JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT
19 SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY
20 SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
21 THE ATTORNEY GENERAL
22 SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
23 SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE
24 SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
25 SECRETARY OF LABOR
26 SECRETARY OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
27 SECRETARY OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
28 SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION
29 SECRETARY OF ENERGY
30 SECRETARY OF EDUCATION
31 SECRETARY OF VETERANS AFFAIRS
32 DIRECTOR, NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY
33 U.S. REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS (IN SESSION) (SEE #58)
34 ADMINISTRATOR, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
35 U.S. TRADE REPRESENTATIVE
36 DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
37 CHAIRMAN, COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISORS
38 CHIEF OF STAFF TO THE PRESIDENT
39 PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE
40 UNITED STATES SENATORS (BY SENIORITY; WHEN EQUAL, BY ALPHA)
41 FORMER UNITED STATES SENATORS (BY DATE OF RETIREMENT)
42 GOVERNORS WHEN NOT IN OWN STATE (BY STATE DATE OF ENTRY; WHEN EQUAL, BY ALPHA) (SEE #4)
43 ACTING HEADS OF CABINET LEVEL DEPARTMENTS
44 FORMER VICE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES
45 UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (BY SENIORITY; WHEN EQUAL, BY ALPHA)
46 FORMER CONGRESSMAN (BY DATE OF RETIREMENT)
47 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DELEGATE TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
48 GUAM DELEGATE TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
49 U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS DELEGATE TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
50 AMERICAN SAMOA DELEGATE TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
51 RESIDENT COMMISSIONER FROM PUERTO RICO
52 ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS
53 ASSISTANTS AND COUNSEL TO THE PRESIDENT
54 CHARGES D'AFFAIRES OF FOREIGN POWERS
55 FORMER SECRETARIES OF STATE
56 FORMER MEMBERS OF THE PRESIDENT'S CABINET
57 DEPUTY SECRETARIES AND UNDER SECRETARIES (WHEN DEPUTY SECRETARY EQUIVALENT) OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS (NUMBER TWO POSITION)
58 U.S. REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS (NOT IN SESSION) (SEE #33)
59 DIRECTOR, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
60 SOLICITOR GENERAL
61 ADMINISTRATOR, AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
62 DIRECTOR, ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY
63 DIRECTOR, U.S. INFORMATION AGENCY
64 UNDER SECRETARIES OF STATE AND COUNSELS
65 UNDER SECRETARIES OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS (NUMBER THREE POSITION)
66 U.S. AMBASSADORS AT LARGE
67 UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR ACQUISITION (FOR ACQUISITION MATTERS ONLY) (SEE #75)
68 SECRETARY OF THE ARMY, NAVY, AIR FORCE
69 POSTMASTER GENERAL
70 CHAIRMAN, FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
71 CHAIRMAN, AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION
72 CHAIRMAN, COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
73 FORMER SECRETARIES OF THE SERVICES
74 CHAIRMAN, JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF
75 UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR ACQUISITION AND TECHNOLOGY (SEE #67), FOR POLICY, DOD COMPTROLLER, FOR PERSONNEL READINESS
76 RETIRED CHAIRMEN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF
77 VICE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF
78 CHIEFS OF SERVICES (BY DATE OF APPOINTMENT) AND COMMANDANT OF THE U. S. COAST GUARD
79 RETIRED VICE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF, CHIEFS OF SERVICES
80 COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, COMBATANT COMMANDS (BY DATE OF APPOINTMENT) (NOTE 1): DIRECTOR, WHITE HOUSE MILITARY OFFICE
81 GENERALS OF THE ARMY, FLEET ADMIRALS, GENERALS OF THE AIR FORCE
82 LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS AND ACTING GOVERNORS
83 FOREIGN NON-ACCREDITED PERSONS OF AMBASSADOR RANK
84 PRINCIPAL DEPUTY UNDER SECDEF FOR ACQUISITION
85 SECRETARY GENERAL, ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
86 CHAIRMAN, PERMANENT COUNCIL OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
87 HEADS OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (NATO, SEATO, and so forth)
88 ADMINISTRATOR, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
89 ADMINISTRATOR, NASA
