*Army Regulation 351-9
*AFI 362230(I)
*MCO 1580.7E

29 August 2012

Effective date: 29 September 2012



Inter-Service Training


AR 351-9
Inter-Service Training

This major revision, dated 29 August 2012

* Reflects changes to the organization of the Inter-Service Training Review Organization and the steering committee (para 6).

* Updates the policies, responsibilities, and procedures for the Inter-Service Training Review Organization (paras 6 and 7).

* Incorporates changes to the Inter-Service Training Review Organization's resourcing and funding procedures (para 10).

1. Purpose

This regulation sets policies and procedures for Inter-Service training for military and civilian personnel of the Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Throughout this publication, "military Services" refers to the DOD Services and the USCG. Training, as defined in this publication, includes some aspects of professional military education.

2. References

Required and related publications and prescribed and referenced forms are listed in appendix A .

3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms

Abbreviations and special terms used in this regulation are listed in the glossary .

4. Responsibilities

General and specific responsibilities of the other Inter-Service Training Review Organization (ITRO) are listed in paragraphs 7 and 8 . Responsibilities of the Services are listed in paragraph 10 .

5. Description of Inter-Service training

Inter-Service training occurs when one or more military Services train together in a formal environment on individual skills in an institutional setting. All Inter-Service training is not governed by the ITRO and its procedures. Types of Inter-Service training are as follows:

a. DOD executive agent training. Military training for which responsibility has been assigned by the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) to the head of a DOD component and involves the training of personnel of two or more Services. See Department of Defense directive ( DODD ) 5101.1 for a detailed description.

b. Joint training. Military training based on Joint doctrine or Joint tactics, techniques, and procedures to prepare Joint forces and/or Joint staffs to respond to strategic and operational requirements deemed necessary by combatant commanders to execute assigned missions. Joint training involves forces of two or more military Services interacting with a combatant commander or subordinate Joint force commander; involves Joint forces and Joint staffs; and is conducted using Joint doctrine or Joint tactics, techniques, and procedures. See Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction ( CJCSI ) 3500.01B for a detailed description.

c. Quota training. Military training is characterized by the following:

(1) Training conducted by one Service and attended by another Service on a space-available basis.

(2) The program of instruction is designed by the owning Service and is presented to participating Services without modification. Participating Services may be required to provide instructors if student throughput is beyond host capacity.

d. Inter-Service Training Review Organization training. Military training is characterized by the following:

(1) Established via the ITRO.

(2) Classified as either consolidated or collocated (Service-unique).

(3) Resources (manpower, facilities, and funding) are assessed per ITRO rules.

6. Organization of the Inter-Service Training Review Organization

This regulation pertains to the ITRO. The ITRO is a voluntary organization of the military Services established to set policies and procedures for Inter-Service training and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Service individual skills training consistent with individual Service requirements. The ITRO is hierarchical and consists of boards and committees designed to facilitate Inter-Service training. It is flexible and dynamic, having over the course of time expanded and contracted in response to the Services' changing requirements, the evolution of the national security environment, and Service training priorities. Additional information is available from the ITRO office on a request basis.

a. Executive board. The executive board (EB) governs the ITRO and meets, as required. The board consists of the incumbents of the positions shown below:

(1) U.S. Army: Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, or designee.

(2) U.S. Marine Corps: Commanding General, Training and Education Command, or designee.

(3) U.S. Navy: Commander, Naval Education and Training Command, or designee.

(4) U.S. Air Force: Commander, Air Education and Training Command, or designee.

(5) U.S. Coast Guard: Commander, Force Readiness Command, or designee.

