Army Regulation 350-28

9 December 1997

Effective date: 9 January 1998

UNCLASSIFIED

Training

Army Exercises



SUMMARY of CHANGE

AR 350-28
Army Exercises

This revision describes changes in administration of the program for military exercises that respond to the following:

* HQDA policy directing Commanding General, Training and Doctrine Command to develop Army tactical level tasks for the Universal Joint Task List (UJTL) ( para 1-7b ).

* HQDA policy directing Commanding General, Forces Command to develop, coordinate, and execute the Army Mobilization Exercise Program (paras 1-8b and c , 2-3 , and 2-4b ).

* Nature and type of HQDA exercises ( para 2-4 ).

* Joint Staff guidance relating joint operations and training to the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program ( para 3-2 ).

* Installation of the Commercial Ticketing Program (CTP), which provides for commercial air travel of exercise participants when military airlift or commercial air charter proves inefficient or uneconomical ( para 5-13b ).

* Changes in the Army management control process that supersede the regulations former Internal Control Review Checklist by a shortened Management Control Evaluation Checklist ( app C ).



Chapter 1
Introduction

Section I
General

1-1. Purpose

This regulation assigns responsibilities and sets Department of the Army (DA) policy and procedure for military exercises. It guides the development and conduct of exercise programs of major Army commands (MACOMs) and the support of, and participation in

a. Army exercises directed by Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), hereafter called HQDA exercises.

b. Joint and combined exercises within the purview of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) Joint Exercise and Training Program, including exercises sponsored by a commander in chief (CINC) of a U.S. combatant command (see table 1-1 below).

Table 1-1. Combatant commands with Army Service component commands
Combatant command Army Service component command
U.S. Atlantic Command (USACOM) U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)
U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) U.S. Army, Central Command (USARCENT) (Third U.S. Army)
U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) U.S. Army, Europe (USAREUR)
U.S. North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) U.S. Army, Element (USA Elm), NORAD
U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) 1 U.S. Army, Pacific (USARPAC)
U.S. Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) U.S. Army South (USARSO)
U.S. Space Command (USSPACECOM) U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USARSSDC)
U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) U.S. Army, Special Operations Command (USASOC)
U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) None
U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC)

Notes:
1. Also assigned U.S. Forces, Japan (USFJ) and U.S. Forces, Korea (USFK) (Eighth U.S. Army (EUSA)) as subordinate unified commands.

1-2. References

Required and related publications and prescribed and referenced forms are listed in appendix A .

1-3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms

Abbreviations and special terms used in this regulation are explained in the glossary .

Section II
Responsibilities

1-4. Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans

The Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (DCSOPS) will manage Army participation in exercises and the correction of related procedural and doctrinal deficiencies and may grant exceptions to portions of this regulation that are within the authority of the Secretary of the Army.

a. Through the Director of Strategy, Plans, and Policy (DAMO-SS), DCSOPS will

(1) Serve as the Army point of contact (POC) on exercise doctrinal issues, interacting with the Joint Staff, combatant commands, Army Service component commands (ASCCs), and other MACOMs.

(b) Oversee requirements of ASCCs for exercising Army War Reserve Prepositioned Sets (AWRPS) in coordination with the Director of Operations, Readiness, and Mobilization (DAMO-OD).

b. Through the Director of Training (DAMO-TR), DCSOPS will

(1) Prepare Army policy governing Army participation in exercises ( chap 2 ).

(2) Discharge HQDA responsibility for programming and budgeting Army participation in the CJCS Exercise and Joint Training Program (chaps 3 and 5 ).

(3) Serve as the Army POC for the CJCS Exercise and Joint Training Program ( para 3-2 ), interacting with the Joint Staff, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), combatant commands, ASCCs, and other MACOMs.

(4) Manage Army CJCS exercise funds ( chap 5 ).

(5) Manage CJCS transportation funds suballocated to the Army for port handling (PH) and inland transportation (IT) services, and individual air travel authorized under the Commercial Ticketing Program (CTP). (See paras 5-13 through 5-15 .)

c. Through the Director of Operations, Readiness, and Mobilization (DAMO-OD), DCSOPS will

(1) Prepare plans and supporting documents for and coordinate Army participation in CJCS-sponsored exercises including personnel augmentation of ASCCs ( para 3-2 ).

(2) Provide policy for, manage, and monitor participation in HQDA exercises ( para 2-4 ).

(3) Manage the Army Remedial Action Project (ARAP) Program and coordinate Army participation in the CJCS Remedial Action Project Program ( para 2-14 ).

(4) Through each DCSOPS director and office chief, DCSOPS will

(a) Track issues related to assigned functional areas as recorded in exercise afteraction reports or reported through the ARAP Program ( para 2-14 ).

(b) Take staff action to correct cited deficiencies.

1-5. Other principal officials

a. Other HQDA principal officials will participate in HQDA exercises and exercises conducted under the CJCS Exercise and Joint Training Program (paras 2-4 , and 3-2 ) and will

(1) Track issues raised within assigned functional areas, including those recorded in exercise afteraction reports or reported through the ARAP Program ( para 2-14 ).

(2) Take staff action to correct deficiencies.

b. The Chief, National Guard Bureau (CNGB) through the Director, Army National Guard (DARNG) will

(1) Perform the functions listed in a , above.

(2) Approve and coordinate Army National Guard (ARNG) exercise participation.

(3) Fund ARNG exercise participation, except as otherwise provided in chapter 5, paragraph 5-10 , from National Guard Personnel, Army (NGPA) and Operation and Maintenance, Army National Guard (OMNG) appropriations.

c. The Chief, Army Reserve (CAR) will

(1) Perform the functions listed in a, above.

(2) Fund USAR exercise participation, except as otherwise provided in chapter 5, paragraph 5-10, from the Reserve Personnel, Army (RPA) and Operation and Maintenance, Army Reserve (OMAR) appropriations.

1-6. Commanders of MACOMs

a. MACOM commanders, per chapters 2 through 5 , below, will

(1) Plan, fund, and conduct a military exercise program to

(a) Achieve the objectives stated in paragraph 2-6 .

(b) Support participation in HQDA exercises and exercises within the purview of the CJCS Exercise and Joint Training Program (paras 2-4 and 3-2 ).

(2) Track issues recorded by the command in exercise afteraction reports or reported through the ARAP Program ( para 2-14 ) and, within command capabilities, correct cited deficiencies.

(3) Ensure timely obligation of CJCS transportation funds provided for port handling and inland transportation services and the Commercial Ticketing Program (paras 5-13 and 5-14 ).

b. The Army Service Component Command commanders will

(1) Respond directly to their CINCs to support exercise requirements of the combatant command and, as appropriate, provide information to HQDA (or in the case of Third U.S. Army (TUSA) to FORSCOM).

(2) Provide Active Army forces to meet the needs of the CJCS Exercise and Joint Training Program (para 3-2).

(3) With peacetime chains of command, coordinate Reserve component participation in HQDA exercises and exercises conducted under the CJCS Exercise and Joint Training Program (paras 2-4, and 3-2), selecting forces, as appropriate, from WARTRACE alignments under the Army WARTRACE Program. (See AR 11-30 .)

(4) Program and budget for and plan Joint Logistics over the Shore (JLOTS) exercise participation.

(5) Provide requirements to HQDA (DAMO-SSW) for exercising AWRPS in their areas of responsibility.

1-7. Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (CG, TRADOC)

The CG, TRADOC will

a. Perform applicable functions listed in paragraph 1-6 above.

b. Develop and maintain Army tactical and operational level tasks for the Universal Joint Task List (UJTL) describing requirements for joint and combined training.

c. Coordinate TRADOC installation participation in CJCS, Army, and FORSCOM exercises for base support, individual deployment and redeployment, and training base expansion.

d. Help ASCC commanders (as provided in chap 2 , para 2-12 ) to

(1) Select, review, and develop exercise objectives.

(2) Prepare exercise scenarios.

(3) Evaluate doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

1-8. Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces Command (CG, FORSCOM)

The CG, FORSCOM will

a. Perform applicable functions listed in paragraph 1-6 above.

b. Develop, coordinate, and execute the Army Mobilization Exercise program ( para 2-3 ).

c. Select continental United States (CONUS)-based Active and Reserve component units and individuals to participate in exercises sponsored by the CJCS or CINC of a combatant command.

(1) As appropriate, select Reserve component units from WARTRACE alignments under the Army WARTRACE Program (see AR 11-30 ).

(2) Nominate ARNG units to DARNG for approval.

1-9. Commanders of other Army commands and agencies

The Commanders of other Army commands and agencies will

a. Participate in exercises as required.

b. Track issues related to assigned missions or functional areas as recorded in exercise afteraction reports or reported through the ARAP Program ( para 2-14 ) and, within command or agency capabilities, correct cited deficiencies.

Chapter 2
Army Exercise Program

Section I
Military Exercises

2-1. Concept

a. Military exercises simulate wartime operations. Their realistic, battle-focused setting helps train battlefield commanders, staffs, and units for combat. The realistic setting also helps train support commanders, staffs, installations, and units in mobilizing, deploying, and sustaining operational forces. Senior commanders use exercises to tie unit training to command training strategy and to check training execution.

b. Military exercises enhance force readiness and mobilization preparedness. They help integrate units and staffs performing separate battlefield functions into combined armed forces. They allow leaders, staffs, and units at all levels to practice operational procedures and to refine war plans. Afteraction reviews following exercises identify lessons learned to improve performance of units Army-wide.

2-2. Nature of military exercises

a. Military exercises occur in a variety of forms, commonly those listed in table 2-1 below. They take place normally as joint, combined, or single Service exercises. A joint exercise involves forces of more than one Service. A combined (often called multinational or multilateral) exercise involves forces of more than one nation. A single Service exercise involves forces of a single branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. A military exercise may also form part of an interagency exercise involving two or more Federal agencies.

b. The Army participates in joint and multinational (combined) exercises as part of the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program ( para 3-2 ). Independently of the CJCS program, the Army conducts Army exercises at all levels of command.

c. Typically, Army exercises occur at the MACOM level and below and focus on the operational employment of forces. In addition, HQDA (DAMO-OD) directs, conducts, or coordinates participation in certain exercises relating to Army missions.

Table 2-1. Common forms of military exercises
Acronym Exercise form Acronym Exercise form
CALFEX Combined arms live fire exercise
An exercise integrating combat arms, combat support, and combat service support functions. Trains units to move and maneuver and to employ organic and supporting weapon systems using service ammunition.
LOGEX Logistics exercise
An exercise concentrating on training tasks associated with the combat service support operating system.
CAX Computer assisted exercise
A command post exercise in which a computer driver provides force simulation.
MAPEX Map exercise
A training exercise portraying military situations on maps and overlays. May supplement maps and overlays with terrain models or sand tables. Trains staffs in integrating and control functions.
CFX Command field exercise
A field training exercise with reduced troop and vehicle density. Retains full command and control and combat service support units.
MOBEX Mobilization exercise
A major scale exercise conducted by Forces Command (FORSCOM) usually as part of Armywide participation in a CJCS or HQDA exercise and involving both Active and Reserve components to test plans, procedures, and systems for mobilization, deployment, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization.
COMEX Communications exercise
An exercise, often using reduced distances, to test communications equipment and to train commanders and staffs, communications personnel, and small unit leaders in command, control, and communications (C3) procedures stressing communications discipline and traffic flow and the proper selection of message precedence and communications means.
PFPX Partnership for Peace exercise
A NATO exercise conducted as one of a series of training events to enhance the coordination of military forces for peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance, and search and rescue operations. Based on non-lethal scenarios, the PFPX program seeks to expand and intensify military and political cooperation throughout Europe.
DEPEX Deployment exercise
An exercise to train in tasks and procedures for deploying from home stations or installations to potential areas of employment. Conducted for soldiers, units, and support agencies.
SEDRE Sealift emergency deployment readiness exercise
A minimum notice exercise to test surface deployment capabilities of the unit, installation, and transportation operating agency during contingency operations.
EDRE Emergency deployment readiness exercise
A minimum-notice exercise to test unit deployment capabilities for contingency operations.
STX Situational training exercise
A mission-related, limited exercise. Practices a single task or group of related tasks or drills.
FTX Field training exercise
An exercise simulating combat conditions in the field that emphasizes command and control at all levels in battle functions using actual and simulated forces.
TEWT Tactical exercise without troops
An exercise conducted on terrain suitable for specific missions. Trains subordinate leaders and battle staffs in terrain analysis, unit and weapon emplacement, and operation planning.
FCX Fire coordination exercise
A reduced-scale exercise conducted at the platoon,company (team), battalion (task force) level. Trains in weapon systems and indirect and supporting fires. Participating units may reduce weapon densities (and substitute subcaliber devices for service ammunition.)

2-3. Army Mobilization Exercise Program

By direction of HQDA ( para 1-8b ), FORSCOM develops, coordinates, and executes the Army Mobilization Exercise Program. Conducted as HQDA exercises ( para 2-4a , below), mobilization exercises concern

a. Mobilization planning, alert procedures, and preparation for deployment, including actions at home station, mobilization station, and during movement to ports of embarkation.

b. Sustainment of operational forces.

c. Force reconstitution, reception of returned forces, and demobilization.

d. Survival, recovery, or reconstitution.

2-4. HQDA exercises

a. Nature and type. HQDA exercises are those directed, conducted, or coordinated by HQDA. They may be strictly Army exercises or linked to such other exercises as a CJCS or CINC exercise. HQDA exercises, typically focus on mobilization, disaster relief or other support to civil authorities, or HQDA staff training.

b. Mobilization exercises. Mobilization exercises occur as HQDA-directed exercises planned, coordinated, and executed by FORSCOM with other MACOMs. They concern all phases of mobilization and cover support provided by the CNGB (through the DARNG), the CAR, and selected MACOMs. Involving multiple levels of command, their range extends from active duty units to Reserve component units and individuals, whose operational alignments and training priorities influence their selection and extent of participation. Type exercises include the following:

(1) Presidential Selected Reserve Callup exercise. Run during inactive duty training (IDT), the Presidential Selected Reserve Callup (PSRC) exercise checks ability of a Reserve component unit to prepare to move to a mobilization station. It checks activity to alert and assemble the unit and to perform necessary home station tasks. It does not, however, require units to move from home stations.

(2) Mobilization station CPX. Relying on simulated participation by Reserve component units, a mobilization CPX checks installation mobilization policies, plans, and procedures at the functional staff level.

(3) Mobilization station FTX. A mobilization station FTX checks the ability of an installation to perform assigned mobilization and immediate post-mobilization functions and missions. During the exercise an installation processes actual Reserve component units and individuals. Exercise participants include Reserve component units in an annual training (AT) status, mobilized members of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR), and recalled retirees.

c. Disaster response exercises.

(1) Periodic exercises sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) deal with disaster relief or other domestic response or support to civil authorities. The exercises involve Federal, State, and local agencies and authorities.