90 ADMINISTRATOR, NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
91 CHAIRMAN, MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD
92 DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
93 ADMINISTRATOR, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
94 CHAIRMAN, FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION
95 CHAIRMAN, NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION
96 DIRECTOR OF ACTION
97 DIRECTOR OF THE PEACE CORPS
98 U.S. AMBASSADORS ON OFFICIAL VISITS IN D.C.
99 CHIEF OF PROTOCOL, DEPARTMENT OF STATE
100 U.S. AMBASSADORS ON OFFICIAL VISITS IN THE U.S. OUTSIDE THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
101 STATE SECRETARY OF STATE (IN OWN STATE)
VIP code 3: (four-star equivalent)
102 JUDGES, U.S. COURT OF APPEALS, FEDERAL DISTRICT
103 JUDGES, U.S. COURT OF APPEALS FOR VETERANS AFFAIRS
104 JUDGES, U.S. COURT OF APPEALS, D.C. DISTRICT
105 CARDINALS
106 GOVERNOR OF GUAM
107 GOVERNOR OF U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
108 CHIEF/ASSOCIATE JUDGES OF A STATE SUPREME COURT
109 MAYORS OF MAJOR CITIES (IN OWN CITY) (SEE #166) (CITIES WITH A POPULATION OF ONE MILLION OR MORE)
110 MAYOR OF DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
111 DEPUTY DIRECTOR, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
112 DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR, AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
113 DEPUTY DIRECTOR, U.S. ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY
114 DEPUTY DIRECTOR, U.S. INFORMATION AGENCY
115 DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
116 DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR, NASA
117 DEPUTY DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
118 DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF ACTION
119 DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE PEACE CORPS
120 DIRECTOR, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION
121 DEPUTY ASSISTANTS TO THE PRESIDENT
122 U.S. CHARGE D'AFFAIRES
123 ATTORNEY GENERAL OF A STATE
124 PRINCIPAL DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICY
125 DIRECTOR, DEFENSE RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING
126 ASSISTANT SECRETARIES OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS, GENERAL COUNSEL, INSPECTOR GENERAL, (BY DATE OF APPT); DIRECTOR, DOD OPERATIONAL TESTING AND EVALUATION
127 ASSISTANT SECRETARY GENERAL, ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
128 ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR, AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
129 COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE U.S.
130 JUDGES, COURT OF MILITARY APPEALS
131 MEMBERS, COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISORS
132 ACTIVE OR DESIGNATE U.S. AMBASSADORS
133 ARCHBISHOPS
134 UNDER SECRETARIES OF THE ARMY, NAVY, AND AIR FORCE
135 MINISTERS OF CAREER RANK WHEN IN THE U.S.
136 PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES TO THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
137 VICE CHIEFS OF SERVICES (BY DATE OF APPT)
138 FORMER VICE CHIEFS OF SERVICES (BY DATE OF RETIREMENT)
139 ASSISTANT SECRETARIES OF THE SERVICES (BY DATE OF APPOINTMENT) AND SERVICE GENERAL COUNSELS
140 GENERALS AND ADMIRALS (4-STAR RANK)
141 RETIRED GENERAL AND ADMIRALS (4-STAR RANK)
142 DIRECTOR, SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM
143 CHIEF OF STAFF SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
144 ASSISTANT CHIEF OF STAFF SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
145 THE SPECIAL ASST TO THE SEC/DEPSEC OF DEFENSE
146 ASSISTANTS TO THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
147 THE EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO THE SECDEF
148 THE EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO THE DEPSECDEF
149 DIRECTOR, OSD ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
150 DIRECTOR, OSD PROGRAM ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
VIP code: 4 (three-star equivalent)
151 DIRECTORS OF DEFENSE AGENCIES (DLA, DMA, NSA, DCA; DARPA; OTHER DOD AGENCIES)
152
DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARIES OF DEFENSE (NON-STATUTORY); DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE, R&E; PRINCIPAL DEPUTY
ASSISTANT SECRETARIES OF DEFENSE;
PRINCIPAL DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSEL (DOD);
DEPUTY INSPECTOR GENERAL (DOD);
PRINCIPAL DEPUTY COMPTROLLER (DOD);
DIRECTOR OF NET ASSESSMENT;
DIRECTOR OF DEFENSE PROCUREMENT;
DIRECTOR, SMALL AND DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS UTILIZATION (DOD)
153 ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTS OF THE ARMY, NAVY, AIR FORCE; DIRECTOR OF THE ARMY STAFF; SERGEANT MAJOR OF THE ARMY (NOTE 2)