(6) Health Care: Commander, Navy Medicine Support Command.

b. Deputy Executive Board. The Deputy Executive Board (DEB) usually consists of a principal training deputy (general or flag or civilian equivalent) to the primary EB member. The DEB reviews and approves all actions forwarded to the EB for decision and approves or disapproves steering committee recommendations. The DEB acts on behalf of the EB as the primary decision authority within ITRO and will recommend convening the EB, as required.

c. Steering committee. The steering committee (SC) coordinates the day-to-day activities of the ITRO for the DEB. The SC members will normally be colonels or captains (O-6 level), or the civilian equivalent.

d. Secretariat. The Secretariat responsibilities are rotated yearly on a fiscal year basis in the following order: U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force. During the year of responsibility, the designated Service serves as the central point of contact for all ITRO matters. The current members of the Secretariat Service chair the SC, the DEB, and the EB. The Health Care Inter-Service Training Office acts as a permanent Secretariat for health care training. The ITRO Secretariat or Health Care Inter-Service Training Office (for health care training) will document EB, DEB, and Inter-Service Training Advisory Board (ITAB) decisions in an Inter-Service executive order.

e. Committees. The ITRO functions through a series of major committees and subcommittees, as needed. The SC members manage and direct the committees and subcommittees. Each committee and subcommittee will include representation from each Service to include the USCG and Health Care, as required. The SC will recommend modifications to committee structure as appropriate. Actions are subject to approval by the EB or DEB.

f. Health Care Inter-Service Training Advisory Board. The Health Care ITAB is the principal deliberative body within the health care Inter-Service training structure. The Health Care ITAB develops and approves plans and recommendations to achieve efficiencies in DOD health care training and coordinates and formulates Service positions. The ITRO Advisor for Health Care, Navy Flag officer, chairs the ITAB which consists of one voting member per Service and other members as determined by each Service. The voting members are responsible for coordinating all issues and decisions within their respective Services.

7. General responsibilities of the Inter-Service Training Review Organization

a. Provide primary coordination over all aspects of the establishment and maintenance of consolidated and collocated training.

b. Provide ITRO processes and methodologies to support the establishment and maintenance of other types of DOD Inter-Service training (see para 8 ).

c. Improve the effectiveness and efficiency of individual skills training, consistent with Service requirements, through quota research, consolidation, collocation, and through the standardization of curriculum.

d. Provide policy and guidance for consolidated and collocated training.

e. Review training and related activities for Inter-Service training, as requested.

f. Adapt ITRO structure and forms to remain relevant to the evolving national security environment.

g. Assist the military Services by performing special studies, as requested or directed.

h. Provide a forum for free interchange of ideas, information, and technology related to Inter-Service training.

8. Specific responsibilities of the Inter-Service Training Review Organization

Responsibilities of the ITRO regarding the following:

a. Consolidated and collocated training.

(1) Develop and maintain processes for consolidated and/or collocated training.

(2) Guide Services through processes of establishment of consolidation and/or collocation.

(3) Provide mechanism for resolution of issues which arise during the life cycle of a consolidated and/or collocated course.

(4) Develop and maintain processes for deconsolidation or collocation termination.

b. Quota courses: When requested, ITRO may assist with resolving issues involving management of quota courses.

c. Executive agent training: When directed or requested, ITRO may apply ITRO resource methodology to determine resources required to implement executive agent training.

d. Joint training: As requested and funded, on a case-by-case basis, ITRO may assist by applying the ITRO resource methodology.

9. Policy

a. The training review process must be responsive to a dynamic environment. This process must encompass the following tenets:

(1) The Services will review training courses and training resources to eliminate duplication, reduce or avoid costs, standardize instruction, and increase efficiency. Course information will be provided to other Services upon request.

(2) A systems approach will be used. Reviews may focus on major functional training areas or on individual courses or groups of courses. Each Service's curriculum requirements for a particular training area will be reviewed for the purpose of creating an Inter-Service curriculum either by consolidating existing programs or re-engineering training to meet mutual Inter-Service needs. The review will consider, but is not limited to, factors such as costs, manpower, and infrastructure. The installation, Servicewide impacts, and quality-of-life needs must also be addressed.

(3) A long-term, total force perspective is essential to ensure a posture for the optimum out-year training capability. Short-term efficiencies, or lack thereof, should not detract from this perspective.