(2) As appropriate to Army responsibilities per AR 500-60, HQDA (DAMO-OD) directs and coordinates Army participation. Army responsibility centers on the role of the Secretary of the Army as DOD executive agent for military support to civil authorities (MSCA). Action to discharge the responsibility centers on the role of the Director of Operations, Readiness, and Mobilization (DAMO-OD), who serves as the Director of Military Support (DOMS). Participation typically involves elements of the HQDA staff and selected MACOMs.

d. Staff training exercises.

(1) HQDA staff exercises. HQDA (DAMO-OD) conducts HQDA staff exercises as directed by Chief of Staff, Army. As a main purpose, these exercises train the staff in discharging selected Army responsibilities prescribed by title 10, United States Code. HQDA sets the exercise scope and objectives and coordinates MACOM participation. HQDA links HQDA staff exercises to other exercises when appropriate.

(2) Other HQDA training exercises. HQDA (DAMO-OD) periodically conducts other training exercises for HQDA crisis action teams (CAT) and, per AR 500-3, emergency relocation group (ERG) undertakings. ERG exercises normally require a minimum level of MACOM participation. CAT exercises normally do not. HQDA coordinates requirements with affected MACOMs in the early phases of exercise scheduling and planning.

Section II
Program Development

2-5. Policy

Each MACOM will develop a military exercise program to achieve the objectives stated in paragraph 2-6 below and to support HQDA exercises and those sponsored by the CJCS and CINCs of the combatant commands.

2-6. Program objectives

The objectives of the Army exercise program are to

a. Train commanders, staffs, and units in a wartime operating environment to execute assigned operation plans (OPLANs) and contingency plans and to apply contemporary doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

b. Sustain mission essential task list (METL) proficiency, welding combat, combat support, and combat service support elements into a trained combined arms force.

c. Reinforce WARTRACE relationships ( para 2-7b ).

d. Assess operational readiness.

e. Exercise and test the following:

(1) OPLANs, contingency plans, mobilization plans, and standing operating procedures (SOPs).

(2) HQDA crisis management policies, plans, procedures, and systems for mobilization, deployment, and sustainment.

(3) Other systems and procedures for personnel, operations, logistics, communications, and administration.

f. Conduct joint training with other Services to improve capabilities to undertake joint operations during war and operations other than war ( para 3-1 ).

g. Provide combined training with other nations to foster closer relationships and improve interoperability.

h. Help each CINC

(1) Meet joint training requirements.

(2) Develop and test joint and combined joint doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

2-7. Exercise participation

Army units, headquarters, and supporting agencies will participate in exercises as needed to achieve the objectives stated in paragraph 2-6 and to support HQDA exercises ( para 2-4 ) and those conducted under the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program ( para 3-2 ). Nominations of ARNG units to participate are channeled through FORSCOM to DARNG for approval.

a. Army participation, as appropriate, will include

(1) Combat, combat support, and combat service support units.

(2) Controlling headquarters.

(3) Commanders and staffs of MACOMs and supporting Army agencies.

(4) HQDA staff agencies.

b. The Army WARTRACE Program aligns Reserve component units with Active Army units for wartime OPLANs and contingency plans. The program sets priorities for mission-related training and serves as a consideration when selecting exercise participants.

c. Army exercises, when possible, will incorporate Reserve component units, the IRR, Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMA), and selected retirees.

2-8. Guidelines for program development

Training requirements, operational commitments, and available resources all influence the nature and frequency of exercises. MACOM exercise programs should reflect these considerations. They should also respond to the guidelines presented in a through d , below.

a. Frequency, scope, and form of exercises. Exercise unit commanders should

(1) Conduct battalion, brigade, division, corps, installation, and other command exercises commensurate with available resources.

(2) Test mobilization procedures and plans.

(3) Schedule exercises guided by the frequency recommended by the Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS) to sustain METL proficiency (AR 350-41, para 3-8b).

(4) Use field training exercises (FTXs), command field exercises (CFXs), command post exercises (CPXs), and computer assisted exercises (CAXs) when exercise objectives permit to field test and study such mission related concerns as

(a) New concepts, organizations, and materiel systems.

(b) Doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

(5) Use multi-echelon training opportunities, when possible, setting appropriate collective, leader, and soldier training exercise objectives.

(6) Choose the most efficient form of exercise to attain exercise objectives. In doing so

(a) At battalion level, commanders should use FTXs to stress the combined arms and services team. Use them to stress realistic combat and combat service support. Use them to stress the integrated battlefield (electronic, nuclear, chemical, and conventional warfare). Use them also to stress contemporary doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

(b) At brigade and division level, commanders should use FTXs to exercise combat service support systems and units.

(c) At corps level or higher, commanders should use CFXs, CPXs, CAXs, and participation in large-scale CJCS exercises to practice strategic deployment techniques. Use them also to develop joint doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures and to meet training requirements developed from joint and multinational (combined) operations as well as to train corps and division level staffs in combat operations.

b. Application of simulators, devices, and simulations. MACOM commanders should

(1) Enhance training and promote realism using such training devices and simulators as the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) and Weaponeer.

(2) Complement field training with battlefield training simulations. Available simulations include models to support CINC-specific training for echelons above corps and the following models available through the Family of Simulations (FAMSIM) and Army Training Battle Simulation System (ARTBASS):

(a) The Corps Battle Simulation (CBS) to train corps and division commanders and their staffs in battlefield operating systems and, as the core of the Joint Training Confederation (JTC), to support joint training up to theater level.

(b) The Battalion/Brigade Simulation (BBS) to train battalion and brigade commanders and their battle staffs.

(c) JANUS, an interactive, event-driven simulation that models both friendly and enemy weapon systems with resolution down to the individual platform, to train commanders from platoon through brigade in applying tactical doctrine and combat techniques.

(d) Tactical Simulation (TACSIM) to support training of command posts and their associated military intelligence elements from brigade through theater levels, and to support stand-alone collective training of military intelligence units.

(3) Enhance logistics operations through such training and planning simulations as

(a) The Combat Service Support Training Support System (CSSTSS) to train combat service support commanders and their staffs from battalion through theater army area command levels during stand-alone logistical exercises, while linked to CBS, or as a member of the JTC.

(b) The Logistics Anchor Desk (LAD) to provide situational awareness, apply predictive modeling, and promote collaborative planning in support of joint operations.

c. Conservation of training resources. MACOM commanders, where practical, should

(1) Use subcaliber devices when conducting combined arms live fire exercises (CALFEXs).

(2) Substitute engagement simulation devices for small arms and other organic weapons during FTXs.

(3) Combine and synchronize exercises to reduce costs and avoid over committing Army forces.

(4) Emphasize using available training areas.

d. Joint deployment training. MACOM commanders should spread the opportunity for joint deployment training among all Army forces. With respect to Reserve component units

(1) Commanders should, when appropriate, select Reserve component units to participate per WARTRACE alignments. If a unit bears a dual or multi-apportioned alignment, base participation on the WARTRACE gaining command for which the unit has the earliest arrival date. If a unit lacks a WARTRACE alignment, base participation on CINC requirements or the demand for exercise participants.

(2) AR 350-9 governs participation by Reserve component units in Oversea Deployment Training (ODT). Exceptions require the approval of CG, FORSCOM.

2-9. Program coordination and support

a. MACOM commanders will

(1) Support exercises as scheduled by the CJCS Joint Training Master Schedule.

(2) Support participation in HQDA exercises.

(3) Include known and anticipated major exercises in the schedule of events documented in Command Training Guidance (CTG). (See FM 25-100.)

(4) Except for no-notice emergency deployment readiness exercises (EDREs), notify Active component company level units of scheduled participation in a major deployment exercise at least 4 months before fiscal year of departure. Notify Reserve component company level units at least 6 months before fiscal year of departure.

(5) Coordinate exercise programs with the combatant command, supporting commands, and other affected commands and agencies. When scheduling Reserve component participation or a field test or evaluation, coordinate 24 months in advance of the planned exercise to allow time for the following:

(a) Reserve component units to get required resources and to notify civilian employers.

(b) The sponsoring combatant command and system proponent or program manager to prepare for the field test or evaluation.

b. ASCC commanders will, within resource constraints, provide the supported combatant command with the following:

(1) Forces and equipment.

(2) Personnel to staff provisional joint headquarters.

(3) Logistical and administrative support.

(4) Help to develop and test joint and combined exercise objectives. Such help includes issuing afteraction reports, ARAPs, and lessons learned (paras 2-10 through 2-14 ).

Section III
Exercise Evaluation

2-10. Policy

HQDA principal officials and MACOM commanders will evaluate Army participation in exercises and use the results to improve training and doctrine.

2-11. Evaluation tasks

HQDA principal officials and MACOM commanders will

a. Evaluate exercise performance to

(1) Measure the attainment of exercise objectives.

(2) Detect deficiencies and voids in procedures and doctrine.

(3) Determine requirements for developing concepts of operation.

(4) Assess capability to perform wartime missions.

b. Record the results of evaluation.

c. Track issues recorded in afteraction reports and meet requirements for post-exercise joint reporting (Army Joint Exercise Manual (AJEM), chap 5).

d. Correct deficiencies within command or agency capabilities.

e. Apply lessons learned to future training.

2-12. Doctrine support

a. TRADOC role. TRADOC serves as the Army's principal doctrine, combat, and training developer. It develops organizations, determines their materiel requirements, and prepares training procedures. TRADOC, in addition, develops concepts and doctrine for employing Army forces and Army tactical and operational level tasks for the UJTL for joint and combined training. TRADOC teams made up of subject matter experts (SME) from service schools, as required, help ASCCs and other MACOMs

(1) Select, review, and develop exercise objectives.

(2) Write scenarios reflecting current doctrine.

(3) Determine the suitability of fielded doctrine.

(4) Detect deficiencies in applying doctrine.

(5) Compile lessons learned.

(6) Gain insight into developing concepts of operation.

b. SME support.

(1) MACOMs, in coordination with combatant commands where applicable, will request from TRADOC the desired level of SME assistance for each exercise.

(2) TRADOC will provide SME support as funded by requesting MACOMs ( para 5-9 ). Initially, at a location determined by the requesting commander, TRADOC will assemble the teams for 3 to 5 days about 4 to 5 months before the exercise.

2-13. Army Lessons Learned Program

AR 11-33 prescribes policy and procedure for developing and applying Army lessons learned. CG, TRADOC, serves as the Army executive agent of the program and operates the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL).

2-14. Army Remedial Action Project Program

a. The CJCS Remedial Action Project (RAP) Program corrects deficiencies discovered through operations and exercises or that emerge from other sources. The ARAP Program mirrors and complements the CJCS program.

(1) RAPs at all levels describe shortcomings in existing policies, supporting strategies, plans, systems, and procedures not addressed elsewhere. They also describe shortcomings in materiel and forces.

(2) Under the program, joint RAPs center on severe defects that require action by OSD, the Joint Staff, a combatant command, Service, or other Federal agency. ARAPs concern problems for which the Army is the proponent or has primary responsibility. MACOM RAPs center on defects correctable within the command.

b. The ARAP Program does the following:

(1) Records and reviews problems identified.

(2) Assigns responsibility for corrective action.

(3) Tracks the status of corrections.

(4) Uses program results to

(a) Assess defense related problems experienced in operations and exercises.

(b) Improve operating capabilities and procedures.

(c) Improve exercise design and develop exercise planning guidance.

(d) Confirm, in future operations and exercises, the adequacy of corrections.

c. AR 11-33 prescribes policy governing the ARAP Program. The AJEM currently provides procedures. At HQDA, an annual program status report (RCS: CSGPO-429(R1)), prepared by DCSOPS, highlights completed actions and marks areas to receive further emphasis.

Chapter 3
CJCS Exercises

Section 1
Program Description

3-1. Joint operations and training

a. Joint operations. Joint operations typify modern warfare. They also typify military undertakings to deter war and to promote peace. For both wartime and security and stability operations, U.S. forces also integrate operations with other entities that include

(1) Military forces of other nations.

(2) U.S. civil authorities and non-defense and non-U.S. Government agencies.

(3) International and private volunteer organizations.

b. Joint training. Joint training centers on the mission. Each CINC determines the tasks essential to perform both the assigned wartime mission and inherent missions the command will likely face. Documented in a joint mission essential task list (JMETL), the tasks form the requirements base for the command's training program. CINC staffs use the JMETL not only to define joint training requirements but also to prioritize and schedule training, then to conduct and evaluate it. Requirements-based (or train-to-task) joint training makes sure that when U.S. forces enter the fight, they will win decisively. It makes sure also that when U.S. forces undertake security and stability operations they will perform successfully in any of a variety of missions and operating environments, and within limitations imposed regarding coercive force.

3-2. CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program

The CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program serves as the Chairman's primary means to carry out joint and multinational (combined) training. Exercises within the program stress strategic transportation and C4I systems and assess their readiness over the full range of military operations. Program exercises and training events demonstrate U.S. ability and resolve to project military presence anywhere in the world in support of national interests and commitments to US allies. The program has three components:

a. CJCS-Sponsored Exercise Program. Described by the Joint Training Master Plan (JTMP), the CJCS-Sponsored Exercise Program centers on strategic, national level joint tasks. Exercises within the program serve several purposes. They train national level decision-makers and their staffs. They help determine the readiness and effectiveness of worldwide C4I. They exercise plans and procedures for responding to crisis situations. Known generically as CJCS exercises, exercises within the program embrace the following:

(1) CJCS-sponsored CPXs.

(2) Seminars, briefings, war games, and short duration (or mini) CPXs.

(3) NIEXs.

(4) NATO crisis management exercises.

b. Common Task Training Programs. Common Task Training Programs address common operational joint tasks to meet requirements within the USACOM area of responsibility or those of supported commands. Common Task Training Programs also include training to prepare USSOCOM forces for worldwide missions.

c. CINC-Sponsored Joint Training Programs. CINC-Sponsored Joint Training Programs center on CINC-sponsored joint exercises and training events ranging from small unit deployments through full scale field training exercises designed to improve readiness by training to mission requirements. They include PFP exercises to further coordination of military forces engaged in such non-lethal scenarios as peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance, and search and rescue operations.

3-3. Programs closely related to the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program

Two programs relate closely to the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program. One concerns exercise-related construction (ERC) and the other, participation by a developing country in a bilateral or multilateral exercise.

a. Exercise-related construction. ERC supports an outside CONUS CJCS exercise. It consists of unspecified minor construction on other than U.S. owned or U.S. controlled real property that results in a facility remaining in any part after the exercise. Improving exercise effectiveness and safety, the construction can achieve resource savings. It can also train engineer troops or help develop a geographic region for OPLAN execution. (See para 3-12 .)

b. Developing Country Combined Exercise Program. Section 2010, title 10, United States Code (10 USC 2010), provides for paying the incremental expenses of a developing country's participation in a bilateral or multilateral exercise.

(1) To qualify incremental expenses for payment under the Developing Country Combined Exercise Program (DCCEP), an exercise must

(a) Be undertaken primarily to enhance the security interest of the United States.

(b) Require the developing country's participation to achieve fundamental objectives of the exercise that cannot be achieved unless the United States pays the incremental expenses, as determined by the Secretary of Defense or a person delegated the authority to make this determination.