154 TREASURER, COMPTROLLER OR AUDITOR OF A STATE
156 LIEUTENANT GENERALS AND VICE ADMIRALS
157 RETIRED LIEUTENANT GENERALS AND VICE ADMIRALS
158 PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE OF A STATE
159 STATE SENATORS (IN THEIR OWN STATES)
160 MEMBERS, DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD
161 CHAIRMAN, AMERICAN RED CROSS
162 BISHOPS OF WASHINGTON
163 PRINCIPAL DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARIES AND PRINCIPAL DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSELS OF THE ARMY, NAVY, AND AIR FORCE
164 PERMANENT OBSERVERS TO THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
165 FORMER U.S. AMBASSADORS
166 CIVILIAN AIDES TO THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY
167 MAYORS OF CITIES (IN OWN CITY)(SEE #109) (POPULATIONS OF LESS THAN ONE MILLION)
168 SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, DELEGATES OR ASSEMBLY OF A STATE
169 TREASURER OF THE U.S.
170 DIRECTOR OF THE MINT
171 CHAIRMAN, FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
172 CHAIRMAN, UNITED SERVICES ORGANIZATION, INC.
173 DIRECTOR, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY
174 LIBRARIAN OF CONGRESS
175 VICE CHAIRMAN AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS, FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
176 STATE REPRESENTATIVE, ASSEMBLYMAN, OR DELEGATE
177 CHAIRMAN, D.C. COUNCIL
178 COUNTY JUDGES, DISTRICT COURT JUDGE (COUNTY)
179 DEPUTY CHIEF OF PROTOCOL, DEPT OF STATE
180 SPECIAL ASSISTANTS TO THE PRESIDENT
181 COMMISSIONER, U.S. CUSTOMS SERVICE
182 COMMISSIONER, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
183 DEPUTY ASST SECRETARIES OF DEFENSE; DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSELS (DOD); DEFENSE ADVISOR U.S. MISSION NATO; SECDEF REPS TO INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS; DEPUTY COMPTROLLERS (DOD); ASSISTANT IG (DOD)
184 DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARIES OF THE ARMY, NAVY, AND AIR FORCE; ARMY AUDITOR GENERAL (BY DATE OF APPOINTMENT)
185 MEMBERS, SECRETARY OF DEFENSE BOARDS
186 COUNSELORS OF EMBASSIES
187 CONSULS GENERAL OF FOREIGN POWERS (LEGATIONS)
188 SES MEMBERS (PC 4)
189 CHAIRMAN, BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS (CA-1)
VIP code: 5 (two-star equivalent)
190 MAJOR GENERALS AND REAR ADMIRALS (UPPER HALF)
191 RETIRED MAJOR GENERALS/REAR ADMIRALS (UPPER HALF)
192 SURGEON GENERAL; DEPUTY SURGEON GENERAL OF THE U.S.
193 DIRECTOR, FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY
194 DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARIES AND DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSELS OF THE ARMY, NAVY, AND AIR FORCE (BY DATE OF APPOINTMENT)
195 CITY MANAGERS
196 OSD HISTORIAN
197 STATE CHAIR, NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR EMPLOYER SUPPORT OF THE NATIONAL GUARD AND RESERVE
198 UNITED STATES ATTORNEYS
199 DISTRICT ATTORNEYS
200 COUNTY SHERIFFS
201 BOARD PRESIDENT AND COUNTY COMMISSIONERS
202 SES MEMBERS (PC 5)
203 VICE CHARIMAN, BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS (CA-2)
204 CONGRESSIONAL STAFFERS
VIP code: 6 (one-star equivalent)
205 BRIGADIER GENERALS AND REAR ADMIRALS (LOWER HALF)
206 RETIRED BG'S AND REAR ADMIRALS (LOWER HALF)
207 COUNTY CLERKS
208 CITY COUNCIL MEMBERS
209 ASSISTANT SURGEON GENERAL (PUBLIC HEALTH SVC)
210 U.S. CONSULS GENERAL
211 ASSISTANT CHIEFS OF PROTOCOL, DEPT OF STATE
212 SECRETARY OF THE SENATE
213 DOORKEEPER OF THE HOUSE
214 CHAPLAIN OF THE SENATE
215 INDORSING AGENTS FOR MILITARY CHAPLAINS
216 ASSISTANT DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARIES OF DEFENSE AND PRINCIPAL DIRECTORS
217 CITY ATTORNEYS
218 SES MEMBERS (PC 6)
219 SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL (SP); SENIOR LEVEL (SL) (NOTE 3) MEMBERS, BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS (CA-3); ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES (AL)
220 USAR AMBASSADORS
VIP code: 7
221 COLONELS; CAPTAINS (USN/USCG); GS-15; U.S.CONSULS, MEDICAL DIRECTOR (PUBLIC HEALTH SVC)
222 JUSTICES OF THE PEACE
223 CITY CLERKS
VIP code 8 (not VIP ranked)
224 GS-14
225 LIEUTENANT COLONELS; COMMANDERS; GS-13
226 MAJORS; LIEUTENANT COMMANDERS; GS-12
227 GS-11
228 CAPTAINS; LIEUTENANTS (USN/USCG); GS-10; U.S. VICE CONSULS
229 FIRST LIEUTENANTS, LIEUTENANTS JUNIOR GRADE; GS-9
230 GS-8
231 SECOND LIEUTENANTS; ENSIGNS; GS-7
232 WARRANT OFFICERS (BY GRADE)
233 MASTER CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS; CHIEF MASTER SERGEANTS; MASTER GUNNERY SERGEANTS
234 OTHER NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS, CIVILIANS BY RANK