(4) Review of recommendations will be consistent with the readiness, responsibilities, and requirements of the Services.

b. A military Service requiring training where none exists within that Service will document evaluation of existing schools and courses within the other Services before setting up a new school or course.

c. Training resources available to one military Service will be used as much as possible to meet the training needs of the other Services in developing, revising, or conducting all training. Inter-Service support agreements (ISAs) and memorandums of agreement (MOAs) identify support requirements and responsibilities. Agreements will be used to effect use of other Services' resources as approved by the ITRO EB, DEB, or ITAB.

d. The ITRO methodology used in training cost studies to determine mission and base support costs is an accepted method among the Services for determining ITRO-related costs and reimbursements within the DOD and USCG. The Services will charge the USCG and each DOD component the same rate for training. All other agreements follow traditional Inter-Service support guidelines contained in Department of Defense instruction ( DODI ) 4000.19.

e. The Services will exchange training vision, information, advice, and ideas. They will facilitate coordination of training and related areas of mutual interest.

f. This regulation does not supersede existing ISAs. Services conducting consolidated or collocated training courses will continue to do so until mutually agreed otherwise. Withdrawal from a consolidated or collocated course is discouraged and is usually prevented by program adjustments. A Service desiring to withdraw from a consolidated or collocated course will withdraw only after providing a letter of intent to all participating Services. The letter of intent must be provided at least 1 year in advance of the withdrawal to provide for appropriate budget resourcing adjustments. A withdrawal may also occur earlier with mutual consent of participating Services. The DEB will be briefed on all withdrawal actions to ensure alternative actions have been reviewed.

g. Each Service will approve other Service requests for eligible members' enrollments in quota courses, consistent with existing training capacity. Requests for quotas will be submitted during the annual requirements identification process for each Service for the appropriate program objective memorandum (POM) cycle. Quotas previously identified and approved through these annual requirements meetings will be adjusted only as mutually agreed by both the host and participating Service(s) recommendations.

h. When the demand for quota course enrollment consistently presents an undue burden on instructors, a fair-share instructor computation will be completed. If this does not fully satisfy resource shortages, the Services should consider an ITRO consolidation study. A request for such a study may be initiated by either the host and/or lead Service.

i. Permanent staff, instructors, and students attached and/or attending an Inter-Service school or course will not normally be required to perform guard, housekeeping, or other similar duties. When justified by one of the circumstances listed below, duties will be assigned on an equitable basis and commensurate with individual pay grades consistent with duty assignments typical of the individual's respective Service

(1) When a requirement exists to clean and maintain unit areas, including living area and classroom areas.

(2) When dropped from school and awaiting orders in a disciplinary or casual status.

(3) During cleanup or recovery operation after an emergency.

(4) When these duties are essential to learning objectives within the course of instruction.

10. Services responsibility and funding requirements

a. Services. Each Service's training commander or the designated training representative will

(1) Evaluate the training programs and capabilities of other Services before developing training programs. This evaluation should, at a minimum, include the potential for consolidating or collocating schools or courses.

(2) Provide other Services with written notification 1 year prior to deconsolidation from training.

(3) Exchange catalogs of resident training courses and training materials to determine appropriateness of existing courses or materials.

(4) Provide Service representation to Inter-Service office staffs to coordinate actions with military department and Service secretariat staffs.

(5) Transfer training materials and equipment to the conducting Service on a non-reimbursable basis when responsibility for training moved from one participating Service to a new host or lead. Transfer occurs if required for Inter-Service training and a higher priority requirement does not exist in the participating Service and it does not result in an increased incremental cost. The participating Service will fund packing, handling, crating, and transportation charges associated with the transfer. The Service responsible for providing training material and equipment will provide technical manuals and other data for proper operation, maintenance, and logistic support of transferred training aids, devices, or equipment is the responsibility of the Service furnishing the training material or equipment. The host and/or lead Service will maintain training aids and devices, including acquisition of spare parts, unless otherwise specified by applicable ISA and/or MOA.

(6) Evaluate the performance of assigned instructors and/or support personnel as agreed to and documented in the MOA.

b. Lead or host Service. Lead or host Service responsibilities

(1) Budget program resources to meet the requirements of the other Service requesting the training in accordance with paragraph 9 d .