(2) The Joint Staff (J7) manages the effort through a 2-year combined exercise program developed with the CINCs, who program DCCEP funding support through their Service executive agents.

3-4. Program guidance and Army participation

a. The Joint Staff provides guidance for the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program. Focusing primarily on activities of the combatant commands, the guidance covers program administration and evaluation. It also describes reporting procedures used to ensure the accuracy of the annual report submitted to Congress by the Secretary of Defense on expenditures under this program.

b. As prescribed ( para 1-6b ), ASCCs respond directly to their CINCs to support requirements of the combatant command and, as appropriate, provide information to HQDA (to FORSCOM in the case of Third United States Army).

c. DA supports the CJCS Exercise and Joint Training Program and, among other support, provides player and support forces, individual augmentees, and equipment.

Section II
Exercise Scheduling

3-5. Joint training plans cycle

Discussed below, figure 3-1 depicts annual events that occur during a joint training plans cycle. The Joint Staff and CINCs carry out the events to plan and schedule CJCS exercises.



Figure 3-1. Joint training plan events to plan and schedule CJCS exercises


3-6. Worldwide Joint Training Conference

A Worldwide Joint Training Conference held by the Joint Staff in September begins the annual joint training plans cycle. Attended by representatives of the CINCs, Services, and defense agencies, the conference reviews requirements for joint training. It also updates training guidance and resource allocation and notes potential exercise scheduling problems. The conference thereby sets the context for later exercise scheduling conferences held by the CINCs.

3-7. CINC Exercise and Training Scheduling Conferences

a. Combatant command CINCs hold Exercise and Training Scheduling Conferences, normally in the fall. Conferees represent the Service component commands and supporting CINCs as well as the Joint Staff, Services, and other agencies. They consider the overall direction of the command's training program. Then, planning within existing and projected resource constraints, they seek to

(1) Schedule command exercises evenly throughout the year, stressing the schedule for the fiscal year 2 years hence (for example, in the fall of 1997, on the schedule for FY 2000).

(2) Eliminate redundancy.

(3) Resolve scheduling and force conflicts.

(4) Avoid over committing force and transportation resources.

b. The scheduling command plans the type and size of units to participate in each exercise. Their Service component commanders, or other commanders furnishing forces, select specific units.

c. By 15 December, after the scheduling conferences, the CINCs submit exercise schedules to the Joint Staff for review. Beginning the following fiscal year and stressing the first 2 fiscal years, the summaries cover each exercise scheduled over the next 5-year period. Supporting information includes the following:

(1) Joint mission essential tasks (JMETs) ( para 4-2 ).

(2) Training objectives.

(3) Estimated requirements for transportation and construction.

(4) Joint doctrine evaluation objectives.

(5) Force requirements.

(6) Use of AWRPS for exercises in theater.

3-8. Worldwide Exercise Scheduling Conference

a. In February, the Joint Staff conducts a Worldwide Scheduling Conference. The purpose is to consider the overall direction of the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program and present the proposed evaluation plan for joint training events ( para 3-15 ).

b. Conferees represent the Joint Staff, CINCs, Services, and other appropriate Government agencies. Addressing concerns corresponding to those discussed in the CINC conferences, conferees

(1) Consider the results of the previous year's program.

(2) Assess funding levels and program objectives.

(3) Resolve resource conflicts.

(4) Identify force requirements.

(5) Prepare an exercise schedule for each planning year.

c. In mid-March, after the conference, the CINCs adjust exercise schedules. Then, with their Service component commands, they coordinate program changes with supporting CINCs and Services. They reflect the results in amended exercise schedules and CINC Joint Training Plans. The Joint Staff incorporates these into the JTMS. Published in mid-July, the JTMS presents the schedule of exercises approved for the fiscal year 2 years hence (for example, in July 1997, the schedule for FY 1999).

3-9. HQDA scheduling coordination

During CINC Exercise and Training Scheduling Conferences and concurrently with the Worldwide Exercise Scheduling Conference, HQDA (DAMO-TRO) works with Army attendees to coordinate Army exercise scheduling. HQDA uses the coordination to help

a. Resolve funding and scheduling problems of the current fiscal year.

b. Adjust funding as required.

c. Identify and substantiate unfinanced exercise requirements.

d. Coordinate participation in Army mobilization exercises linked to a CJCS or CINC exercise.

3-10. Army support of the CJCS Joint Training Master Schedule

a. The CJCS Joint Training Master Schedule (JTMS) schedules events of the approved joint training plans subject to unforeseen operational requirements and final funding allocation. For the 1st year, where possible, the plan lists specific forces and, for planning, verifies anticipated transportation requirements. For continued planning in later years, the plan confirms the exercises mapped out for the 2d through 5th year. Where possible, it lists specific forces for those years to allow coordination between the scheduling and supporting commands.

b. Per established staffing procedure, Army reviews the JTMS. The review assesses the cumulative effect of exercise and joint requirements placed on the Army. Once approved, the plan commits the Army to provide resources for exercises scheduled the 1st fiscal year.

Section III
Program Funding by the Joint Staff

3-11. Funding of CJCS transportation support

The Joint Staff (J7) funds transportation support for CJCS exercises through Appropriation 97*0100, Operation and Maintenance, Defense-Wide. The appropriation pays the Air Mobility Command (AMC) and Military Sealift Command (MSC) for airlift and sealift transportation furnished the scheduling combatant command for transport of joint and service personnel. Through suballocation to the Services, the appropriation also pays for Service incurred expenses for PH and IT services and, when appropriate, for individual air travel of exercise participants under a CTP. (See sec III, chap 5 .)

3-12. Funding of exercise-related construction

The Joint Staff (J4) programs, budgets, and approves funds for ERC, which go to the comptroller activity of the scheduling command. Obligating funds for authorized projects requires notifying Congress and awaiting project approval or the lapse of 30 days from the date of notification, whichever occurs first.

3-13. Documenting requirements

Associated 5-year exercise schedules proposed by scheduling commands support the Joint Staff's requirement for funds recorded in the biennial Program Objective Memorandum (POM). Also supporting the POM requirement are related Service estimates for funds to offset PH and IT expenses. Following review of the POM by OSD, the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) issues Program Decision Memorandums approving program funding levels. Levels approved for the first 2 years of the POM form the basis of the biennial budget request. Those approved for the remaining program years form the basis for the next program development cycle.

Section IV
Assessment

3-14. Exercise capability assessments

Capability assessments derived from exercises serve several purposes. They help determine combatant command readiness. They help identify doctrinal issues requiring resolution. And they help the Joint Training System translate training results into future training requirements. In particular, their results feed into Joint Warfighting Capabilities Assessments, the RAP Program ( para 2-14 , above), the Joint Doctrine Development Program, Chairman's Commended Training Issues, and the Professional Military Education Review Process. The Joint Center for Lessons Learned (JCLL), which collects and manages readiness and training issues, helps analyze the issues and track their correction and validation. The JCLL also archives the entire process so lessons need not be relearned.

3-15. CJCS Evaluation Program for Joint Operations and CINC-Sponsored Exercises

The Evaluation Program for Joint Operations and CINC-Sponsored Exercises assesses combatant command ability to carry out assigned missions. Each year before the Worldwide Exercise Scheduling Conference, each combatant command reviews its exercise program for the following fiscal year (for example, review the FY 1999 program early in FY 1998). The review identifies two major FTXs and two major CPXs or CAXs for consideration by the Joint Staff. Taking into consideration, training objectives, timing, and resource availability, the Joint Staff develops a joint training event evaluation plan. It presents a draft of the plan for discussion at the annual Worldwide Exercise Scheduling Conference. After CINC review and CJCS approval, the Joint Staff releases the plan by message as part of the JTMS.

Chapter 4
Exercise Planning

Section I
Training to Perform Wartime Requirements

4-1. Operation plans

a. Wartime operational requirements underlie the design of military exercises. The process begins with the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) published by the Joint Staff in mid-January of the even year, its annexes receiving review in January of the intervening odd year. The document apportions resources to the CINCs and assigns operational missions. Complementing the JSCP, the Army Mobilization and Operations Planning and Execution System (AMOPES) and AR 500-5 give specific Army guidance to HQDA, ASCCs, supporting MACOMs, and Reserve components. AMOPES provides a primary source document for preparing policies, procedures, guidance, and planning assumptions for all levels of mobilization. It serves comparably for military operations undertaken without the involuntary call up of Reserve component forces.

b. Responding to the JSCP and, in the case of ASCCs, to AMOPES, CINCs and ASCC commanders prepare global and regional OPLANs. Their plans set wartime requirements, as do MACOM mobilization and deployment plans and plans of other supporting commanders.

4-2. Mission essential task lists

Analyzing OPLAN requirements and external directives on the war or other than war mission, Army commanders construct METLs and, as joint force commanders, joint JMETLs ( para 3-1b ) or JMETL supporting tasks as appropriate. Successful performance of mission essential tasks becomes the object of Army and Army joint training and forms the basis of exercise design and control. Figure 4-1 shows how the sequence of operation planning events (linked by arrows) and METLs (JMETLs) relate to exercise planning.



Figure 4-1. Sequence of operation planning events and METLs as they relate to exercise planning


Section II
Guidelines for Design and Control

4-3. Exercise planning guidelines

Chapter 2, sections II and III , outline Army policy for program development and evaluation. This section and the remaining sections of chapter 4 list guidelines for designing individual exercises and conducting and evaluating them.

4-4. Designing military exercises

Military exercises should

a. Seek maximum training value while maintaining operational readiness of participating units.

b. Set training objectives based on unit METL and include objectives for applicable topics covered in sections III and IV , below.

c. Stress realism in design and execution.

d. Use simulations when practical to enhance training.

e. Encourage subordinate commanders to set supporting exercise objectives and to plan associated training for subordinate units, leaders, and soldiers.

f. Allow subordinate commanders freedom to innovate within the framework of new or existing doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

g. Give scenarios enough flexibility to let commanders at all levels correct mistakes, encourage excursions, and allow training and learning to take precedence over preset time tables.

h. Avoid using troops as training aids, but stress using the maximum number of soldiers and units to meet training objectives, making sure to schedule required supporting transportation.

4-5. Conducting and evaluating exercises

a. To improve realism, require controllers and evaluators to

(1) Adopt tactical procedures used by participating units. Include procedures for camouflage, noise and light discipline, and operations security.

(2) Wear the same field uniform as exercise participants. Add observer identification, such as white headbands and armbands.

b. Prepare a master exercise control plan. Measure attainment of stated objectives.

c. Schedule periodic afteraction reviews for all participating units, allowing exercises to halt from time to time to stress a teaching point.

Section III
Administrative Guidelines

4-6. Intelligence oversight

During exercise play, require that participants adhere to intelligence oversight procedures and guidelines when conducting intelligence collection activities. (See AR 381-10 .) Pending appropriate publications update, apply also Director, National Security Agency (DIRNSA) message, 312140Z JAN 96, subject: SIGNIT Exercise Rules of Engagement (EXROE) for JRTC and National Training Center (NTC).

4-7. Opposing force

Except when regional or bilateral conditions prevail, employ a realistic opposing force (OPFOR) in FTXs. Use doctrine, tactics, materiel, language (as practical), and weapon systems (or approved training aids) of potential adversaries. (See AR 350-2 .) As practical, use force ratios given in AR 350-2. Stress their application in small unit exercises.

4-8. Safety

a. Require that commanders and supervisors at all levels

(1) Make the safety of military personnel and local civilians of paramount concern.

(2) Give safety and protection of lives priority over exercise realism.

b. Include in the exercise control plan procedures to reduce injuries and property damage for both the military and local inhabitants. Address all phases and operations of the exercise. Stress precautions to counter hazards presented in special operations such as river crossings and live firing exercises.

c. Require that commanders and supervisors brief exercise participants on key aspects of personal and vehicle safety. (See AR 385-10 and AR 385-55 .)

4-9. Exercise logistics

a. Apply procedures for property accountability given in AR 735-5 and AR 710-2 .

b. For resources required above installation level the following applies:

(1) Make sure that units and individuals participating in the exercise have the authorized equipment and mission peculiar items to accomplish exercise objectives.

(2) Process requisitions for clothing and equipment exceeding authorized allowances as requests for temporary loan under AR 71-13. Send requisitions with justification to the responsible U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) National Inventory Control Point (NICP) or Defense Supply Center at least 45 days in advance. From the responsible AMC NICP or Defense Supply Center, get instructions for disposing of loaned clothing, equipment, supplies, and repair parts after the exercise.

(3) Submit requests to use and test equipment under development to the developing agency and exercise sponsor. Get instructions for disposing of the equipment from the developing agency before the end of the exercise.

(4) Apply procedures for property accountability per AR 710-1 for exercises using AWRPS.

(5) See AR 11-12 (under revision) and AR 725-50 for setting priorities for the issue of materiel and policy for its distribution.

c. Avoid taking nonessential items of equipment to the exercise area.

d. Two policies apply for using AWRPS sustainment stocks during an exercise.

(1) The ASCC must budget for the use of ground based stocks and must coordinate exercise stock requirements and reconstitution guidelines with AMC and HQDA. Supplies issued from ground based sustainment stocks require a funded requisition from the exercise unit.

(2) Stocks may not be used from AWRPS Afloat. Instead the ASCC and exercise unit must plan for the deployment of stocks to support the exercise. The ASCC should coordinate with AMC to deploy the AWR-3 Exercise Class IX package to support discharge, exercise, and reconstitution tasks. Supplies issued from the AWR-3 package require a funded requisition from the exercise unit.

e. When units deploy from CONUS for an overseas exercise, get logistics and host-nation support through the contracting or agreements officer of the overseas theater. Follow published exercise guidance for support procedures. In the absence of guidance use the following general procedure:

(1) From the ASCC POC, get the name, phone, and address of the contracting or ordering officer.

(2) Give 2 to 6 months advance notice, according to the size and complexity of the procurement.

(3) Provide the contracting or ordering officer with a funded purchase request description of the required item or service.

(4) Promptly pay bills for items and services before redeploying to maintain good relations with private firms and the local government. Use authorized contracting procedures.

f. See paragraph 4-23 below for logistics training guidance.

4-10. Criminal investigative support

Coordinate with the commander of the supporting U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) unit to determine whether any existing actual threat requires consideration in planning the exercise. Determine also whether the need exists to include criminal investigative organizations in the exercise troop list.

4-11. Legal issues

Coordinate with your supporting judge advocate to anticipate issues relating to criminal law, legal assistance, and contracting that may arise in planning and conducting the exercise.

a. Coordinate with your supporting judge advocate to make sure that exercise participants are briefed on or otherwise advised of the legal implications of the exercise. This may include briefings on the applicable arrangements for criminal jurisdiction as well as claims procedures, environmental considerations, and other exercise related legal issues.

b. For construction activity, stress financing projects from the proper source of funds, defining project scope, and calculating engineer costs. Coordinate with your supporting judge advocate.

c. When exercising with foreign military forces, coordinate with your supporting judge advocate to ensure proper funding. To identify the proper source of funding, consider whether the type of training to be provided will rise to the level of formal training normally provided under and funded by security assistance programs.

d. If an overseas exercise, consult with your supporting judge advocate for advice on the proper planning, funding, and execution of any humanitarian and civic assistance activities associated with the exercise. Also discuss with your supporting judge advocate.