Notes:
1. Commanders-in-Chief/Retired Commanders-in-Chief, CINCs: At multi or Joint service events only. At Army exclusive events, Army CINCs are ranked by date of rank with other Army 4-stars.
2. The Director of the Army Staff, Sergeant Major of the Army, and other service equivalents: Within the Army, the DAS and SMA are accorded special status. The DAS and SMA have precedence over all other LTGs.
3. SES precedence is established by position held. SES pay does not affect precedence. For those members not in positions identified above, contact the Army Protocol Office, DSN 227-0692 or the SES Office at DSN 227-3549. For non-Army SES members, contact the members' agency/office for precedence.
4. Former and retired officials are normally placed after the active serving officials of the same position, unless their precedence is separately listed on the Precedence List. For example, former Presidents of the United States and retired Chief Justices of the Supreme Court are listed separately. The accepted way to rank several of these former officials is by recency in the position. This means that each official is placed ahead of his or her predecessor. There may be reason to do it the other way with the oldest outranking the youngest, but we follow the norm set by the State Department for handling former Presidents. DOD Regulation 4515.13-R, paragraph 33, page xiii, defines retired military as those uniformed services members issued a DD Form 2 (gray/blue) or DD Form 2-NOAA (gray/blue) and who are eligible to receive retired or retainer pay from their service. In addition, officers who have been retired for physical disability and who have an identification card with "EROL" (Emergency Retired Officer List) instead of a Service or social security number on the identification card also meet the definition of retired uniformed services members.
5. State and local officials are difficult to rank. There are no fixed rules, but McCaffree and Innis state in their book that "in planning a seating arrangement, [you] should consider the purpose of the function, the level of all guests, and any political significance." Simply try to apply the basic rules of precedence demonstrated in the preceding list and notes and be consistent.
6. Sources for the Precedence List. This precedence list is based on the Army Protocol Precedence List, dated September 2000; the Department of Defense Table of Precedence, dated 1 April 1994; Protocol: The Complete Handbook of Diplomatic, Official and Social Usage, revised edition, 1989, by Mary Jane McCaffree and Pauline Innis; and Service Etiquette, 4th edition, 1988, by Oretha D. Swartz. Precedence lists are inherently unofficial and subject to change.

Glossary

This publication contains no glossary text.

Abbreviations

This section contains no entries.

Terms

This section contains no entries.

Special Terms

This section contains no entries.