(2) Make changes to course curriculum and training resources to meet the consolidated curriculum and trained personnel requirements after participating Services agree. Changes to consolidated curriculum may not occur without approval of the participating Services.

(3) Issue training policies, directives, and materials required for efficient operation and management of quota and consolidated courses only. This includes instructor evaluations, student counseling, and training resources. Policies, directives, and materials required for operation and management of Service-unique tracks and for collocated training remain a participating Service responsibility.

(4) Be primarily responsible for consolidated course revisions and evaluations. A participating Service may visit its students and their respective courses at the host Service training site to gain information on the experience or success of these students. If the visit reveals a training problem or a change appears to be required, the participating Service will notify the host Service, in writing, outlining the problems and proposed changes. Every effort will be made to accommodate changes requested by the participating Service.

c. Host Service responsibilities. Provide all necessary base operating support functions and ensure required DD Form 1144 (Support Agreement) is prepared according to the procedures in DODI 4000.19 . The MOAs or ISAs document the arrangements made and the responsibilities assumed by the parties concerned.

d. Lead Service responsibilities.

(1) In Inter-Service training consolidations, obtain mutual agreement from the Services for instructors and other manpower requirements.

(2) Provide data to the participating Service in the format requested regarding entries, graduates, eliminations, recycling (setback or washback), and evaluation of their students.

(a) The lead Service, during its annual requirements identification process, will request student throughput requirements for a given fiscal year from participating Services.

(b) Projected fair-share instructor personnel requirements not previously identified will be given to the participating Service in sufficient time to meet class start dates.

(c) When by-name student confirmations are required, they will be in accordance with lead Service requirements.

(d) Quota course instructor requirements will be identified by the lead Service and provided to each participating Service for staffing at the conclusion of the lead Service's annual planning cycle.

(3) Provide fair share instructor and school support personnel to support consolidated training.

(4) Approve leave requests for instructor, support, and student personnel. Either the lead Service or the parent Service, depending upon the existence of a support organization, may initially approve these requests. In either case, coordinate the leave request with the other Service, if not otherwise specified. Apply regulations of the parent Service to areas such as conduct (to include military jurisdiction), appearance requirements, and wearing of uniforms. Students attending other Service courses conform to host Service requirements for physical training as contained in the program of instruction (POI). Unless otherwise specified in the MOA, Services may conduct their own physical training outside curriculum scheduled times when the POI does not satisfy that Service's requirements.

(5) Arrange for staff visits to the Inter-Service training site. Participating Services should coordinate with the lead Service before the visit.

(6) Provide other Service instructors with equal access and participation in instructor recognition programs offered by the lead Service.

e. Participating Services. When acting as a participating Service, each Service's training commander or their designated representative will

(1) Furnish the estimated trained personnel requirements projected by fiscal year to the lead or host Service in enough time to be included in the appropriate POM cycle. Programming cycles may vary among Services.

(2) Establish a point of contact to process trained personnel requirements and receive quotas.

(3) Provide fair share instructor and school support personnel to support training.

(4) Coordinate assignment of instructor and school support personnel with the lead Service school and/or personnel activities. Military personnel remain administratively assigned to their parent Service, but consolidated assets are under the control of the lead Service during academic hours as designated members of the school staff and will not be removed or used for other functions or details unless coordinated and agreed to by their parent Service. Likewise, participating Services may not use consolidated instructor or support personnel for details or functions during normal duty hours without the prior approval of the host. Personnel are assigned to the lead Service for training and ancillary responsibilities as members of the school staff.

(5) Coordinate in advance with lead or host Service and course personnel when arranging for staff visits and inspector general visits to the training site. Coordination will include the following:

(a) Scope of assessment or inspection.

(b) Number of personnel visiting.

(c) Length of stay.

(6) Participate in lead and/or host Service evaluation data collection efforts.

f. Funding.