(1) The need for international agreements on host nation criminal jurisdiction over U.S. personnel and related issues concerning custody of accused persons.

(2) Potential issues in the following areas:

(a) Force security and countering terrorism.

(b) Rules of engagement.

(c) Reports of survey.

(d) Host nation environmental laws, customs and taxes, and entry and exit requirements.

(e) U.S. customs on redeployment.

(f) U.S. and host nation agreements to address claims arising from exercise activities.

4-12. Civil affairs

a. When planning an exercise, prepare a civil affairs assessment. Assess the probable effects of the exercise on the attitudes or behavior of individuals, groups, and governments affected by the exercise. Include those affected by flight corridors and transportation routes.

b. Change exercise plans as required to

(1) Enhance favorable political or psychological effects.

(2) Avoid unfavorable results.

(3) Reduce damage to the environment.

c. Unless contrary to national security, brief foreign, Federal, State, and local government officials and appropriate civilian agency personnel. Explain the exercise concept and purpose.

4-13. Maneuver permits

Maneuver areas may exist on private, local, State, or Federal land. Get maneuver permits early in planning to make sure areas are available. Normally through the exercise director's Staff Judge Advocate, request the proper U.S. Army District Engineer to gain area use by maneuver permit or short-term lease. (See AR 405-10, para 2-10 .)

4-14. Maneuver claims

a. For each major off-post exercise, consult with your supporting judge advocate and prepare a Maneuver Damage Claims Plan. Make it an annex to the exercise control plan. For each major off-post FTX, also set up a Maneuver Damage Control Center.

b. Quickly investigate and process claims arising from damage to public and private property. Coordinate, as required, with the Commander, U.S. Army Claims Service ( AR 27-20 ). For repairing maneuver damage, see paragraph 4-15d(4) and (5) .

4-15. Environment

a. Consider the environmental impact of the exercise throughout its planning and execution. Observe all Federal, State, and local laws and regulations protecting the environment. Stress avoiding or limiting damage to vegetation, soils, water sources, and protected wildlife habitats.

b. Except as provided in (1), below, prepare an Environmental Assessment (EA) or Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under AR 200-2 .

(1) For an exercise on an Army installation, compare planned exercise activity with the EA or EIS covering normal operations. If the EA or EIS adequately assesses planned exercise activity, follow its procedures. Also prepare a record of environmental consideration (REC) under AR 200-2, paragraph 3-1a , citing the applicable EA or EIS by name and date. As a general rule, however, an EA or EIS older than 3 years fails to qualify for this procedure. In the absence of an existing EA or EIS or if it inadequately assesses planned activity, follow procedures in (2), below.

(2) For an off-post exercise not covered by an existing installation EA and EIS, prepare an EA (unless, by its nature, an EIS will obviously be required (see AR 200-2, para 6-1 )). Develop the EA with other exercise planning documents. If the EA concludes the exercise will adversely affect the quality of the environment or is environmentally controversial, prepare an EIS. Send the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) through command channels to HQDA, coordinating early with the DA proponent to avoid delay. Submit the DEIS at least 5 months before the exercise starts. HQDA will either approve the DEIS for filing with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or return it for correction. Once approved, HQDA will file the DEIS with the EPA and publish notice in the Federal Register.

c. Describe areas placed off limits by environmental considerations (for example, an archeological site or protected habitat) as nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) contaminated areas or as natural or manmade obstacles. Require units to bypass or avoid them.

d. For a major FTX, provide an environmental controller to watch the conduct of the exercise. Require the environmental controller to

(1) Evaluate environmental impacts.

(2) Before the exercise, advise the exercise director of any serious environmental degradation that might occur. Recommend an alternate or mitigating action when possible.

(3) Develop and disseminate to participating units information designed to minimize adverse impacts on the environment. Require commanders to conduct environmental briefings for participating troops.

(4) During the exercise, report any spills or hazardous substances under AR 200-1, paragraph 8-1 .

(5) At the end of the exercise, in consonance with Army policy and to the extent possible or practical, determine and coordinate corrective measures to return the exercise area to an environmental state similar to that existing before the exercise. Consider measures that include repairing exercise damage to natural resources and replenishing wildlife habitats.

(6) Coordinate corrective measures with the proper U.S. Army District Engineer. File any claims for property damages under AR 27-20.

4-16. Public affairs

a. Prepare public affairs guidance as part of the exercise control plan of each major FTX. As applicable, complement guidance of the combatant command commander.

b. Also, provide public affairs guidance for special exercises, particularly those conducted outside installation boundaries. Include a general background statement. Cover enough questions and answers to describe the types of training involved. Solve policy or procedural questions that arise at the lowest possible level of command. Send unresolved questions to HQDA (SAPA-PCD), WASH DC 20310-1501. (See AR 360-5, chap 3.)

c. Exercises that infringe on the public domain require detailed community relations planning.

(1) Using local news media as appropriate, inform civilian officials and the public of exercise activities. Allay anxieties about disruption of normal activities and reimbursement for property damage. Give the locations of claims officers and their telephone numbers.

(2) Give members of the local news media and civilian officials opportunities to observe training to

(a) Improve community relations.

(b) Show that units and installations make important contributions to national security or mutual defense.

(c) Enhance unit pride.

d. Use command information channels to inform participants. To help motivate soldiers, keep them aware of the purpose and relevance of exercise activities. To help soldiers influence public reaction favorably in face-to-face contact with local citizens, brief soldiers on community relations. Caution them, however, about releasing unauthorized or speculative information.

4-17. Visual information support

a. Combat camera (COMCAM) support can produce visual images of military operations including key actions before, during, and after mobilization, deployment, force generation, and force employment. The images provide information for

(1) Briefings and training.

(2) Public and command information.

(3) Historical record and other general military purposes.

b. For each major exercise, prepare a COMCAM Support Plan as an annex to the exercise control plan.

c. Using organic COMCAM resources, document the exercise. Use motion pictures, television, and still photography. As appropriate, request additional COMCAM support from the U.S. Army Visual Information Center, HQDA (SAM-OPV-CD). (See AR 25-1 .) Dispose of COMCAM documentation under AR 25-400-2 .

4-18. Unit exchange programs

Exchanging U.S. Army units with units of allied nations for training can yield long-term politico-military benefits. In coordination with the combatant command commander, consider selected unit exchanges when planning a combined exercise. (See AR 12-15, chap 14 .) Take into account that such unit exchanges must be based on international agreements that may need to be negotiated and allow necessary leadtime, as appropriate. (See AR 550-1 .)

Section IV
Training Guidelines

4-19. Personnel

a. Include personnel objectives, procedures, and requirements in the exercise control plan to make sure of realistic personnel play.

b. Normally require exercise units to participate at currently assigned strength levels.

c. Require that participating units maintain journals and journal files under AR 220-15 .

d. When practical, provide participating units with morale, recreation, and welfare support.

e. When appropriate, require participation of command historical offices and military history detachments. (See AR 870-5 .)

f. When planning exercises involving mobilization or Reserve call-up, require that mobilization stations adhere to the applicable section of AMOPES and the FORSCOM Mobilization and Deployment Planning System (FORMDEPS). Require also that they

(1) Test systems for accessing personnel.

(2) Also test systems for cross-leveling and redistribution.

(3) Test personnel policies and procedures used at the station to receive and process Reserve component personnel.

(4) Conduct Soldier Readiness Processing (SRP) for units and individuals participating in a mobilization station FTX.

(5) Test personnel policies and procedures used at the station to receive and process all classes of civilians.

g. Require participating Reserve component units to review and follow installation mobilization plans.

4-20. Medical

a. Include medical objectives, procedures, and requirements in the exercise control plan to refine and test integration of the following functions:

(1) Acquisition and treatment of the sick, injured, and wounded.

(2) Patient evacuation.

(3) Hospitalization.

(4) Patient administration.

(5) Medical supply, maintenance, and materiel management.

(6) Dental services.

(7) Optometry and optical services.

(8) Laboratory and blood bank services.

(9) Veterinary services.

(10) Medical intelligence.

(11) Medical food service.

(12) Preventive medicine.

b. Stress planning by medical commanders and staffs.

c. Test the capacity of functional medical capabilities to sustain combat operations and to adjust to changing medical demands.

(1) Play or simulate medical care at both supporting and supported levels.

(2) Devise medical play for an FTX, CFX, CPX, or CAX using realistic casualty and replacement estimates, materiel consumption data, and resupply rates.

(a) Incorporate patient play appropriate to exercise tactical and environmental conditions.

(b) Provide for health service support in specialized situations, and make it consistent with the overall scheme of play. Include the handling of mass casualties, such as those produced by the effects of NBC weapons. When possible, integrate Geneva Conventions on health services support.

(c) Include, as appropriate, humanitarian and civic assistance activities aimed at the local population.

d. Incorporate measures by non-medical personnel and units for buddy aid, personal hygiene, and field sanitation.

4-21. Intelligence

a. Include foreign intelligence collection objectives, procedures, and requirements in the exercise control plan to make sure of realistic intelligence play. Include all intelligence disciplines in the exercise control plan.

b. Determine requirements for maps and aerial photography early in exercise planning. Process requests under AR 115-11 .

c. Design exercise play to provide realistic all-source intelligence training. Apply training to commanders, staffs, participating troops, and intelligence specialists.

(1) Make sure that all available intelligence assets perform in a coordinated manner to produce and disseminate timely intelligence products.

(2) Play or simulate signals intelligence for both friendly forces and opposing forces (OPFOR). Use signals intelligence products and electronic intelligence to achieve exercise objectives.

d. When a USACIDC unit participates in the exercise in a player role, coordinate inserting criminal intelligence activity in the scenario.

e. Determine counterintelligence requirements early and use counterintelligence assets in operations security (OPSEC) role ( para 4-27 ) during exercise planning and as required during the exercise.

f. Consider using an intelligence control cell to provide intelligence to participating intelligence units to promote more realistic training.

4-22. Psychological operations

a. Integrate Psychological operations (PSYOP) into each major exercise. As practical, include the following:

(1) PSYOP planning.

(2) Information processing.

(3) Research and analysis.

(4) Production and dissemination.

(5) Evaluation of effectiveness.

(6) Defensive measures against hostile PSYOP.

b. Before the exercise, instruct participants in the concepts that underlie PSYOP.

4-23. Logistics

a. Include logistical objectives, procedures, and requirements in the exercise control plan. Refine and test the capability of organic and supporting logistical elements to sustain the combat operation.

b. Stress logistical support as part of the exercise. When possible integrate Reserve component logistics personnel into the exercise play. Require logistical units to participate as player forces. When possible, avoid administrative and non-tactical support.

c. Make sure player forces understand and acknowledge the role and responsibility of combat service support (CSS). Stress complete and timely coordination between supported and supporting units, beginning during the preparation phase and continuing throughout the execution phase.

d. As an integral part of planning, conducting, and testing the logistical support operation, require commanders, controllers, and evaluators to stress

(1) Supply economy and cost consciousness.

(2) Materiel maintenance, applying procedures prescribed in DA doctrinal and equipment and AR 750-1 .

(3) Integration of the appropriate Logistical Support Element (LSE). (See FM 63-11 .)

(4) Logistics security (LOGSEC) operations.

e. Stress use of Log Anchor Desk for planning. As appropriate, stress use of contractors under the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). (See AR 700-137 and FM 63-11.)

f. Stress training in specific logistics requirements and procedures as follows:

(1) Fully integrate material management functions of the individual unit and maneuver battalion.

(2) When possible, physically play all classes of supply.

(3) Test class V resupply using actual or simulated basic loads and blank ammunition. Require that the makeup of simulated basic loads represent the size and configuration of actual ammunition containers. When possible, play both direct and general support levels.

(4) Stress the basic materiel maintenance mission of participating units, including operator care and maintenance. Include post-exercise evaluation of unit equipment.

(5) Require participating direct support maintenance units to perform normal support functions. Include giving contact team support to battalion and separate company elements.

(6) Set up aerial ports and air terminals to support deployment and mobility exercises. (See AR 59-105 (to be superseded in 1977 by volume III, DOD Regulation 5900.9-R.))

(7) When limiting resources to hinder mission activities, reduce supplies, maintenance, and transportation as appropriate to exercise design.

g. See paragraph 4-9 above for exercise logistics support.

4-24. Nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare

a. Include NBC objectives, procedures, and requirements in the exercise control plan. Refine and test NBC employment, doctrine, and procedures as well as active and passive defense measures.

b. Integrate realistic situations and conditions into overall maneuver objectives.

c. Stress individual and unit capability to operate in an NBC environment. Include nuclear and chemical fire planning and application of NBC defensive skills.

4-25. Communications and electronics

a. Include communications and electronic (C-E) objectives, procedures, and requirements in the exercise control plan. Refine and test, under simulated combat conditions, command, control, and communications (C3) procedures used by commanders and staffs, communications personnel, and small unit leaders.

b. Design C-E play in coordination with overall design of the exercise.

c. Stress proper selection of message precedence and communications means.

d. Stress communications discipline and traffic flow.

(1) Include message delays. Include also circuit damage and outages and accompanying need to set priorities for restoring service.

(2) Maintain realistic volume, using, when applicable, loader messages in the secure mode.

e. When applicable, test capabilities to attain communications compatibility between affiliated and partnership Reserve component units and Active Army units.

4-26. Electronic warfare

a. Include electronic warfare (EW) objectives, procedures, and requirements in the exercise control plan. Refine and test techniques and procedures to plan and conduct EW operations.

b. Stress using EW as a form of combat power in coordination with fire and maneuver elements.

c. Realistically portray the radio electronic combat threat.

d. Consistent with exercise objectives, test ability of operators of C-E and electromagnetic dependent weapon systems to apply electronic counter-countermeasure (ECCM) techniques and procedures in an intensive EW environment.

4-27. Operations security

a. Include OPSEC objectives, procedures, and requirements in the control plan of an FTX, CFX, CPX, or CAX. Refine and test OPSEC practices and procedures. Cover the following:

(1) Combat operations

(2) Signals security (SIGSEC) operations.

(3) ECCM.

(4) Intelligence and counterintelligence operations.

(5) Battlefield deception operations.

(6) Administrative and logistics operations.

b. Require commanders to do the following:

(1) Maintain OPSEC as a continuing command concern. Include all phases of the exercise, from planning through execution and post-exercise critiques.

(2) Coordinate staff efforts to maintain OPSEC.

(3) Conduct surveys as needed to determine the status and effectiveness of OPSEC measures.

(4) Detect and correct OPSEC deficiencies.

(5) Before the exercise, instruct participants in OPSEC measures and the susceptibility of U.S. forces to observation and exploitation by adversaries or potential adversaries. (See AR 530-1 .)

4-28. Signals security

Include SIGSEC objectives, procedures, and requirements as part of the exercise control plan for OPSEC ( para 4-27 ).

a. Be sure that command SIGSEC policies and standards conform with AR 380-19.

b. Make sure personnel who use telecommunications and other electromagnetic radiating equipment (for example, radar)

(1) Know what information needs protecting.