(1) For consolidated and/or collocated training, Services will exchange military interdepartmental purchase requests (MIPRs) for a maximum of 3 years or until the Services adjust funding based lines to accommodate the changes in training load and/or supported population. The Defense Health Program Training and USCG will continue to process funding exchanges by reimbursable basis using the MIPR and/or funding authorization document (MIPR/FAD).

(2) If a Service(s) desires immediate changes in a mission training requirement before the lead and/or host Service can program for the change, the Service(s) will provide the host and/or lead Service with interim funding through a MIPR/FAD using the DEB or ITAB-approved study factors that existed at the time of the study and using standard DOD inflation factors to inflate to current year dollars.

(3) If the host and/or lead Service no longer has a requirement for consolidated training, and the other Service(s) has a requirement for training, the former host and/or lead Service will MIPR it to the new host and/or lead Service. The Defense Health Program Training and USCG will continue to process funding exchanges by reimbursable basis using the MIPR and/or FAD. If all Services no longer require training, no funding will be reimbursed.

(4) If a quota course is converted to a consolidated course, the host and/or lead Service may request a partial or full ITRO study to establish the long-term impact of establishing an Inter-Service course. Regardless of level of study, a MOA and ISA are required. The following procedure will apply for developing a funding baseline from quota to consolidated course conversions. Add the Service's actual quota usage (inputs) for the previous 2 years and average. This average number will be used as that Service's funding baseline (or credit) for the course consolidation. If the Service did not have quota usage for the previous 2 years, the baseline will be considered as zero.

(5) The host (the installation where the training is being conducted) pays all the base operations for training detachments, unless the support desired is above what is normally provided to all tenants.

(6) The host and/or lead Service will not budget and program resources to meet the following:

(a) Service-unique equipment or equipment maintenance, Service-unique consumable materials and one-time costs associated with Service-unique facilities requirements of the participating Service.

(b) Personnel costs (pay and allowances such as clothing, subsistence, travel, and per diem) for instructors and student personnel and manpower for the administrative support provided by the Service(s) participating in training.

(7) The operations and maintenance one-time costs identified for non-Service-unique requirements in an ITRO study will be fair shared. Services will prorate costs based on average daily student load. All transfers will be subject to appropriate regulations and laws. Other procurement one-time costs identified for non-Service-unique requirements will not be fair shared.

(8) The host and all Service(s) participating in training will prepare an ISA and MOA. The ISA will cover any recurring reimbursable cost not included in the mission or base operating support factors used during the study.

(9) Funding for training that is no longer consolidated will be handled in accordance with ITRO resourcing rules of engagement.

11. Procedures

a. DOD executive agent training. See DODD 5101.1 for executive agent training and responsibilities.

b. Joint training. See CJCSI 3500.01B for a detailed description of procedures to evaluate or analyze efficiencies of Joint training.

c. Consolidated or collocated courses. The following criteria will be used to evaluate and analyze efficiency of consolidation or collocation:

(1) All efforts should be made to use existing DOD facilities and equipment. Facilities modification or construction may be considered when offsetting or compensating savings or when improved training effectiveness or efficiency justifies construction. If a major capital investment is required, the savings generated should amortize the investment within 10 years.

(2) Training programs will be analyzed for possible consolidation or collocation.

(3) Consolidated training should create savings, cost avoidance, or increased training effectiveness or efficiency through development of common core curriculum and use of common equipment and facilities.

(4) Detailed costs will be approved by the EB or DEB and ITAB.

(5) Services will consider reserve and surge training requirements in all Inter-Service consolidations or collocations. Study groups will review mobilization POIs and either agree to use a common mobilization POI or identify potential adverse impacts.

(6) DEB will assess Inter-Service course consolidation and/or collocation in relation to DOD cost and savings, improved training effectiveness or efficiency, and overall resource savings. Moreover, DEB members will assess long-term effects of consolidation or collocation and potential improvement in training efficiency may offset increased costs.

(7) Personnel (instructor, staff, or student) increases associated with consolidations are normally programmed through the DOD POM cycle. Thus, consolidations requiring instructor growth may be deferred until Services can obtain required manpower.

(8) Normally, Services consolidate and collocate training at locations that provide government-furnished base facilities (housing, messing, and transportation) for students attending training courses. The host will provide facilities that meet or exceed minimum DOD standards for all consolidated or collocated courses and will attempt to provide the same standard for quota courses. Exceptions will be documented in the ISA.

d. Quota courses. The following criteria will be considered in using quota courses to satisfy trained personnel requirements:

(1) The adequacy of training to meet Service mission requirements.

(2) The capacity of the lead Service to meet the training requirement of the other Services involved.

(3) Ability of participating Services to fulfill instructor requirements, if required.

(4) Ability of participating Services to use quota courses exactly as presented by the lead Service.

(5) Ability of participating Services to meet prerequisites established by the lead Service.

e. Interim action. During the interim period, from the time an MOA is effective until the program and budget of the lead Service conducting the training reflects the trained personnel requirements of the participating Services, the procedures below will apply.

(1) The lead Service will give school or course quotas to participating Services within the maximum capability of the host Service's training resources.

(2) Both the lead and each participating Service will furnish a fair share of support and instructor personnel in grades, specialties, and numbers, as requested and agreed, based on proportionate share of student enrollment and as agreed to in the study costing documentation or MOA.

f. After consolidation. Changes in course curriculum will be made by the lead Service to satisfy the requirements of the participating Service(s), provided these changes would not

(1) Adversely impact the course purpose, prerequisites, and duration.

(2) Adversely affect the standards of achievement of the lead and participating Services.

(3) Increase manpower, facility, or equipment requirements unless programmed for and allocated by the applicable Service.

(4) Adversely affect the lead or host Service resources committed in the MOA or ISA.

g. Minimum requirements. Minimum prerequisites established by the lead Service will apply to the participating Service except when modified by agreement.

h. Certificates or letters of completion. The lead Service will provide certificates or letters of completion for multi-Service training courses. The parent Service will provide certificates or letters for collocated courses.

(1) The lead Service will provide participating Services with information on college-level credit recommendation for completed training.

(2) When seeking course review by the American Council on Education, the lead Service will provide course numbers for each participating Service to ensure that the American Council on Education recommendations apply to each Service.

i. Distributed training or learning.

(1) The lead Service is primarily responsible for distributed training or blended courses and programs.

(2) Each Service will accept a properly approved enrollment application as evidence of qualification for enrollment. The application, with approval, will be sent directly to the Service providing the distributed training or learning courses and programs. Services should use Defense Knowledge Online, more specifically, Joint Knowledge Development and Distribution Capability to enroll and complete Joint training requirements to the maximum extent possible.

(3) Each Service will correspond directly with enrolled students from other Services on course or program material, academic standards, and other administrative matters when the primary interest is between the student and the course or program administrator.

(4) Each Service will furnish completion certificates or letters of completion for courses or programs successfully completed by members of other Services.

(5) Services will carry on a free exchange of information related to distributed training or learning courses and programs. These Services will

(a) Submit progressive ideas and information about giving and using these courses and programs to the SC.

(b) Furnish information copies of new or revised publications, courses, and programs as requested by other Services.

(c) Develop interoperable courses and programs containing sharable material and make instructional content for general application to all military Services available for adoption by, and integration into, the programs of the Services upon request.

(6) There are basically two types of distributed learning: synchronous training and asynchronous training.

(a) Synchronous means "at the same time" and involves live interaction with an instructor in real time.

(b) Asynchronous means "not at the same time" and allows students to complete the training on their own time and schedule, without live interaction with the instructor.

12. Additional guidance

Further amplification of this regulation is available from the ITRO, its resource committee, training studies, and administrative manuals.

Appendix A

The Official Army Publications Web Sites.

Publication Section I
Required Publications

This section contains no entries.

Publication Section II
Related Publications

A related publication is a source of additional information. The user does not have to read it to understand this publication.

CJCSI 3500.01B. Joint Training Policy for the Armed Forces of the United States (Available at http://www.dtic.mil/cjcs_directives/cjcs/instructions.htm .)

DODD 5101.1. DoD Executive Agent (Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/ .)