(2) Are capable of using all available means to protect electrical transmissions.

(3) Remain alert to the need to protect, by SIGSEC, information also protected by other security practices.

(4) Remain aware of the result of poor SIGSEC practices.

4-29. Command, control, communications countermeasures

Include objectives, procedures, and requirements for command, control, and communications countermeasures (C3CM) as part of the exercise control plan for OPSEC (para 4-27 ). Refine and test ability to

a. Protect friendly C3 while denying information to, influencing, degrading, or destroying enemy C3.

b. Integrate the use of C3CM with other OPSEC measures including the following:

(1) Battlefield deception operations ( para 4-30 ) and jamming.

(2) Physical destruction of materiel that may fall into enemy hands. See also AR 525-20 .

4-30. Battlefield deception

Include battlefield deception objectives, procedures, and requirements as part of the exercise control plan for OPSEC ( para 4-27 ), particularly for an FTX. (See AR 525-21.) Refine and test ability to integrate deception activities with C3CM, EW, and other OPSEC measures. Include the following:

a. Engaging in camouflage, countersurveillance, and concealment activities.

b. Simulating friendly command posts, combat elements, and weapons systems.

c. Manipulating friendly C-E signatures or profiles to deceive enemy intelligence analysts.

d. Using cover reflectors, smoke, decoys, and other materials to disguise, distort, or conceal friendly activities from enemy surveillance systems.

4-31. Legal affairs

Involve Judge Advocate General personnel in staff planning and coordination of exercise play. Make sure that participating units exercise law of war play, and that selected Judge Advocate personnel receive play in problems of operational law.

4-32. Chaplain

Involve staff chaplain personnel in planning and coordinating exercise play. Make sure the exercise scenario contains free exercise of religion play and that selected chaplain participants receive play in problems of chaplain and chaplain assistant personnel support, religion, and moral and ethical issues.

Chapter 5
Exercise Funding

Section I
Sources and Application of Funds

5-1. Funds for military exercises

a. Operation and maintenance funds. Operation and maintenance appropriations pay for operating and maintaining Army installations and units, including the costs of military exercises and other training. Commands and agencies project the costs in their operating budgets. For this purpose, they use a standard classification of activities and functions published in DFAS-IN Manual 37-100 -** (where ** stands for the current fiscal year, for example, 96). Army appropriations for operation and maintenance are as follows:

(1) Operation and Maintenance, Army (OMA).

(2) Operation and Maintenance, Army National Guard (OMNG).

(3) Operation and Maintenance, Army Reserve (OMAR).

b. Army CJCS exercise funds.

(1) Army CJCS exercise funds pay costs added by a CJCS exercise. Commonly referred to as incremental costs these costs

(a) Apply to an exercise incorporated in the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program by virtue of its being listed in the CJCS Joint Training Master Schedule. See paragraphs 3-2 and 3-10 , above.

(b) Cover costs over normal operating costs a unit incurs because of the exercise. (The cost of moving Army personnel and equipment to and from CJCS exercises, however, is normally funded by CJCS transportation funds and when so funded is not an incremental cost within the terms of this definition. See c, below and paragraph 5-4 .)

(2) Army CJCS exercise funds consist of OMA funds applied under Army Management Structure Code 121011 (AMSCO 121011). Described in chapter 321, DFAS-IN Manual 37-100 -**, AMSCO 121011 equates to OSD Program Element 02080110A.

c. CJCS transportation funds. The Joint Staff (J7) funds transportation support for CJCS exercises. It allocates funds to the Air Mobility Command and Military Sealift Command to pay for airlift and sealift. Through a suballocation to the Army, the Joint Staff also pays for expenses incurred by the Army for PH and IT services and, when appropriate, for individual air travel of exercise participants under the CTP. See section III , this chapter.

d. Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation funds. Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDTE) funds from the system developer pay the costs of support requirements unique to a system undergoing test and evaluation during an exercise.

5-2. HQDA role in managing Army CJCS exercise funds

HQDA (DAMO-TRO) manages Army CJCS exercise funds ( para 5-1b , above) and related funds suballocated to the Army by the Joint Staff ( para 5-1c ).

5-3. Guide for applying operation and maintenance funds other than Army CJCS exercise funds on exercise-activities

Army operation and maintenance funds other than Army CJCS exercise funds can, and often do, cover expenses for activities usually associated with a CJCS exercise. Examples are as follows:

a. Expenses of training Reserve component units in exercises of all types (Army, CJCS, or non-CJCS) except as provided in paragraph 5-10 .

b. Expenses of providing Army aviation support in exercises of all types. (Aviation support receives funding through the Flying Hour Program ( AR 95-1 ))

c. Expenses, at the discretion of the commander, for mobility fuel, repair parts, and supplies to operate in the field during an FTX conducted within a CJCS exercise.

5-4. Guide for applying Army CJCS exercise funds

Army CJCS exercise funds help defray costs incurred by Army forces because of a CJCS exercise ( para 5-1b ). For example, Army CJCS exercise funds pay the incremental costs to plan, conduct, and evaluate a CJCS exercise. They also pay the incremental costs of units participating in a CJCS exercise. Appendix B gives specific examples of expenses payable and nonpayable with Army CJCS exercise funds. Generally, however

a. Proper applications of Army CJCS exercise funds include paying Army incremental costs for the following:

(1) Exercise peculiar equipment.

(2) Petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL).

(3) Repair parts, expendable supplies, and depot level reparable costs for AWRPS equipment.

(4) Overseas conferences and meetings.

(5) Contract support.

b. Improper applications of Army CJCS exercise funds include paying for

(1) TDY or per diem for unit personnel during maneuvers or exercises when rations and quarters are available or furnished, whether or not such facilities are used.

(2) Pay and allowances for Active or Reserve component personnel.

(3) Regular salary of DA civilian personnel.

(4) Subsistence.

(5) Transportation costs paid from funds provided by the Joint Staff.

(6) Exercise participation by another Service except as provided in Appendix B, paragraph B-2r .

(7) Exercise participation by the headquarters of a combatant command (other than commands receiving Army Executive Agency support).

(8) Exercise participation by a Joint Communication Support Element (JCSE) or Joint Special Operation Support Element (JSOSE).

(9) Class V.

5-5. Funding of single Service exercises

In general, a command directing a single Service exercise will budget the resources to support it.

5-6. Funding of exercise programs of the combatant commands

a. Combatant commands fund the participation of JCSEs and JSOSEs and their own headquarters. They also fund airlift and sealift for command sponsored, non-CJCS exercises.

b. Except for airlift and sealift, which receives funding by the combatant command, the Army programs and budgets for participation of Army forces in exercise programs of the combatant commands as provided in paragraphs 5-7 through 5-12 for CJCS exercises.

Section II
Programming and Budgeting for CJCS Exercises

5-7. Participating Army commands and agencies

a. The following commands and agencies program and budget funds to support their participation in CJCS exercises:

(1) Eighth U.S. Army (EUSA).

(2) U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM).

(3) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

(4) U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC).

(5) U.S. Army, Europe and Seventh Army (USAREUR).

(6) U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM).

(7) U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC).

(8) U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM).

(9) U.S. Army Military District Washington (MDW).

(10) U.S. Army, Pacific Command (USARPAC).

(11) U.S. Army, South (USARSO).

(12) U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) (through Appropriation, 97*0100, Operation and Maintenance, Defense-Wide).

(13) U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC).

(14) U.S. European Command (USEUCOM).

(15) U.S. Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC).

b. The U.S. Total Army Personnel Command (PERSCOM), Army Reserve Personnel Center (ARPERCEN), HQDA staff agencies, and, as required, other commands and agencies submit annual estimates for CJCS exercise funds to HQDA (DAMO-TRO).

5-8. Funding by exercise phase

a. Execution phase. The execution phase starts for a unit when it arrives in the exercise area or begins to participate in the exercise, whichever occurs first. The exercise area is defined as the location of the exercise stated in the JTMS or as identified or coordinated during detailed exercise planning. The execution phase ends for a unit when it departs the exercise area for home station. An exception occurs when a unit participates in an exercise from its home station. In which case, the execution phase for a unit coincides with the employment dates stated in the JTMS or as identified or coordinated during detailed exercise planning.

(1) The ASCC of the scheduling or sponsoring command funds the support costs of conventional forces (forces other than special operations forces (SOF)).

(2) The U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) programs and budgets the cost of SOF participation in exercises.

b. Pre- and post-exercise phases. The command assigned the unit in peacetime will fund the incremental costs of pre-exercise preparation and post-exercise activities.

5-9. Special funding considerations

a. TRADOC doctrinal support. MACOMs may request help from TRADOC in applying and reviewing doctrine ( para 2-12 ). The requesting command funds TRADOC SME participation.

b. AWRPS equipment.

(1) The ASCC of the exercise scheduling or sponsoring command funds the additional incremental costs for AMC personnel and equipment to issue and reconstitute AWRPS equipment. Subject to HQDA funding considerations, some exceptions apply for the exercise of AW-3 equipment.

(2) AMC issues equipment at fully mission capable (FMC) standard with a goal of 10/20 standards and funds POL and repair parts needed to bring the equipment to standard. AMC also funds the maintenance of AMC equipment used in the exercise issue and reconstitution phases.

(3) When using AWRPS equipment, the exercise unit funds the OPTEMPO costs for class IX consumable repair parts, consumable supplies, and other normal training costs from its home station training account. HQDA (DAMO-TRO) provides supplemental funding for depot level reparables consumed during the exercise. After the exercise, the exercise unit bears responsibility for returning equipment to AMC at the standard it was issued.

c. Augmentees. When the exercise scheduling command or its ASCC requests and receives augmentees from other MACOMS, the ASCC bears responsibility for the incremental costs associated with that augmentee participation. Normally, however, the scheduling command funds travel costs.

5-10. Funding the costs of Reserve component participation in CJCS exercises

a. Incremental costs. Army CJCS exercise funds reimburse the incremental costs of participating Reserve component units, paying the same expenses for which Active Army units receive reimbursement. The funding of Reserve component unit participation in OCONUS exercises is also governed by AR 350-9 .

b. Transportation costs.

(1) The payment of transportation costs for Reserve component units participating in a CJCS exercise at the request of the scheduling CINC or ASCC normally varies depending whether the unit is in an annual training status.

(a) If the unit is in an annual training status, Reserve component funds pay part of the cost. The portion paid equals the amount required to move the unit to and from its annual training site. Absent a usual training site, the amount paid equals the cost of moving the unit to and from its mobilization station. CJCS transportation funds (sec III , this chap) pay the remaining costs of moving unit personnel and equipment to and from the exercise area, sea port of embarkation (SPOE) or sea port of debarkation (SPOD), or an aerial port of embarkation (APOE) or aerial port of debarkation (APOD).

(b) If the unit is in other than an annual training status, CJCS transportation funds pay all costs of moving unit personnel and equipment.

(2) If the unit is participating at the request of the scheduling command, ASCC, or a higher unit in its WARTRACE alignment but CJCS funding is unavailable, Reserve component funds pay all the cost.

5-11. Army CJCS exercise funding process

a. Annual exercise planning sets requirements for Army participation in CJCS exercises. Requirements convert to funds through the Army Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES). The biennial PPBES process, including updates during off-cycle years, states the need for exercise funds through the POM as

(1) Army CJCS exercise funds (AMSCO 121011).

(2) Funds for exercises other than CJCS exercises (mainly O&M funds).

b. HQDA incorporates approved POM requirements into an annual Budget Estimates Submission (BES) to OSD. On approving the BES, OSD incorporates the Army program into the President's Budget. Funds then become available once Congress approves, and the President signs, the Department of Defense (DOD) Appropriation Act. Congress, however, may fail to pass the appropriation by the end of September. If so, commands receive interim allocations and total obligation authority under a continuing resolution, usually restricted to prior year levels.

c. Commands and agencies include in their POM as unfinanced requirements (UFRs) requirements to support the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program not resourced by the command or agency ( para 5-12b ). During a current fiscal year, a command or agency may encounter other unfinanced requirements for an unanticipated but approved exercise. When such an off-cycle requirement becomes known, the command or agency should, request funding through program and budget channels with information to HQDA (DAMO-TRO). The request should include justification to support the request against competing requirements.

5-12. Annual events for scheduling CJCS exercises and programming and budgeting CJCS exercise funds

Figure 5-1 shows graphically baseline events that occur in scheduling and funding CJCS exercises. Table 5-1 shows in tabular form a chronological subset of events that relate directly to obtaining and applying exercise funds. Keyed to table 5-1, the subparagraphs that follow described the events.



Figure 5-1. Annual events for scheduling CJCS exercises and programming and budgeting CJCS exercise funds





Figure 5-1. Continued




Table 5-1. Events related to obtaining and applying Army CJCS exercise funds
Timing Funding event
Late fall and Jan-Feb HQDA coordinates scheduling of Army exercises during CINC Exercise and Training Scheduling Conferences and Worldwide Exercise Scheduling Conference.
Dec-Jan When directed by HQDA (DAMO-TRO), MACOMs submit CJCS exercise requirements.
Feb-Mar HQDA adjusts CJCS exercise requirements.
Jul-Aug When directed by HQDA (DAMO-TRO), MACOMs update exercise fund requirements. HQDA adjusts budget estimates.
Oct HQDA releases program funds.
Nov MACOMs report past year obligations. 1

Notes:
1. Army CJCS Exercise Funds Report (RCS: CSGPO-452) (
fig 5-2 ).

a. Late fall and January-February. HQDA (DAMO-TRO) coordinates scheduling of Army exercises concurrently with CINC Exercise Conferences in the fall and the Worldwide Scheduling Conference in January or February (paras 3-7 and 3-9 ). The coordination helps HQDA

(1) Resolve current fiscal year funding and scheduling problems.

(2) Adjust funding as required.

(3) Identify and substantiate unfinanced POM requirements.

b. December-January. In December or January, as directed by HQDA (DAMO-TRO), commands and agencies cited in paragraph 5-7 submit their CJCS exercise requirements, incorporating them also in the even-year POM submission or offcycle POM update. They include, in schedule 1 of the POM as UFRs, requirements to support the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program not resourced by the command or agency.

c. February-March. By late February or early March, HQDA (DAMO-TRO) reviews command and agency requirements. The review includes looking at exercise conference results and the funding included in the President's Budget. HQDA (DAMO-TRO) then adjusts Army CJCS exercise funds programmed earlier and records the result in the Army POM as appropriate.

d. July-August. In July or August, as directed by HQDA (DAMO-TRO), commands and agencies update their requirements, providing information varying with each data call.

e. October. In October, through SAFM-BUO and DAMO-TRO, HQDA releases current fiscal year funds for the approved program to commands and agencies.

f. November. In November, commands and agencies, on request of HQDA (DAMO-TRO), report their use of Army CJCS exercise funds. The report covers obligations for the past fiscal year by exercise title ( fig 5-2 ).