DODI 4000.19. Interservice and Intragovernmental Support (Available at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/ .)

Publication Section III
Prescribed Forms

This section contains no entries.

Publication Section IV
Referenced Forms

Unless otherwise indicated, DA Forms are available on the APD Web site, http://www.apd.army.mil . DD Forms are available on the OSD Web site, http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/infomgt/forms/formsprogram.htm .

DA Form 11-2. Internal Control Evaluation Certification

DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms )

DD Form 1144. Support Agreement

Appendix B
Internal Control Evaluation

B-1. Function

The function covered by this checklist evaluates the Inter-Service training policies and procedures.

B-2. Purpose

The purpose of this checklist is to assist military schools and agencies in evaluating key internal controls, assist action officers who must negotiate and manage Inter-Service training arrangements personnel requirements for evaluating key internal controls.

B-3. Instructions

Answers must be based on the actual testing of key internal controls (for example, document analysis, direct observation, sampling, simulation, and/or others). Answers that indicate deficiencies must be explained and corrective action indicated in supporting documentation. These internal controls must be formally evaluated at least once every 5 years on DA Form 11-2 (Internal Control Evaluation Certification).

B-4. Test questions

Questions for key internal controls are as follows:

a. Are training commands aware of the general responsibilities of the ITRO?

b. Do participating Services normally fair share instructor and school support personnel in ITRO consolidated courses?

c. If Service capacity in quota courses is sufficient, do Services normally approve other Service requests for seats?

d. Do Service commanders or designated representatives support the training agreements and funding requirements negotiated in final ITRO resource reports?

e. Does the lead Service ensure that changes to consolidated curriculum does not occur without approval of the participating Services?

B-5. Supersession

Not applicable.

B-6. Comments

Help make this a better tool for evaluating internal controls. Submit comments to Headquarters, Department of the Army, DCS, G-3/5/7, 400 Army Pentagon, Washington, DC 20310-0400.


Section I



Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction


Deputy Executive Board


Department of Defense


Department of Defense directive


Department of Defense instruction


executive board


funding authorization document


Inter-Service support agreement


Inter-Service Training Advisory Board


Inter-Service Training Review Organization


military interdepartmental purchase request


memorandum of agreement


program of instruction


program objective memorandum


steering committee


Secretary of Defense


U.S. Coast Guard

Section II



Assessment determines what a student knows or can do. Assessment data impacts student advancement, placement, and grades, as well as, decisions about instructional strategies and curriculum.


Asynchronous distance learning occurs when the instructor and the students interact while located in different places and during different times. Communication in which interaction between the participants is not simultaneous.

Blended learning

The combination of different training media technologies, activities, and instructional events creating an optimum learning program and environment for a specific audience. The learning program may combine self-directed and instructor-led components in synchronous (live) or asynchronous (latent) constructs with learning models appropriate to the complexity of the course of study.

Collocated school or course

A school or course used by one or more Services on another Service's installation in which classroom facilities and equipment may be shared. Training policies, curriculum, and instructor requirements are determined by the Service(s) conducting the training. The Service conducting the training (lead Service) is responsible for all mission costs associated.

Common core

The portion of a course consolidated between two or more Services.

Consolidated school or course

A school or course consisting of a curriculum developed by two or more Services. The school or course faculty includes fair-share instructor representation from all participating Services and the host Service. The curriculum may be common throughout or consist of a common core plus Service-unique tracks. Training policies, directives, materials, and personnel requirements are determined by mutual agreement between the Services involved.


The analysis and determination of the most efficient and effective way to consolidate or collocate training using standard costing methodologies, measurable efficiencies, quality of life, and training.

Defense school or course

A school or course provided to two or more military Services by a designated Service or agency under the authority of the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

Distributed training/learning

Structured learning mediated with technology that does not require the physical presence of the instructor. Distributed learning models can be used in combination with other forms of instruction or it can be used to create wholly virtual classrooms.


A process to determine the worth or value of a course or program. Evaluations often use assessment data along with other resources to make decisions about revising, adopting, or rejecting a course or program.