Figure 5-2. Army CJCS Exercise Funds Report: Requirements, tailored to report obligations


Section III
Managing CJCS Transportation Funds

5-13. Funding by the Joint Staff

As mentioned, the Joint Staff funds transportation support for CJCS exercises through the Appropriation, 97*0100, Operation and Maintenance, Defense-Wide. The appropriation pays the Air Mobility Command and Military Sealift Command directly for airlift and sealift transportation furnished Army forces. Through suballocation to the Army, the appropriation also pays for expenses incurred by the Army for PH and IT and, when appropriate, for individual air travel of exercise participants under the CTP. Such funds may not be used for other purposes.

a. Port handling and inland transportation services.

(1) PH funds pay for commercial expenses to receive or dispatch cargo at ports of embarkation (POE) and ports of debarkation (POD) associated with Military Sealift Command shipping for an exercise. The expenses include documentation, terminal handling, and stevedoring.

(2) IT funds pay for moving exercise participants and cargo by commercial-for-hire firms when organic transportation is not available or cost effective. Movement is by surface transportation (rail, highway, and inland waterway). It may be to and from an exercise area, a SPOE or SPOD, or an APOE or APOD. Specifically excluded are transportation expenses related to TDY, exercise conferences, and commercial air movement of exercise participants except as provided in b, below.

b. Commercial Ticketing Program.

(1) CTP funds apply to units that have been validated in the Global Command and Control System/JOPES TPFDD (time phased force and deployment data) when USTRANSCOM-provided common user transportation fails to satisfy a scheduling command's requirements.

(2) CTP funds may be used only to move people who are participating in a joint training exercise from the APOE to the APOD. Covered participants include exercise controllers, data collectors, evaluators, players, and support staff. CTP funds may not be used for others who are visiting the exercise site but not participating in joint training.

(3) If common user transportation proves inadequate, AMC recommends that exercise participants travel instead via commercial air. USTRANSCOM certifies requirements that qualify for CTP funds to the scheduling command. On its approval of a requirement, the scheduling command notifies USTRANSCOM, AMC, the sponsoring command, and supporting commands and agencies. USTRANSCOM then sends a message to the Joint Staff, HQDA (DAMO-TRO), supporting commands and agencies authorizing use of CTP funds. The authorization approves either a one way trip or round trip. If one-way, the sponsoring command makes sure that return transportation is arranged.

(4) For authorized requirements the TRANSCOM message includes:
Unit line number (ULN).
Unit name.
Origin location.
Number of passengers.
Round trip or one way.
Cost of ticket(s) for ULN.
Unique CTP authorization number.
Total dollar amount authorized by message.
Total dollar authorization by service.

(5) The scheduling command makes sure that the Service component and major commands participating in the CJCS exercise receive notification of the CTP authorization.

c. Excess funds. During execution, exercise cancellations or modifications, overestimates, efficiencies in transportation, or other cause may result in excess transportation funds. Excess funds revert to Joint Staff control to offset program funding reductions or to support unfinanced requirements.

5-14. Obligation of CJCS transportation funds

a. Before the start of each fiscal quarter, the Joint Staff suballocates funds to the Army to cover Army PH and IT expenses and commercial ticketing, making the funds available to MACOMs and agencies as requested by HQDA (DAMO-TRO). When obligations unjustifiably fall short of quarterly targets, the Joint Staff or HQDA (DAMO)-TRO) may direct the return of unobligated funds ( para 5-13c , above).

b. To make sure that funds receive correct and timely obligation, commands and agencies will require that originators of obligating documents (for example, installation preparers and transportation officers) take the following actions:

(1) Promptly complete obligating documents to include an estimated dollar value if no dollar value given.

(2) Cite CJCS transportation funds (Appropriation 97*0100, Operation and Maintenance, Defense-Wide) instead of Army funds. Specifically, for each exercise, cite the administrative limitation for Joint Staff-Army (.1201) and the appropriate Joint Chief of Staff- Army project code per chapter 410, DFAS-IN Manual 37-100 -**. Caution: Originators of obligating documents must make sure that the six-digit project code properly records fund use. Example: 50*616 for Cobra Gold 96. Where the originator

(a) Uses 50 as the first two digits to indicate the program.

(b) Replaces the * in the third position with the appropriate digit:

(1) Port handling.

(2) Inland transportation.

(3) Commercial ticketing.

(c) Enters the last digit of the fiscal year in the fourth position.

(d) Enters the exercise code assigned by DFAS in the last two positions.

c. Commands and agencies will also send obligating documents to the servicing finance and accounting office immediately

(1) For PH, on receiving the acceptance order ( DD Form 448-2 (Acceptance of MIPR)).

(2) For IT, on completing the Government bill of lading.

(3) For commercial ticketing, on receiving authorization ( para 5-13b , above) and applying standing procedure for obtaining tickets.

d. Commands and agencies, further, will request that servicing finance and accounting offices obligate funds using, as appropriate, a MIPR acceptance order, finance and accounting copy of the Government bill of lading, or DD Form 2406 (Miscellaneous Obligation Document) when waiting for final documents might cause unacceptable delay. (See AR 37-1, chap 12.)

e. Commands and agencies and, at HQDA, DAMO-TRO with SAFM-BUOC will review monthly obligation reports from the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center (DFASBIN) to make sure that for each exercise

(1) CJCS funds for PH, IT, and commercial ticketing have been correctly recorded.

(2) The obligation pattern does not unduly lag planned obligations.

(3) Total obligations are recorded within 30 days of the end of an exercise, using DD Form 2406 if necessary.

5-15. Annual reports to HQDA on PH and IT funds

a. At HQDA the procedure for managing PH and IT funds focuses on four yearly reports listed in table 5-2 . Keyed to table 5-2, the subparagraphs that follow described the reports.

(1) January. Initial estimate of PH and IT funding requirements. In January as requested by HQDA (DAMO-TRO), commands and agencies will submit an initial estimate of PH and IT funding requirements ( fig 5-3 , CJCS Transportation Funds Report: Obligations, modified to report requirements). The estimate typically breaks out expected PH and IT costs in the current 5-year schedule by exercise and fiscal year. For PH, it also estimates the number of measurement tons to be moved. For IT, it estimates the number of short tons of equipment to be moved and the number of passengers to be carried.

Table 5-2. Annual reports to HQDA for Army managed PH and IT funds 1
Timing Funding event
Jan MACOMs submit initial estimate of PH and IT funding requirements.
Jul-Aug MACOMs submit refined estimate of PH and IT Funding requirements.
MACOMs update current year obligations of PH and IT funds.
Nov MACOMs report past year obligations of PH and IT funds.

Notes:
1. See CJCS Transportation Funds Report: (
fig 5-3 ).

(2) July-August. In July or August as requested by HQDA (DAMO-TRO), commands and agencies will submit a refined estimate of PH and IT funding requirements and a current year obligations report.

(a) Refined estimate of funding requirements. The refined estimate updates earlier forecasts. It similarly breaks out estimated PH and IT costs for each exercise in the current 5-year schedule. However, the refined estimate focuses, quarter by quarter, on the forthcoming execution and budget years. For PH, it forecasts the number of measurement tons to be moved. For IT, it forecasts the number of short tons of equipment to be moved and number of passengers to be carried.

(b) Current year obligations. The current year obligations report will account for PH and IT funds obligated during the current fiscal year. Broken out by PH and IT and by exercise, the report covers obligations made during the first 3 quarters and estimates obligations to be made in the 4th quarter.

(3) November. Past year obligations. In November as requested by HQDA (DAMO-TRO), commands and agencies will submit a past-year obligations report ( fig 5-3 ). The report accounts for PH and IT funds obligated for CJCS exercises during the past fiscal year. Broken out by exercise title, the report gives dollars obligated for PH and the corresponding number of measurement tons moved. The report similarly gives dollars obligated for IT and the corresponding number of short tons of equipment moved. In addition, for IT, the report gives the number of passengers carried. HQDA (DAMO-TRO) combines the information and submits it by 20 November to the Joint Staff.

b. At the request of HQDA (DAMO-TRO), commands and agencies will submit a quarterly report on the obligation of CTP funds not later than the 20th of the month following the quarter, tailoring the report at figure 5-3 to show, by exercise title, the dollar amount obligated and related number of passengers carried.



Figure 5-3. CJCS Transportation Funds Report


Appendix A
References

The Official Army Publications Web Sites.

Publication Section I
Required Publications

AR 11-30. WARTRACE Program. (Cited in paragraphs 1-6b , 1-8c , 2-6c , 2-7b , and 2-8d .)

AR 200-1. Environmental Protection and Enhancement. (Cited in paragraph 4-15 .)

AR 350-2. Opposing Force Program. (Cited in paragraph 4-7 .)

AR 350-9. Oversea Deployment Training (ODT). (Cited in paragraphs 2-8d and 5-10a .)

AJEM. Army Joint Exercise Manual. (Cited in paragraphs 2-11c , 2-14c , and 3-16a. The manual may be obtained from HQDA (DAMO-ODO), WASH DC 20310-0440.)

Publication Section II
Related Publications

AR 11-33. Army Lessons Learned Program: System Development and Application

AR 12-15. Joint Security Assistance Training (JSAT) Regulation

AR 25-1. The Army Information Resources Management Program

AR 25-400-2. The Modern Army Recordkeeping System (MARKS)

AR 27-1. Judge Advocate Legal Services

AR 27-3. The Army Legal Assistance Program

AR 27-10. Military Justice

AR 27-20. Claims

AR 37-1. Army Accounting and Fund Control

AR 37-47. Representation Funds of the Secretary of the Army

AR 37-100. Account/Code Structure

AR 37-106. Finance and Accounting for Installations: Travel and Transportation Allowances

AR 55-355. Defense Traffic Management Regulation (to be superseded in 1997 by DOD Regulation 5900.9-R)

AR 59-8. Department of Defense (DOD) Common User Airlift

AR 59-9. Special Assignment Airlift Mission Requirements (to be superseded in 1997 by DOD Regulation 5900.9-R)

AR 59-105. Air Terminals and Aerial Ports (to be superseded in 1997 by DOD Regulation 5900.9-R)

AR 71-13. The Department of the Army Equipment Authorization and Usage Program

AR 73-1. Test and Evaluation Policy

AR 95-1. Army Aviation: Flight Regulations

AR 105-3. Reporting Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference of Electromagnetic Systems (RCS: JCS-1066(MIN))

AR 115-10. Weather Support for the US Army

AR 115-11. Army Topography

AR 200-2. Environmental Effects of Army Actions

AR 220-15. Journals and Journal Files

AR 310-50. Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes

AR 350-3. Tactical Intelligence Readiness Training Program

AR 350-41. Training in Units

AR 350-50. Combat Training Center Program

AR 360-5. Army Public Affairs, Public Information

AR 360-61. Community Relations

AR 360-81. Command Information Program

AR 380-19. Information Systems Security

AR 381-10. US Army Intelligence Activities

AR 385-10. Army Safety Program

AR 385-55. Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents

AR 385-62. Regulations for Firing Guided Missiles and Heavy Rockets for Training, Target Practice, and Combat

AR 385-63. Policies and Procedures for Firing Ammunition for Training, Target Practice, and Combat

AR 405-10. Acquisition of Real Property and Interests Therein

AR 405-15. Real Estate Claims Founded Upon Contract

AR 500-3. Army Survival, Recovery, and Reconstitution System (U)

AR 500-5. Army Mobilization

AR 500-60. Disaster Relief

AR 525-20. Command and Control

AR 525-21. (C) Battlefield Deception Policy (U)

AR 530-1. Operations Security (OPSEC)

AR 550-1. Procedures for Handling Requests for Political Asylum and Temporary Refuge

AR 601-10. Management and Mobilization of Retired Soldiers of the Army

AR 700-137. Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP)

AR 710-1. Centralized Inventory Management of the Army Supply System

AR 710-2. Inventory Management Supply Policy Below the Wholesale Level

AR 725-50. Requisition, Receipt, and Issue System

AR 735-5. Policies and Procedures for Property Accountability

AR 750-1. Army Materiel Maintenance Policy and Retail Maintenance Operations

AR 870-5. Military History: Responsibilities, Policies, and Procedures

FORSCOM Regulation 11-30. Army WARTRACE Program Guidance

FORSCOM/NGB Regulation 350-23. Mobilization Exercise Program

TRADOC Pamphlet 525-64. US Operational Concept for the Criminal Investigation Command Support on the AirLand Battlefield

TRADOC Regulation 25-32. TRADOC Doctrinal Literature Master Plan

Training with Simulations. (A Handbook for Commanders and Trainers), 25 August 1995, published by the National Simulation Center

FM 25-100. Training the Force

FM 25-101. Battle Focused Training

FM 27-10. The Law of Land Warfare

FM 27-100. Legal Support Operations

FM 63-11. Logistics Support Element: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures

DOD Directive 30251. Military Support to Civil Authorities

Joint Pub 1-02. (O) Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF)

Joint Pub 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

Publication Section III
Prescribed Forms

This section contains no entries.

Publication Section IV
Referenced Forms

DD Form 448-2. Acceptance of MIPR

DD Form 2406. Miscellaneous Obligation Document

Appendix B
Obligation Guidelines for Army CJCS Exercise Funds

B-1. Army CJCS exercise funds

a. Army CJCS exercise funds consist of OMA funds applied under Army Management Structure Code 121011 (AMSCO 121011) described in chapter 321, DFAS-IN Manual 37-100 -**.)

b. Army CJCS exercise funds pay costs added by a CJCS exercise. Commonly referred to as incremental costs, these costs

(1) Apply to an exercise incorporated in the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program by virtue of its being listed in the CJCS Joint Training Master Schedule. See paragraphs 3-2 and 3-10 .

(2) Cover costs over normal operating costs a unit incurs because of the exercise. (The cost of moving Army personnel and equipment to and from CJCS exercises, however, is normally funded by CJCS transportation funds and when so funded is not an incremental cost within the terms of this definition. See paragraph 5-1c .)

B-2. Examples of chargeable costs

Examples of obligations chargeable to Army CJCS exercise funds (OMA, AMSCO 121011) are as follows:

a. Funds for TDY and per diem incident to planning, conducting, and evaluating military exercises. Chargeable expenses include costs to attend training and exercise conferences scheduled by the Joint Staff, a specified or unified command or component command, a Service, or a Defense or other Federal agency. Examples include the Joint Staff-conducted Worldwide Joint Training Conference, CINC Exercise and Training Scheduling Conferences, Worldwide Exercise Scheduling Conference, and CJCS Reviews.

b. Overtime pay of regular civilian employees directly participating in planning, conducting, or evaluating a CJCS exercise.

c. Basic and overtime pay of Department of the Army employees hired on a temporary basis solely for planning, conducting, or evaluating a CJCS exercise.

d. Cost of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) (except for aircraft) attributable only to the deployment, employment, and redeployment phases of a CJCS exercise.

e. Local procurement of authorized items from other than a revolving fund activity required specifically for the deployment, employment, and redeployment phases of a CJCS exercise.

f. Cost on a net cost basis of issues from an activity of the Army Working Capital Fund (AWCF).

(1) Items bought with unit OMA funds, qualify for Army CJCS exercise funds only if used and then only after subtracting normal operating costs.

(2) Items remaining unused qualify for credit on return to stock after the exercise.

g. Cost to repair nonexpendable items (bought with appropriated funds) used during a CJCS exercise as inventory temporarily in use.

h. Cost to pack, crate, and move supplies and equipment to support a CJCS exercise. (However, if available, transportation should be by CJCS exercise airlift, sealift, or inland transportation funds.)

i. Cost of blocking, bracing, and tie-down materials for a CJCS exercise when such costs are not included in the commercial contract, less credit for returns after the exercise.

j. Cost of repair parts and supplies to issue and reconstitute AWRPS equipment or sustainment stocks for a CJCS exercise except those costs identified in paragraph 4-9d .

k. Cost to prepare an Environmental Assessment (EA) and (Draft) Environmental Impact Statement ((D)EIS) for a CJCS exercise maneuver area not on a military reservation.

l. Cost to acquire maneuver areas for a CJCS exercise and to restore areas when the land utilization agreement requires restoration by the Department of the Army.

m. Noncommercial inland transportation costs of moving Army equipment to or from a CJCS exercise.

n. Cost to replace expendable and nonexpendable items bought by OMA and lost, destroyed, or damaged beyond repair, if the requirement resulted directly from the deployment, employment, or redeployment phases of a CJCS exercise and if circumstances do not require a report of survey.

o. Cost of rental and contract services for equipment or facilities for a CJCS exercise. (Costs include billeting expenses due to delay in mode of transportation.)

p. Cost of Stars and Stripes or comparable newspaper issued to up to 1/6th of soldiers participating in a CJCS exercise. Applies during the employment phase only.

q. TDY and per diem cost for Reserve component personnel attending any overseas CJCS exercise planning conference, or more than one CONUS planning conference.

r. TDY and per diem cost of Air Force personnel required for planning, training, or providing weather support for CJCS exercises per paragraph 6-2d , AR 115-10.

s. Cost of data processing support required solely to accomplish a CJCS exercise objective stated by the U.S. scheduling command's exercise directive, CJCS exercise plan, or implementing Army directive. (Applies similarly to additional commercial communications electronics support.)

t. Contract printing and reproduction costs caused by Army CJCS exercise requirements (see para B-3t ).

u. Cost of contract services for board and lodging of personnel participating in CJCS-sponsored CPXs, when Government quarters and meals are not available.

v. Billeting service fees when per diem prohibited.

w. Cost of photographs and visual information supplies for a CJCS exercise.

x. Charges for base operations and equipment use levied by the ARNG or USAR for ARNG- or USAR-owned or leased installations and equipment.

y. Cost of pre-exercise training for players, controllers and evaluators in CPXs, and for controllers and evaluators in CFXS and FTXs.

z. Cost of contract support for planning and conducting exercises and for special observers and reports directly relating to the evaluation of exercise objectives.

aa. Cost of wartime orientation tours when approved by the MACOM commander or agency head.

ab. Cost of mementos or memorabilia for allied-counterpart exercise participants within limitation .0012, miscellaneous expenses, category A for use of contingency funds for representation purposes, per paragraph 2-1a , AR 37-47 and applicable command implementing instructions or policy.

ac. TDY and per diem cost of AMC personnel (Government and contractor) required for issuing and reconstituting AWRPS equipment used in a CJCS exercise.

B-3. Examples of nonchargeable costs

Examples of OMA obligations not chargeable to Army CJCS exercise funds are as follows:

a. TDY or per diem for personnel attending Service schools, orientation courses, or other school type activities.

b. Cost of pre-exercise training of individuals or units. However, pre-exercise training of controllers and evaluators required by the CJCS exercise sponsor or ASCC are chargeable costs.

c. TDY or per diem for unit personnel during maneuvers or exercises when rations and quarters are available or furnished, whether or not such facilities are used. (Joint Travel Regulations prohibit per diem allowances under field conditions.)

d. Basic pay of regularly employed DA civilians.

e. Pay or allowances of Active or Reserve component personnel and other expenses (such as subsistence) chargeable to open allotments under the Army Management Structure (AMS) ( DFAS-IN Manual 37-100 -**).

f. Cost to buy or rent items to bring modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE) and table of distribution and allowances (TDA) units to authorized levels.

g. Cost to replace consumer-owned items such as parachutes, tentage, CTA 50-900, or office equipment lost or destroyed during an exercise when a report of survey or technical inspection ( AR 735-5 ) shows loss or damage was not a direct result of exercise deployment, employment, or redeployment.

h. Cost to replace unfunded major end items (such as vehicles or weapons) lost, damaged, or destroyed during an exercise.

i. Cost of nonexpendable supplies, POL, or repair parts retained by a unit or installation after an exercise.

j. Cost of repair parts, POL, or supplies for maintenance, rehabilitation, painting, or repair before deployment on a CJCS exercise.

k. Costs of permanent or semi-permanent construction, except costs of certain minor and temporary construction. Examples of exceptions include temporary latrines, temporary camps for use by umpires and controllers, temporary camps for the reception, staging, and onward movement of Army forces.

l. All costs of Army aircraft operations, including POL, maintenance, airfield equipment, and airfield operations.

m. Payment for unit parties, entertainment, alcoholic beverages, and mementos for participants except for the cost of mementos and memorabilia for allied-counterpart exercise participants authorized, per paragraph B-2ab .

n. Morale, recreation, and welfare support, except for the cost of Stars and Stripes or comparable newspaper authorized per paragraph B-1p.

o. Existing contractual agreements that support the exercise as a supplement.

p. Padlocks, footlockers, cold weather gear, wet weather gear, concertina wire, jungle fatigues, desert camouflage uniforms and barbed wire.

q. Commercial port handling charges and commercial inland transportation costs to move equipment to or from a CJCS exercise without approval of HQDA (DAMO-TRO).

r. Class I (rations), or supplements to rations, such as fresh fruit or bread.

s. Class V.

t. Purchase by exercise participants of computers, facsimile machines, beepers, copiers, telephones and similar equipment and furnishings related to printing and reproduction.

Appendix C
Management Control Evaluation Checklist

C-1. Function

This checklist covers the function of planning and conducting military exercises.

C-2. Purpose

The purpose of the checklist is to help assessable unit managers and Management Control Administrators (MCA) evaluate key management controls underlying the test questions listed in paragraph C-4 , below. The checklist is not intended to cover all controls.

C-3. Instructions

Assessable unit managers must evaluate management controls at least once every 5-years, answering the questions in paragraph C-4 on the basis of actual testing (for example, through document analysis, direct observation, or sampling). In supporting documentation, assessable unit managers must explain answers that suggest deficiencies and indicate corrective action. Certification that the evaluation has been conducted must be accomplished on DA Form 11-2-R (Management Control Evaluation Certification Statement).

C-4. Test questions

Does the assessable unit

a. Schedule the level, number, and type of exercises needed to

(1) Carry out the command training program?

(2) Support HQDA exercises, CINC sponsored exercises that receive Army incremental funding, and the CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program?

b. Select required soldiers from available resources as augmentation to

(1) Offset shortages by grade and occupational specialty in exercise units, as appropriate?

(2) Validate the training and physical capability of augmentees and process them for incorporation within selected units?

c. Select units for CJCS- and CINC-sponsored exercises per operation plan assignments and, as applicable, WARTRACE training priorities and alignments as needed to support exercise objectives?

d. Design military exercises based on mission essential tasks and, as appropriate to joint missions, joint mission essential tasks derived from operation plan requirements and external directives on the war mission and other-than-war mission?

e. Implement HQDA guidance for exercise administration and training for specified operations and functions?

f. Devise and apply exercise controls to measure attainment of stated objectives?

g. Evaluate exercise performance to identify and correct deficiencies and to develop and apply lessons learned to improve training and doctrine?

h. Document funding requirements for planning, conducting, and evaluating planned exercises through the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES), including funds for

(1) Aviation support through the flying hour program ( AR 95-1 ).

(2) Airlift and sealift and to pay port handling (PH) and inland transportation (IT) expenses for other than CJCS exercises either directly or through the Joint/Airborne/Air Transportability Training (JA/ATT) Program (AR 59-8 and AR 59-9 ).

(3) Army CJCS exercise funds per Army Management Structure Code 121011 (AMSCO 121011), Operation and Maintenance, Army to pay costs over normal operating costs.

(4) Reserve component participation in CJCS exercises.

i. Identify requirements for PH and IT funding to support participation in CJCS exercises. Make sure that funds for PH and IT expenses and for ticketing under the Commercial Ticketing Program receive correct and timely obligation.

C-5. Supersession

This checklist replaces the checklist for Military Exercises previously published in DA Circular 11-92-3.

C-6. Comments

Help make this a better tool for evaluating management controls. Submit comments to HQDA (DAMO-TRO), Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 450 ARMY PENTAGON, Washington, DC 20310-0450.

Glossary

Abbreviations

AMC

Air Mobility Command, United States Army Materiel Command

AMS

Army Management Structure

APOD

aerial port of debarkation

APOE

aerial port of embarkation

ARNG

Army National Guard

AT

annual training

CG

commanding general

CINC

commander in chief

CJCS

Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

CNGB

Chief, National Guard Bureau

CONUS

continental United States

CPX

command post exercise

CSS

combat service support

DA

Department of the Army

DCSOPS

Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans

DIRNSA

Director, National Security Agency

DOD

Department of Defense

DOMS

Director of Military Support

DTG

date-time group

EIS

Environmental Impact Statement

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency

FORSCOM

United States Army Forces Command

FTX

field training exercise

IDT

inactive duty training

INSCOM

U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command

IRR

Individual Ready Reserve

J3

Director of Operations, Joint Staff

J4

Director of Logistics, Joint Staff

JCSE

Joint Communications Support Element

LOGEX

logistics exercise

MACOM

major Army command

MDW

United States Army Military District of Washington

MIPR

Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request

MSC

Military Sealift Command

MSCA

military support to civil authorities

MSG

message

MTMC

Military Traffic Management Command

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC

nuclear, biological, and chemical

NCA

national command authorities

NGPA

National Guard Personnel, Army (appropriation)

NICP

national inventory control point

OCONUS

outside continental United States

OMA

Operation and Maintenance, Army (appropriation)

OMAR

Operation and Maintenance, Army Reserve (appropriation)

OMNG

Operation and Maintenance, Army National Guard (appropriation)

OPFOR

opposing forces

OPLAN

operation plan

OPSEC

operations security

OSD

Office of the Secretary of Defense

PBG

Program Budget Guidance

PE

program element

POC

point of contact

POD

port of debarkation

POE

port of embarkation

POL

petroleum, oil, and lubricants

POM

Program Objective Memorandum

PSYOP

psychological operations

RCU

Reserve component unit

RDTE

Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (appropriation)

REC

record of environmental consideration

RPA

Reserve Personnel, Army (appropriation)

SAB

subject as above

SECDEF

Secretary of Defense

SIDPERS-WT

Standard Installation/Division Personnel System-Wartime

SIGSEC

signal security

SOP

standing operating procedure

TDA

table(s) of distribution and allowances

TDY

temporary duty

TEWT

tactical exercise without troops

TOE

table(s) of organization and equipment

TRADOC

United States Army Training and Doctrine Command

USACE

United States Army Corps of Engineers

USAR

United States Army Reserve

USAREUR

United States Army, Europe

USC

United States Code

USFK

United States Forces, Korea

USSOUTHCOM

United States Southern Command

UW

unconventional warfare

Terms

CINC-Sponsored Joint Training Programs

CINC-sponsored joint exercises and training events ranging from small unit deployments through full scale field training exercises designed to improve readiness by training to mission requirements.

CJCS exercise

An exercise incorporated in the CJCS Exercise Program by virtue of its being listed in the Joint Training Master Schedule. See paragraphs 3-2 and 3-10 .

CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program

The Chairman's primary means to carry out joint and multinational (combined) training. Exercises within the program stress strategic transportation and C4I systems and assess their readiness over the full range of military operations. Program exercises and training events demonstrate US ability and resolve to project military presence anywhere in the world in support of national interests and commitments to US allies. The program has three components: CJCS-Sponsored Exercise Program, Common Task Training Programs, and CINC-Sponsored Joint Training Programs.

CJCS-Sponsored Exercise Program

Described by the Joint Training Master Plan (JTMP), centers on strategic, national level joint tasks. Exercises within the program serve several purposes. They train national level decision-makers and their staffs. They help determine the readiness and effectiveness of worldwide C4I. They exercise plans and procedures for responding to crisis situations. Known generically as CJCS exercises, exercises within the program embrace the following;

1. CJCS-sponsored CPXs.

2. Seminars, briefings, war games, and short duration (or mini-) CPXs.

3. NIEXs.

4. NATO crisis management exercises.

Combatant command

A United States unified command under a single commander designated commander in chief and composed of forces of two or more Military Departments, which is established by the President through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Combatant command (command authority)

Nontransferable command authority established by title 10, United States Code, section 164, exercised only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands unless otherwise directed by the President or Secretary of Defense. Combatant command (command authority) is the authority of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Combatant command (command authority) should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations; normally this authority is exercised through the Service or functional component commander. Combat command (command authority) provides full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Also called COCOM.

Combined exercises

Exercises between two or more forces or agencies of two or more allies. See also multinational exercises.

Common Task Training Programs

Focus on common operational joint tasks to meet requirements within USACOM area of responsibility or training to prepare USSOCOM forces for worldwide missions.

HQDA exercise

An exercise directed, conducted, or coordinated by HQDA. May be strictly unilateral or linked to another exercise such as a CINC- or CJCS-sponsored exercise. Typically focuses on mobilization, disaster relief or other support to civil authorities, or HQDA staff training.

Interoperability

The ability of systems, units, or forces to

a. Provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces.

b. Use services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together.

JANUS

An interactive, event-driven simulation that models both friendly and enemy weapon systems with resolution down to the individual platform. Used to train commanders from platoon through brigade in applying tactical doctrine and combat techniques.

Major Army commands

Command organizations of Army forces in the continental United States (other than Headquarters Department of the Army); Army Service components of unified commands.

Multinational exercises

Exercises that train and evaluate forces or staffs of the US and other nations to respond to requirements set by multinational force commanders to accomplish their assigned missions. See also combined exercises.

National command authorities

The President and Secretary of Defense or their duly deputized alternates or successors.

Operating agency

A command, headquarters, or agency assigned a code designation for consolidating fiscal data for budgetary analysis. (See AR 37-100, chap 6 and DFAS-IN Manual 37-100 -**, chap 225.)

Unified command

A command having a broad, continuing military mission and composed of significant forces from two or more military departments. Usually a United States combatant command, but when so authorized by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, may be a subordinate unified command formed by a commander of an existing unified command established by the President.

WARTRACE

Short title for The Army WARTRACE Program, which aligns Reserve component units with Active Army units for wartime and contingency missions.

Special Terms

Special Abbreviations and Terms

This publication uses the following abbreviations, brevity codes, and acronyms not contained in AR 310 50.