Executive agent

The Head of a DOD Component to whom the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense has assigned specific responsibilities, functions, and authorities to provide defined levels of support for operational missions, or administrative or other designated activities that involve two or more of the DOD components.

Fair share

Instructor, support personnel, and other resources determined through initial ITRO studies and/or adjusted through ongoing reviews based on the proportionate share of the student population.

Host Service

Normally, the Service on whose installation the training is conducted.

Inter-Service executive order

The Inter-Service executive order is a document used by the Secretariat to document key ITRO decisions related to approval of consolidations, collocations, deconsolidations, withdrawals, policies, procedures, and resources.

Inter-Service training

Two or more Services training together, including consolidated, collocated, quota or DOD executive agent courses. It does not address Joint doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Joint course

A complete unit of instruction, based on Joint doctrine, consisting of a single lesson to a series of lessons, on a given subject to support Joint training of individuals to perform duties as a Joint force commander, a Joint staff member, or Joint force component staff member.

Joint training

Military training based on Joint doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures to prepare Joint forces and/or Joint staffs to respond to operational requirements deemed necessary by the combatant commanders to execute their assigned missions.
Note. Deviations from these criteria may be made at the discretion of the respective combatant commander. For instance, regional exercises focused on such combatant commander priorities as coalition building, overseas presence and access, demonstrating national resolve, and visible support for allies or coalition partners could be included in the Combatant Command Joint Training Plan.

Lead Service

Service assigned, or responsible for, school and/or course administration, curriculum management, and seat assignment or quota management. In most cases, host Service is the lead Service.

On-site training

A form of training conducted at a specified location, such as that given by a mobile training team, a new equipment training team, a field training detachment, a video teletraining agency, or a factory (contractor) representative.

Parent Service

The Service to which personnel are permanently assigned.

Participating Service

The Service that receives training from, or conducts training at, another Service's training location or base.

Program objective memorandum

An annual memorandum in prescribed format submitted to the SECDEF by the DOD component heads, which recommends the total resource requirements and programs within the parameters of SECDEF's fiscal guidance. The POM is a major document in the planning, programming, budgeting, and execution process, and the basis for the component budget estimates. The POM is the principal programming document that details how a component proposes to respond to assignments in the strategic planning guidance and Joint programming guidance and satisfy its assigned functions over the Future Years Defense Program. The final product of the programming process within DOD, the components POM displays the resource allocation decisions of the military departments in response to, and in accordance with, strategic planning guidance and Joint programming guidance.

Program of instruction

A requirements document that provides a general description of course content, duration of instruction, and types of instruction and lists training resources required to conduct peacetime and mobilization training in an institutional setting.

Quota course

An Inter-Service course managed, controlled, and conducted by one Service or agency that may be used by another Service to satisfy a training requirement when training capacity is available. The Service desiring training must request and obtain quotas from the Service or agency conducting the course. Requests for quotas must be made during the providing Service's annual quota planning cycle. Instructor requirements incurred through this process will be identified by the host Service and provided to each participating Service, for staffing, at the conclusion of the annual quota planning cycle. Participating Services may recommend changes or modifications to curriculum, but decision authority remains with the host Service. Participating Services use the course exactly as presented to host Servicemembers.

Resident training

Training conducted at a school or activity operated by a military Service to meet a specified training requirement.


Synchronous distance learning occurs when an instructor and students interact while located in different places but during the same time. Communication in which interaction between the participants is simultaneous through two-way audio or video, computer document conferencing, or chat rooms.

Trained personnel requirements

Trained graduates of a course in support of a career field.

Training requirements

The number of personnel required to be entered into a specific course to meet commitments of the military Services concerned.

Training resources

All types of materials, equipment, personnel, facilities, and activities (government and contract) used to support training. Training resources include, but are not limited to, training publications, training literature, technical manuals, correspondence or extension programs, training aids, training equipment, training support Services (to include housing), training research and development materials, training ranges and facilities, automated data processing/automated data processing equipment, and instructor and support personnel.

Section III

Special Terms

This section contains no entries.