AJEM

Army Joint Exercise Manual

AMOPES

Army Mobilization, Operations Planning, and Execution System

AMSCO

Army Management Structure Code

ARAP

Army Remedial Action Project

ARPERCEN

United States Army Reserve Personnel Center

ARTBASS

Army Training Battle Simulation System

ASA(FM&C)

Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management & Comptroller)

ASCC

Army Service component command

AWCF

Army Working Capital Fund

AWRPS

Army war reserve prepositioned sets

BBS

Brigade/Battalion Simulation

BES

budget estimates submission

C3

command, control, and communications

C3CM

command, control, and communications countermeasures

CALFEX

combined arms live fire exercise

CALL

Center for Army Lessons Learned

CAR

Chief, Army Reserve

CAT

crisis action team

CAX

computer assisted exercise

CBS

Corps Battle Simulation

CDR

commander

C-E

communications-electronics

CFX

command field exercise

COMCAM

combat camera

COCOM

combatant command (command authority)

COMEX

communications exercise

CSSTSS

Combat Service Support Training Support System

CTG

Command Training Guidance

CTP

Commercial Ticketing Program

DAMO-FP

Assistant DCSOPS (Force Development)

DAMO-OD

Director of Operations, Readiness, and Mobilization

DAMO-ODO

Operations and Contingency Plans Division

DAMO-SS

Director of Strategy, Plans, and Policy

DAMO-SSW

War Plans Division

DAMO-TR

Director of Training

DAMO-TRO

Training Operations Division

DARNG

Director, Army National Guard

DEIS

Draft Environmental Impact Statement

DEPEX

deployment exercise

DFAS-IN

Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center

DFT

deployment for training

DLR

depot level reparable

EA

Environmental Assessment

ECCM

electronic counter-countermeasures

EDRE

emergency deployment readiness exercise

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ERC

exercise related construction

ERG

emergency relocation group

EUSA

Eighth U.S. Army

EXROE

exercise rules of egagement

EW

electronic warfare

FAMSIM

Family of Simulations

FCX

fire coordination exercise

FMC

fully mission capable

FORMDEPS

FORSCOM Mobilization and Deployment Planning System

HQDA

Headquarters, Department of the Army

IMA

Individual Mobilization Augmentees

IT

inland transportation

J7

Director of Operational Plans and Interoperability, Joint Staff

JA/ATT

joint airborne/air transportability training

JCLL

Joint Center for Lessons Learned

JMET

joint mission essential task

JMETL

joint mission essential task list

JSCP

Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan

JSOSE

Joint Special Operations Support Element

JTC

Joint Training Confederation

JTMP

Joint Training Master Plan

JTMS

Joint Training Master Schedule

JULLS

Joint Universal Lessons Learned System

JUSMAG

Joint US Military Affairs Group

LAD

Logistics Anchor Desk

LOGCAP

Logistics Civil Augmentation Program

LOGSEC

logistics security

LSE

Logistics Support Element

MAPEX

map exercise

MARKS

Modern Army Recordkeeping System

MEDCOM

U.S. Army Medical Command

METL

mission essential task list

MILES

Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System

MOBEX

mobilization exercise

MOBERS

Mobilization Equipment Redistribution System

MOBPERS

Mobilization Personnel Processing System

NIEX

no-notice interoperability exercise

NTC

National Training Center

ODT

oversea deployment training

PERSCOM

United States Army Total Army Personnel Command

PH

port handling

PPBES

Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System

PSRC

Presidential Selected Reserve Callup

RAP

Remedial Action Project

REC

record of environmental consideration

SAFM-BUO

ASA(FM&C)-Operations and Support Directorate

SAPA-PCD

Chief of Public Affairs-Public Communications Division

SME

subject matter expert

SOF

special operations forces

SPOE

seaport of embarkation

SRP

Soldier Readiness Processing

STX

situational training exercise

TACSIM

Tactical Simulation

TUSA

Third U.S. Army

UFR

unfinanced requirement

USACIDC

U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Division Command

USACOM

United States Atlantic Command

USACPD

United States Army Combat Pictorial Detachment

USARCENT

United States Army, Central Command

USARPAC

United States Army Pacific

USARSO

United States Army South

USARSPACECOM

United States Army Space Command

USARSSDC

United States Army Space and Strategic Command

USASOC

United States Army Special Operations Command

USAVIC

United States Army Visual Information Center

USCENTCOM

United States Central Command

USEUCOM

United States European Command

USFJ

United States Forces, Japan

USLANTCOM

United States Atlantic Command

USPACOM

United States Pacific Command

USSOCOM

United States Special Operations Command

USSPACECOM

United States Space Command

USTRANSCOM

United States Transportation Command

USSTRATCOM

United States Strategic Command

Index

This index is organized alphabetically by topic and subtopic. Topics and subtopics are identified by paragraph number.

Air Mobility Command, 3-11 , 5-1c

Afteraction report, responsibility for tracking issues in, 1-4d , 1-6a , 1-9b

Army Service component command (ASCC)

Assignment of, to combatant command, 1-1b

Responsibilities of commander of, 1-6b , 2-9b , 3-4b , 5-8a

Army CJCS exercise funds. See also Funding

Defined, 5-1b

Managed by DCSOPS, 1-4b , 5-2

Process for obtaining, 5-11

Army Joint Exercise Manual (AJEM)

Policies and procedures in, governing Army Remedial Action Project Program (ARAP), 2-14c

Procedures in, for reporting evaluation findings, 3-16a

Requirements in, for post-exercise joint reporting, 2-11c

Army Lessons Learned Program, 2-13

Army Management Structure Code (AMSCO), 5-1b , 5-11a

Army Mobilization and Operations

Planning and Execution System (AMOPES), 4-1

Army National Guard (ARNG). See also Chief, National Guard Bureau (CNGB)

Exercise participation of, coordinated with peacetime chains of command by Army Service component command (ASCC), 1-6b

Exercise participation of, coordinated and funded by Chief National Guard Bureau (CNGB), 1-5b

Participation in mobilization exercises, 2-4b

Army Remedial Action Project (ARAP) Program

Described, 2-14

Distribution of annual status report of, 2-14c

Management responsibility for, 1-4c

Army war reserve prepositioned sets (AWRPS), used in CJCS exercises, 1-6b , 3-7c , 4-9b , 4-9d , 5-4a , 5-9b , B-2j , B-2ac

Battlefield deception, 4-27a , 4-29b , 4-30

Chaplain, 4-32

Chief, Army Reserve (CAR), responsibilities, 1-5c . See also U.S. Army Reserve (USAR)

Chief, National Guard Bureau (CNGB), responsibilities, 1-5b . See also Army National Guard (ARNG)

CINC

Requirements of, supported directly by Army Service component command (ASCC), 1-6b

Exercise and Training Scheduling Conferences, 3-7

Joint training plan, 3-8c

CINC-Sponsored Joint Training Program, 3c

Civil affairs, 4-12

CJCS exercises

Defined, 3-2 , 5-1b

Scheduling and funding events related to, 3-5 , 4-2 , 5-12

Sequence of operation and planning events and METL's related to, 4-2

CJCS Exercise Evaluation Program, 3-8 , 3-15 , 3-17

CJCS exercise funds, managed by DCSOPS, 1-4b , 5-2 . See also Army CJCS exercise funds

CJCS Joint Exercise and Training Program Army participation in, 3-4

Purpose and scope of, 3-2

Responsibilities for, at HQDA, 1-4c

CJCS Joint Training Master Schedule, 3-2 , 3-8c , 3-10

CJCS Remedial Action Project Program, 2-14

CJCS-Sponsored Exercise Program, 3ba

CJCS transportation funds

Army portion of, managed by DCSOPS, 1-4b , 5-2

Funding of, by Joint Staff, 3-11 , 5-13

Obligation of, by Army, 5-14

Use of, in support of Reserve component units, 5-10b

Use of, in support of CJCS exercises, 5-1c , 5-10b

Combatant commands and assigned Army Service component commands (ASCCs), 1-1b

Commercial Ticketing Program, 3-11 , 5-13b , 5-14 , 5-15b

Combined arms live fire exercise (CALFEX), defined, 2-2a

Combined exercise, 2-2a

Command, control, and communications counter measures (C3CM), 4-29

Commands and agencies

Responsibilities of, 1-5 , 1-9 , 5-14 , 5-15

Participation by, in military exercises, 1-5 , 1-9 , 2-2b , 2-9

Programming, budgeting, and obligation of exercise funds by, 5-7 , 5-14

Command field exercise (CFX), defined, 2-2a

Command post exercise (CPX), defined, 2-2a

Communications and electronics, 4-25

Common Task Training Programs, 3-2b

Communications equipment, CJCS controlled, costs of chargeable to CJCS exercise funds, B-2c

Communications exercise (COMEX), defined, 2-2a

Conservation of training resources, 2-8c

Construction. See Exercise related construction

Control plan. See also Exercise control plan

Coordination

Of Army exercise schedules, 3-9

Of command military exercise program, 2-9a

Corrective action

Assigning responsibility for, an objective of the Army Remedial Action Project (ARAP) Program, 2-14b

Counterintelligence, 4-21e , 4-21f , 4-27a

Criminal investigative support, 4-10 , 4-21d

DAMO-FD (HQDA), point of contact for doctrinal issues, 1-4a

DAMO-OD (HQDA) responsibilities for Army participation in military exercises, 1-4c , 2c

DAMO-TR (HQDA) responsibilities for Army participation in military exercises, 1-4b

DAMO-TRO (HQDA)

Coordination by, of Army exercise scheduling, 3-9

Role of, in managing exercise funds, 5-2 , 5-7b , 5-11c , 5-12

Deployment exercise (DEPEX), defined, 2-2a

Deployment for training

Incremental cost of Reserve unit participation, 5-10a

To a politically sensitive area, 3-2a

Doctrinal evaluation, 2-11

Electronic warfare (EW), 4-26 , 4-30

Environment

Compliance with laws and regulations to protect, 3-20

Consideration of, in planning exercises, 4-11 , 4-12 , 4-15

Exercise control plan, 4-5b

Exercise related construction

Defined, 3-3a

Funded by Joint Staff, 3-12

Outside continental United States, within purview of CJCS Joint

Exercise and Training Program, 3-3a

Exercise schedule

An objective of the Worldwide Exercise Scheduling Conference, 3-8

Army coordination of, 3-9

Published in Joint Training Master Schedule (JTMS), 3-8c

Supports requirement for funds, 3-13

Exercise planning. See Guidelines

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) sponsored exercises, 2-4c

Format

For reporting obligations of and requirements for CJCS transportation funds, 5-15

For reporting requirements for and obligations of Army CJCS exercise funds, 5-12

FORSCOM

Relationships of, with TRADOC, 2-12

Responsibilities of commander of, including responsibilities for the Army mobilization exercise program, 1-8

Role of commander of, in overseas deployment training of Reserve component units, 2-8d

Field training exercise (FTX), defined, 2-2a

Fire coordination exercise (FCX), defined, 2-2a

Funding. See also Army CJCS exercise funds; Guidelines; CJCS transportation funds

Cost of doctrinal support, 5-9a

Cost of Reserve component participation in CJCS exercises, 5-10

Cost of Reserve component units in OCONUS exercises (overseas deployment of combatant commands, 5-6 training), 5-10a

Exercise programs of combatant commands, 5-6

Unilateral exercises, 5-5

Guidelines

For applying operation and maintenance funds other than Army CJCS exercise funds, 5-3

For developing command exercise programs, 2-8

For exercise planning, 4-3

For obligating Army CJCS exercise funds, 5-4 , B-2 , B-3

HQDA exercises, 2-4

Disaster response exercises, 2-4c

Staff training exercises, 2-4d

Military support to civil authorities (MSCA), 2-4a

Mobilization exercise program, 2-3 , 2-4b

HQDA, responsibilities of principal officials of, 1-4 , 1-5 , 2-10 , 2-11

Inland transportation (IT) funds. See CJCS transportation funds

Intelligence, 4-6 , 4-21

Joint Center for Lessons Learned (JCLL), 3-14

Joint Communication Support Element (JCSE), costs of, improper application of CJCS exercise funds, 5-4b

Joint exercise, 2-2a

Joint Logistics over the Shore exercise participation, ASCC commander programs and budgets and plans for, 1-6b

Joint mission essential task list (JMETL), 4-2

Joint Special Operation Support Element,(JSOSE) 5-4b

Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP), 4-1

Joint training

As objective of Army exercise program, 2-6f

Described, 3-1 b

Legal

Administrative guidelines, 4-11

Training guidelines, 4-31

Lessons learned program, 2-13

Logistics

Administrative guidelines, 4-9

Security (LOGSEC), 4-23c

Training guidelines, 4-23

Logistics exercise (LOGEX), Defined, 2-2a

MACOM

Commander responsibilities of, 1-6 , 1-8 , 2-5 , 2-8 , 2-11

Maneuver claims, 4-14

Maneuver Damage Control Center, 4-14a

Maneuver permits, 4-13

Map exercise (MAPEX), defined, 2-2a

Medical, 4-20

Mission essential task list (METL), 4-2

Military exercises. See also CJCS exercises

Design of, 4-4

Forms of, 2-2a

Funds for, 5-1

Purpose and use of, 2-1

Military Sealift Command (MSC), 3-11

Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), 1-1b , 5-7a

Mobilization exercise (MOBEX), defined, 2-2a and 2-4b

No notice interoperability exercise (NIEX), defined, 2-2a

Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare, 4-24

Operation plan (OPLAN), 4-1 , 4-2

Operations security (OPSEC), 4-27

Opposing force (OPFOR), 4-7

Partnership for Peace exercise (PFPX), defined, 2-2a

Personnel, 4-19

Port handling (PH) funds. See CJCS transportation funds

Program evaluation

Policy, 2-10

Tasks, 2-11

Psychological operations (PSYOP), 4-22

Public affairs, 4-16

Remedial Action Project (RAP), 2-14

Reserve components, exercise participation of, 2-7 , 2-9a

Safety, 4-8

Signals

Intelligence, 4-21b

Security (SIGSEC), 4-27a , 4-28

Significant military exercise, 3-2b

Simulators, devices, and simulations, use of, 2-8b

Situational training exercise (STX), defined, 2-2a

Subject matter experts (SMEs), 2-12

TRADOC

Funding cost of doctrinal support provided by, 5-9a

Responsibilities of commander of, 1-7 , 2-12 , 2-13

Role of, in applying and reviewing doctrine, 2-12

Training exercise without troops (TEWT), defined, 2-2a

Unit exchanges, 4-18

U.S. Army Reserve (USAR)

Exercise participation of, coordinated with peacetime chains of command by Army Service component command (ASCC), 1-6b

Exercise participation of, coordinated and funded by Chief, Army Reserve (CAR), 1-5c

Participation in mobilization exercises, 2-4b

U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), 1-1b , 5-13b

Visual information support, 4-15

WARTRACE

Aligned Reserve component units incorporated in Army military exercises, 2-7b and c

Alignments and joint deployment training, 2-8d

Alignments, solidifying their relationships of, as objective of exercise program, 2-6c

Program, as source of Reserve unit alignments and training priorities, 1-6b

Worldwide Exercise Scheduling

Conference, 3-9

Worldwide Joint Training Conference, 3-6